Last updated

AE1 (AWM P01075041).jpg
HMAS AE1 underway in 1914
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svgAustralia
Builder: Vickers Limited
Laid down: 14 November 1911
Launched: 22 May 1913
Commissioned: 28 February 1914
Nickname(s): AE1
Honours and
  • Battle honours:
  • Rabaul 1914
Fate: Lost at sea, 14 September 1914
Notes: Wreck located at a depth of 300 metres off the Duke of York Islands
General characteristics
Class and type: E-class submarine
Displacement: 750 long tons (760 t) surfaced
Length: 181 ft (55 m)
Beam: 22 ft 6 in (6.86 m)
Draught: 12 ft 6 in (3.81 m)
Installed power:
  • 2 × 8-cylinder diesels, 1,600 hp (1,200 kW) surfaced,
  • battery-driven electric motors, 840 hp (630 kW) submerged
Propulsion: 2 × propeller shafts
  • 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) surfaced
  • 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) submerged
  • 3,000 nmi (5,600 km; 3,500 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
  • 65 nmi (120 km; 75 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) submerged
Test depth: 200 feet (61.0 m)
Complement: 34
Armament: 4 × 18-inch torpedo tubes

HMAS AE1 (originally known as just AE1)[ citation needed ] was an E-class submarine of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). She was the first submarine to serve in the RAN, and was lost at sea with all hands near what is now East New Britain, Papua New Guinea, on 14 September 1914, after less than seven months in service. Search missions attempting to locate the wreck began in 1976. The submarine was found during the 13th search mission near the Duke of York Islands in December 2017.

British E-class submarine

The British E-class submarines started out as improved versions of the British D-class submarine. The E class served with the Royal Navy throughout World War I as the backbone of the submarine fleet. The last surviving E class submarines were withdrawn from service by 1922.

Royal Australian Navy naval warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.


Design and construction

The E class was a version of the preceding D-class submarine enlarged to accommodate an additional pair of broadside torpedo tubes. [1] AE1 was 181 feet (55.2 m) long overall, with a beam of 22 feet 6 inches (6.9 m) and a draught of 12 feet 6 inches (3.8 m). [2] She displaced 750 long tons (760 t) on the surface [3] and 810 long tons (820 t) submerged. The E-class boats had a designed diving depth of 100 feet (30.5 m), but the addition of watertight bulkheads strengthened the hull and increased the actual diving depth to 200 feet (61.0 m). [1] The complement consisted of 34 men: officers and ratings. [2]

British D-class submarine

The D-class submarine was the Royal Navy's first class of submarines capable of operating significantly beyond coastal waters. They were also the first boats to be fitted with wireless transmitters. Ten were laid down between 1907 and 1910, though only 8 were completed as D-class boats. The final two hulls were completed as British E-class submarine.

Broadside simultaneous firing of guns on one side of a ship

A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their coordinated fire in naval warfare. From the 16th century until the early decades of the steamship, vessels had rows of guns set in each side of the hull. Firing all guns on one side of the ship became known as a "broadside". The cannons of 18th-century men of war were accurate only at short range, and their penetrating power mediocre, entailing that the thick hulls of wooden ships could only be pierced at short ranges. These wooden ships sailed closer and closer towards each other until cannon fire would be effective. Each tried to be the first to fire a broadside, often giving one party a decisive headstart in the battle when it crippled the other ship.

Torpedo tube Device for launching torpedoes

A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes.

The boat had two propellers, each of which was driven by an eight-cylinder, [3] 800- brake-horsepower (600 kW) diesel engine as well as a 420-brake-horsepower (313 kW) electric motor. This arrangement gave the E-class submarines a maximum speed of 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) while surfaced and 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) when submerged. [2] They carried approximately 40 long tons (41 t) [1] of fuel oil, which provided a range of 3,000 nautical mile s (5,600 km; 3,500 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) while on the surface [2] and 65 nmi (120 km; 75 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) while submerged. [1] AE1 had four 18-inch torpedo tubes, one each in the bow and stern, plus two on the broadside, one firing to port and the other to starboard. The boat carried one spare torpedo for each tube. No guns were fitted. [2]

Diesel engine Internal combustion engine with quality rotational frequency governing, internal mixture formation, lean air-fuel-ratio, diffusion flame and compression ignition

The Diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression. Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised Diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. With the fuel being injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; this is called a heterogenous air-fuel mixture. The process of mixing air and fuel happens almost entirely during combustion, the oxygen diffuses into the flame, which means that the Diesel engine operates with a diffusion flame. The torque a Diesel engine produces is controlled by manipulating the air ratio; this means, that instead of throttling the intake air, the Diesel engine relies on altering the amount of fuel that is injected, and the air ratio is usually high.

Electric motor electromechanical device

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of rotation of a shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates in the reverse direction, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Knot (unit) unit of speed

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); kt is also common, especially in aviation where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. Worldwide, the knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation—for example, a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

AE1 was built by Vickers Limited at Barrow-in-Furness, England, [4] having been laid down on 14 November 1911 and launched on 22 May 1913 and commissioned into the RAN on 28 February 1914. [5] After commissioning, AE1, accompanied by AE2, the other of the RAN's first two submarines, reached Sydney from England on 24 May 1914. Officers for the submarines were Royal Navy (RN) personnel, while the ratings were a mix of sailors drawn from the RN and RAN. [6]

Vickers Limited was a significant British engineering conglomerate that merged into Vickers-Armstrongs in 1927.

Barrow-in-Furness town and seaport in the county of Cumbria, England

Barrow-in-Furness, commonly known as Barrow, is a town and borough in Cumbria, England. Historically part of Lancashire, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with Dalton-in-Furness Urban District in 1974 to form the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. At the tip of the Furness peninsula, close to the Lake District, it is bordered by Morecambe Bay, the Duddon Estuary and the Irish Sea. In 2011, Barrow's population was 57,000, making it the second largest urban area in Cumbria after Carlisle, although it is geographically closer to the whole of Lancashire and most of Merseyside. Natives of Barrow, as well as the local dialect, are known as Barrovian.

HMAS <i>AE2</i> E-class submarine of the Royal Australian Navy

HMAS AE2 was an E-class submarine of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). One of two submarines ordered for the fledgling navy, AE2 was built by Vickers Armstrong in England and was commissioned into the RAN in 1914. Together with her sister submarine, HMAS AE1, the boat then sailed to Australia in what was, at the time, the longest voyage ever undertaken by a submarine.

Deployment and loss

AE1 with other Australian vessels off Rabaul on 9 September 1914 AE1 off Rabaul.jpg
AE1 with other Australian vessels off Rabaul on 9 September 1914

At the outbreak of World War I, AE1, commanded by Lieutenant Commander Thomas Besant, was part of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force sent to attack German New Guinea. Along with AE2, she took part in the operations leading to the occupation of the German territory, including the surrender of Rabaul on 13 September 1914. The submarine's involvement was recognised in 2010, following an overhaul of the RAN battle honours system, with the retroactive award of the honour "Rabaul 1914". [7] [8]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force

The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) was a small volunteer force of approximately 2,000 men, raised in Australia shortly after the outbreak of the First World War to seize and destroy German wireless stations in German New Guinea in the south-west Pacific. Britain required the German wireless installations to be destroyed because they were used by Vice-Admiral Maximilian von Spee's German East Asian Cruiser Squadron, which threatened merchant shipping in the region. Following the capture of German possessions in the region, the AN&MEF provided occupation forces for the duration of the war. New Zealand provided a similar force for the occupation of German Samoa.

German New Guinea colonial protectorate from 1884–1914

German New Guinea consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and several nearby island groups and was the first part of the German colonial empire. The mainland part of the territory, called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, became a German protectorate in 1884. Other island groups were added subsequently. New Pomerania, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the northern Solomon Islands were declared a German protectorate in 1885; the Caroline Islands, Palau, and the Mariana Islands were bought from Spain in 1899; the protectorate of the Marshall Islands was bought from Spain in 1885 for $4.5 million by the 1885 Hispano-German Protocol of Rome; and Nauru was annexed to the Marshall Islands protectorate in 1888.

At 07:00 on 14 September, AE1 departed Blanche Bay, Rabaul, to patrol off Cape Gazelle with HMAS Parramatta. When she had not returned by 20:00, several ships were dispatched to search for her. No trace of the submarine was found, and she was listed as lost with all hands. The disappearance was Australia's first major loss of World War I. [6]

Blanche Bay is a bay near Rabaul, New Britain, Papua New Guinea. The bay is named after HMS Blanche, which surveyed the bay under the command of Captain Cortland Simpson in 1872.

Cape Gazelle is a cape in East New Britain province, Papua New Guinea located in the far north-east of the Gazelle Peninsula. The cape was named by Georg Gustav Freiherr von Schleinitz after his ship SMS Gazelle.

HMAS <i>Parramatta</i> (D55) River-class torpedo-boat destroyer

HMAS Parramatta, named after the Parramatta River, was a River-class torpedo-boat destroyer of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Ordered in 1909 for the Commonwealth Naval Forces, Parramatta was the first ship launched for the Australian navy. Temporarily commissioned into the Royal Navy for the delivery voyage to Australia, the destroyer came under Australian naval control in 1910, and on 1 March 1911 was recommissioned into the RAN, shortly before the latter's creation.

After the discovery of the submarine in December 2017, Rear Admiral Peter Briggs, retired, said the likely cause of its loss was a diving accident. [9] He added:

The submarine appears to have struck the bottom with sufficient force to dislodge the fin from its footing, forcing it to hinge forward on its leading edge, impacting the casing. [9]

On 14 September 2018, a team of researchers headed by the National Maritime Museum director Kevin Sumption concluded their investigation into the sinking of AE1. They concluded that a ventilation valve, which was likely open to make the tropical conditions a little more bearable while the submarine was cruising on the surface near the Duke of York Islands, was insecure when the submarine dived causing a flood of the submarine's engine room and total loss of control of the AE1. The submarine subsequently sank below 100 metres and imploded, killing everyone on board instantly. [10]

Searches for wreck

Beyond the search immediately after the submarine's disappearance, there were no concentrated efforts to locate the wreck of AE1 until the 1970s, when John Foster, a RAN officer working in Port Moresby, became interested in the story. After researching wartime records, Foster persuaded the RAN to deploy the survey ship HMAS Flinders in 1976. Flinders found one potential sonar contact, but did not have a sophisticated enough side-scan sonar to make a determination either way. During a deployment to Papua New Guinea in 1978, Flinders conducted several ad-hoc searches, again with no useful result. In 1990, while sailing between New Britain and New Ireland, Jacques Cousteau diverted his ship, Calypso, to investigate the potential contact found in 1976. His original plan was to investigate up close with a submersible, but mechanical issues prevented it, and Calypso instead performed a magnetometer search of the area, finding no wrecks. [11]

Map of the region where AE1 was lost in September 1914 Papua New Guinea map.png
Map of the region where AE1 was lost in September 1914

Foster had continued archive research into AE1's disappearance, supplemented with visits to Rabaul and nearby islands to see if references to the submarine appeared in any community's oral histories. By 2002, he was focused on the waters off Mioko Island in the Duke of York Islands group: a priest from a Catholic mission had stated that members of the community had spotted a wrecked submarine on Wirian Reef while diving for shells. Attempts to dive the reported site of the wreck in 2002 and early 2003 were unsuccessful: the former was called off due to high shark presence, the latter expedition also was hampered by shark activity and found no wreck at the reported location. A third expedition in November 2003, supported by the Maritime Museum of Western Australia and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, conducted searches off Mioko and nearby islands, again with no success. [11] [12] Further oral evidence supporting the wreck of AE1 being off Mioko was learned during one of the 2003 expeditions: Foster discovered that the Tolai people had a legend of a "devil fish" appearing offshore on the day that AE1 disappeared. [11]

In February 2007, a new effort to locate the submarine was mounted by the RAN, when the survey ships Benalla and Shepparton attempted to locate the submarine off East New Britain. [6] Benalla located an object on Wirian Reef of the appropriate dimensions using sonar on 1 March, but was unable to verify the nature of the object due to a damaged magnetometer. [11] [13] The minehunter HMAS Yarra was sent to investigate the object further in late 2007. [11] Sonar and remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) imagery of the object revealed shape and dimensions similar to the submarine, but subsequent analysis by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation identified the object as a rock formation. [11] [14]

Foster organised another search in May 2009, partially funded by Channel Seven's Sunday Night, based on claims by a Rabaul-based salvage diver that he had seen the wreck in Simpson Harbour back in 1971, in proximity to the wreck of the Japanese merchant ship Keifuku Maru. Diver searches of the site specified by the salvager failed to find either wreck. A follow-up search later that year by the Western Australian Maritime Museum found that Keifuku Maru had been buried under 30 metres (98 ft) of rock during the 1994 Rabaul caldera eruption, but found no evidence of AE1, buried or otherwise. [11] John Foster died in 2010 with the search for AE1 continued by others. [15] [16] During early 2012, the minehunter HMAS Gascoyne and the survey ship HMNZS Resolution detected a potential wrecked submarine in Simpson Harbour. Although initially suspected to be AE1, the wreck was determined to be a World War II-era Japanese midget submarine. [11] [17] Resolution later conducted sonar surveys of areas in which AE1 may have been lost, with no wrecks found. [11]

Between 6 and 9 September 2014, Yarra conducted searches around the Duke of York Islands, prior to a memorial service for the centenary of the submarine's disappearance. [18] Although numerous sonar "contacts of interest" were made during the search, including one which was singled out for further investigation, all were found to be natural terrain. [11] [19] [18]

In September 2015, plans for a new search were announced by Find AE1 Limited. The search off Mioko Island was carried out in November, and was conducted by a mining survey ship towing a multibeam echosounder array. At the time of the search, Find AE1 stated that if the attempt was unsuccessful, they planned to petition the Australian government to bring in the search equipment used during the search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. The 2015 search was ultimately unsuccessful. [20] [21]

Several factors have been identified as having hampered the efforts to find AE1. The volcanic nature of the region resulted in a rugged and highly variable underwater topography, with a high frequency of wreck-like acoustic anomalies. Much of the region is deep water, which limited the techniques and tools that could be used to locate and verify the wreck. Volcanic activity was also identified as a factor, due to the disruption it causes to local magnetic fields, affecting the operations of magnetometers. There were concerns that eruptions and underwater earthquakes may have caused the underwater landscape to change, or break up or bury the wreck. Additionally, the search areas contained large numbers of shipwrecks due to heavy military activity around New Guinea during World War II, along with the disposal of ships in later years. [11]


In December 2017, another search – the 13th [22] – was conducted using the survey ship Fugro Equator, off the Duke of York Islands. This expedition was funded by the Commonwealth Government and the Silentworld Foundation with additional assistance from the Submarine Institute of Australia and the Australian National Maritime Museum. [23] [24] As a result of this effort, the submarine was found at a depth of 300 metres (980 ft) and was seen to be well preserved and in one piece. [23] The RV Petrel was enlisted to survey the wreckage. During the survey, it was discovered that the submarine’s rear torpedo tube was fully opened. [25] The exact location of the wreck was not announced by the Australian government at the time of discovery, in order to protect it from "unauthorised salvage attempts". The government's stated position is that the wreck will be treated as a war grave. [26]


In 1933, a stained-glass window commemorating the losses of AE1 and AE2 was added to the naval chapel at Garden Island in Sydney. In September 2015, a floating sculpture to commemorate AE1 was unveiled outside the Australian National Maritime Museum. [27] The sculpture takes the form of a stainless steel wreath, 6 metres (20 ft) in diameter, which projects patterns of light onto the water at night. [27] In 2008 a memorial plaque was dedicated to HMAS AE1 at the Tasmanian Seafarers' Memorial at Triabunna on the east coast of Tasmania, commemorating the loss of L.S. Cyril Lefroy Baker RAN, Telegraphist, the first Tasmanian killed in his country's service in World War I. [28]


  1. 1 2 3 4 Harrison, Chapter 4: Pre-1914 Saddle Tank Types D & E Classes.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Gillett, Australian & New Zealand Warships, 1914–1945, p. 47.
  3. 1 2 Frame, No Pleasure Cruise, p. 97.
  4. HMAS AE1 Retrieved 23 December 2017
  5. Sea Power Centre Australia, HMAS AE1.
  6. 1 2 3 Navy to hunt for lost sub, in The Sydney Morning Herald.
  7. Royal Australian Navy, Navy Marks 109th Birthday With Historic Changes To Battle Honours
  8. Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Navy Ship/Unit Battle Honours
  9. 1 2 Zhou, Naaman (21 December 2017). "Australian navy world war one AE1 submarine found 103 years after it vanished". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  10. Morgan, Myles (2018-09-14). "Researchers discover what sunk Australia's first submarine". SBS World News Australia . Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Hunter, The Search for AE1 Continues
  12. Green, The search for the AE1
  13. Australian Associated Press, Missing WWI sub may have been found
  14. Resurface of mystery, in Navy News
  15. Hunter, James. "The search for AE1 continues". Australian National Maritime Museum.
  16. Foster, Michael (11 November 2010). "Celebrated sailor searched the sea for our sub: John Foster, 1935-2010". The Sydney Morning Herald .
  17. Coutts, Submarine wreckage located in Rabaul harbour
  18. 1 2 Barlass, A century on and a sonar blip: has navy found WWI submarine?
  19. Australian Associated Press, Possible clue found in hunt for AE1 sub
  20. McPhedran, Best shot at solving mystery of lost submarine AE1 with hi-tech search off Papua New Guinea
  21. Briggs, Peter. "What happened to HMAS AE1?". ASPI. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  22. "HMAS AE1 World War I submarine found after century-long search". ABC News. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  23. 1 2 "'Found': Australian Navy Submarine HMAS AE1 located after 103 years". Navy News . 21 December 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  24. Department of Defence (14 November 2017). "$500,000 grant to help find HMAS AE1". Navy Daily.
  25. "Paul Allen's Shipwreck Sleuths Help Aussies Document World War I Submarine's Remains". GeekWire. 23 April 2018.
  26. Fitzpatrick, Stephen (21 December 2017). "Missing WW1 submarine AE1 found with underwater camera". The Australian. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  27. 1 2 Fletcher, Remembering AE1: '...the ocean bed their tomb'
  28. "HMAS Submarine AE1 (1914)". Tasmanian Seafarers Memorial. Retrieved 27 February 2017.

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Further reading