Gun control in Russia

Last updated

Gun control in Russia is carried out in accordance with the Federal Law on Weapons. The law establishes three major categories of weapons: civil, service, and military. [1]



As of 2013 Russian citizens over 18 years of age can obtain a firearms license after attending gun-safety classes and passing a federal test and background check. Firearms may be acquired for self-defense, hunting, or sports activities, as well as for collection purposes. Carrying permits may be issued for hunting firearms licensed for hunting purposes. Initially, purchases are limited to long smooth-bore firearms and pneumatic weapons with a muzzle energy of up to 25 joules (18 ft⋅lbf). After five years of shotgun ownership, rifles may be purchased. Handguns are generally not allowed, but with the growing popularity of practical shooting events and competitions in Russia in recent years (e.g., IPSC), handgun ownership has now been allowed and the handguns have to be stored at a shooting club. Rifles and shotguns with barrels less than 500 mm (20 in) long are prohibited, as are firearms which shoot in bursts or have more than a 10-cartridge capacity. Suppressors are prohibited. An individual cannot possess more than ten guns (up to five shotguns and up to five rifles) unless they are part of a registered gun collection. [2]

History of changes

In 2014 Russia relaxed its gun laws by allowing concealed carry firearms for self-defense purposes; [3] simplifying regulations for foreigners who legally bring their firearms to Russia; and making regulations stricter for firearm licensing, safekeeping, and for the purchase of non-lethal firearms. [2]

In July 2016, requirements were updated for registration, licensing, and storage of hunting, sporting, pneumatic, and gas weapons. [4] [5]

In the wake of the Kazan school shooting various proposals for tighter gun control were voiced [6] [7] [8] [9] and a bill drafted earlier and submitted in December 2020 is to be considered by the State Duma in May 2021. [6] [10] [ needs update ]

See also

Related Research Articles

Gun laws and policies, collectively referred to as firearms regulation or gun control, regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, and use of small arms by civilians. Laws of some countries may afford civilians a right to keep and bear arms, and have more liberal gun laws than neighboring jurisdictions. Countries that regulate access to firearms will typically restrict access to certain categories of firearms and then restrict the categories of persons who may be granted a license for access to such firearms. There may be separate licenses for hunting, sport shooting, self-defense, collecting, and concealed carry, with different sets of requirements, permissions, and responsibilities.

Firearms in Canada are federally regulated through the Firearms Act and related provisions of the Criminal Code. Regulation is largely about licensing and registration of firearms, including air guns with a muzzle velocity of more than 500 ft/s or 150 m/s and muzzle energy greater than 4.2 ft⋅lb or 5.7 J.

In the United Kingdom, access by the general public to firearms is subject to some of the strictest control measures in the world. However, fulfilment of the criteria and requirements as laid out by the laws results in the vast majority of firearm licence applications being approved. Laws differ slightly in Northern Ireland due to Northern Ireland having its own firearms legislation. Concerns have been raised over the availability of illegal firearms.

Firearms regulation in Mexico is governed by legislation which sets the legality by which members of the armed forces, law enforcement and private citizens may acquire, own, possess and carry firearms; covering rights and limitations to individuals—including hunting and shooting sport participants, property and personal protection personnel such as bodyguards, security officers, private security, and extending to VIPs.

In South Africa, the Firearms Control Act 60 of 2000 regulates the possession of firearms by civilians. Possession of a firearm is conditional on a competency test and several other factors, including background checking of the applicant, inspection of an owner's premises, and licensing of the weapon by the police introduced in July 2004. In 2010, the process was undergoing review, as the police were not able to timely process either competency certification, new licences or renewal of existing licences. Minimum waiting period used to exceed 2 years from date of application. The Central Firearms Registry implemented a turnaround strategy that has significantly improved the processing period of new licences. The maximum time allowed to process a licence application is now 90 days.

Gun laws in Norway incorporates the political and regulatory aspects of firearms usage in the country. Citizens are allowed to keep firearms. The acquisition and storage of guns is regulated by the state.

In Germany, access to guns is controlled by the German Weapons Act which adheres to the European Firearms Directive, first enacted in 1972, and superseded by the law of 2003. This federal statute regulates the handling of firearms and ammunition as well as acquisition, storage, commerce and maintenance of firearms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gun laws in California</span> Californias gun law

Gun laws in California regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the state of California in the United States.

This is a list of laws concerning air guns by country.

Gun control in Italy incorporates the political and regulatory aspects of firearms usage in the country within the framework of the European Union's Firearm Directive. Different types of gun licenses can be obtained from the national police authorities. According to a 2007 study by The Small Arms Survey Project, the per capita gun ownership rate in Italy is around 12% with an estimated 7 million registered firearms in circulation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gun laws in New York</span>

Gun laws in New York regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the U.S. state of New York, outside of New York City which has separate licensing regulations. These regulations are very strict in comparison to the rest of the United States.

In Honduras, the commerce, ownership, possession and use of firearms is regulated. Escalation in crime and the use of firearms in the commission of crimes and homicides has brought political and public discourse to consider regulation of arms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gun laws in Wisconsin</span> Wisconsins gun law

Gun laws in Wisconsin regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gun laws in Massachusetts</span> Massachusettss gun law

Gun laws in Massachusetts regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. These laws are among the most restrictive in the entire country.

To buy a firearm in France, in line with the European Firearms Directive, a hunting license or a shooting sport license is necessary depending on the type, function and magazine capacity of the weapon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">High-capacity magazine ban</span> Law restricting magazine capacity in firearms

A high-capacity magazine ban is a law which bans or otherwise restricts high-capacity magazines, detachable firearm magazines that can hold more than a certain number of rounds of ammunition. For example, in the United States, the now-expired Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994 included limits regarding magazines that could hold more than ten rounds. As of 2022, twelve U.S. states, and a number of local governments, ban or regulate magazines that they have legally defined as high-capacity. The majority of states do not ban or regulate any magazines on the basis of capacity. States that do have large capacity magazine bans or restrictions typically do not apply to firearms with fixed magazines whose capacity would otherwise exceed the large capacity threshold.

Ukrainian law allows firearm ownership on may-issue basis. With approximately 10 civilian firearms per 100 people, Ukraine is the 88th most armed country in the world per capita, and 22nd overall.

Austrian law allows firearm possession on shall-issue basis with certain classes of shotguns and rifles available without permit. With approximately 30 civilian firearms per 100 people, Austria is the 14th most armed country in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kazan school shooting</span> School shooting in Russia

On 11 May 2021, a school shooting occurred in Kazan, Tatarstan, in the western part of Russia, and a bomb was detonated. Nine people were murdered, and 23 others were injured. The 19-year-old shooter, Ilnaz Galyaviev, was identified as a former student. He pleaded guilty to the murder of two or more persons on 12 May and is being detained.

Kazakh law regulates the possession and use of firearms in the country, which categorizes firearms into three types, and specifies which entities or organizations are permitted to possess each type of firearm. Citizens of Kazakhstan, aged 18 or older, are legally allowed to acquire limited types of civilian weapons such as rifles or long guns, provided they obtain permission from their local internal affairs bodies.


  1. РОССИЙСКАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ. ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ ЗАКОН Об оружии ("Russian Federation. Federal Law on Weapons")
  2. 1 2 "Firearms-Control Legislation and Policy: Russian Federation". Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  3. "Можно ли в России теперь носить оружие?" [Can you now carry weapons in Russia]. 2014.
  4. "Russia: New Requirements for Firearms Operation Licenses"
  5. ""
  6. 1 2 При нападении на школу в Казани погибли девять человек. Kommersant (in Russian). 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  7. "Единая Россия" считает необходимым ужесточить законодательство в сфере оборота оружия. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  8. Володин заявил о необходимости обсудить уход от анонимности в интернете. TASS (in Russian). 2021-05-11. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
  9. Золотов предложил ввести психологическое тестирование при получении справки на оружие. TASS (in Russian). 2021-05-13. Retrieved 2021-05-13.
  10. Комитет Госдумы одобрил ужесточение правил выдачи лицензий на оружие. Kommersant (in Russian). 2021-05-12. Retrieved 2021-05-12.