Injection pump

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Injection pump for a 12-cylinder diesel engine 12Zyl-Reiheneinspritzpumpe.jpg
Injection pump for a 12-cylinder diesel engine

An Injection Pump is the device that pumps fuel into the cylinders of a diesel engine. Traditionally, the injection pump was driven indirectly from the crankshaft by gears, chains or a toothed belt (often the timing belt) that also drives the camshaft. It rotates at half crankshaft speed in a conventional four-stroke diesel engine. Its timing is such that the fuel is injected only very slightly before top dead centre of that cylinder's compression stroke. It is also common for the pump belt on gasoline engines to be driven directly from the camshaft. In some systems injection pressures can be as high as 620 bar (8992 psi) .



Because of the need for positive injection into a very high-pressure environment, the pump develops great pressuretypically 15,000 psi (100 MPa) or more on newer systems. This is a good reason to take great care when working on diesel systems; escaping fuel at this sort of pressure can easily penetrate skin and clothes, and be injected into body tissues with medical consequences serious enough to warrant amputation. [1]


Inline diesel injection pump Inline EDC pump.JPG
Inline diesel injection pump

Earlier diesel pumps used an in-line layout with a series of cam-operated injection cylinders in a line, rather like a miniature inline engine. The pistons have a constant stroke volume, and injection volume (i.e., throttling) is controlled by rotating the cylinders against a cut-off port that aligns with a helical slot in the cylinder. When all the cylinders are rotated at once, they simultaneously vary their injection volume to produce more or less power from the engine. Inline pumps still find favour on large multi-cylinder engines such as those on trucks, construction plant, static engines and agricultural vehicles.

Distributor diesel injection pump Distributor injection pump.jpg
Distributor diesel injection pump

For use on cars and light trucks, the rotary pump or distributor pump was developed. It uses a single injection cylinder driven from an axial cam plate, which injects into the individual fuel lines via a rotary distribution valve. Later incarnations such as the Bosch VE pump vary the injection timing with crankshaft speed to allow greater power at high crank speeds, and smoother, more economical running at slower revolution of crankshaft. Some VE variants have a pressure-based system that allows the injection volume to increase over normal to allow a turbocharger or supercharger equipped engine to develop more power under boost conditions.

Inline diesel metering pump Dosierpumpe.png
Inline diesel metering pump

All injection pumps incorporate a governor to cut fuel supply if the crankshaft rpm endangers the engine - the heavy moving parts of diesel engines do not tolerate overspeeding well, and catastrophic damage can occur if they are over-revved. Poorly maintained and worn engines can consume their lubrication oil through worn out crankcase ventilation systems and 'run away', causing increasing engine speed until the engine destroys itself. This is because most diesel engines only regulate their speed by fuel supply control and don't have a throttle valve to control air intake.

New types

Mechanical pumps are gradually being phased out in order to comply with international emissions directives, and to increase performance and economy. From the 1990s an intermediate stage between full electronic control were pumps that used electronic control units to control some of the functions of the rotary pump but were still mechanically timed and powered by the engine. The first generation four and five cylinder VW/Audi TDI engines pioneered these pumps before switching to Unit Injectors. These pumps were used to provide better injection control and refinement for car diesel engines as they changed from indirect injection to much more efficient but inherently less refined direct injection engines in the 1990s. The ECUs could even vary the damping of hydraulic engine mounts to aid refinement. BOSCH VP30 VP37 VP44 are example pumps. Since then there has been a widespread change to common rail diesel systems and electronic unit direct injection systems. These allow for higher pressures to be developed, and for much finer control of injection volumes, and multiple injection stages compared to mechanical systems.

See also

Related Research Articles

Diesel engine Type of internal combustion engine

The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression ; thus, the diesel engine is a so-called compression-ignition engine. This contrasts with engines using spark plug-ignition of the air-fuel mixture, such as a petrol engine or a gas engine.

Fuel injection aspect of an internal combustion engine

Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.

Two-stroke engine internal combustion engine type

A two-strokeengine is a type of internal combustion engine that completes a power cycle with two strokes of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to a "four-stroke engine", which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust functions occurring at the same time.

Four-stroke engine Internal combustion engine type

A four-strokeengine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:

  1. Intake: Also known as induction or suction. This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center (T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion. The piston is moving down as air is being sucked in by the downward motion against the piston.
  2. Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end of the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below). Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage.
  3. Combustion: Also known as power or ignition. This is the start of the second revolution of the four stroke cycle. At this point the crankshaft has completed a full 360 degree revolution. While the piston is at T.D.C. the compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark plug or by heat generated by high compression, forcefully returning the piston to B.D.C. This stroke produces mechanical work from the engine to turn the crankshaft.
  4. Exhaust: Also known as outlet. During the exhaust stroke, the piston, once again, returns from B.D.C. to T.D.C. while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve.
Fuel pump Pump

A fuel pump is a component in motor vehicles that transfers liquid from the fuel tank to the carburetor of the internal combustion engine.

The GM Ecotec engine, also known by its codename L850, is a family of all-aluminium inline-four engines, displacing between 1.4 and 2.5 litres. While these engines were based on the GM Family II engine, the architecture was substantially re-engineered for the new Ecotec application produced since 2000. This engine family replaced the GM Family II engine, the GM 122 engine, the Saab H engine, and the Quad 4 engine. It is manufactured in multiple locations, to include Spring Hill Manufacturing, in Spring Hill, Tennessee.

The Ford Endura-D engine is a 1.8 L (1,753 cc) inline-4 Diesel engine used in a variety of vehicles made by the Ford Motor Company, including the Ford Escort (Europe), Ford Focus, Ford Fiesta, Ford Mondeo, Ford Orion, Ford Sierra, Ford Transit Connect and Ford Ikon.

Common rail

Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for diesel engines.

Cummins B Series engine

The Cummins B Series is a family of diesel engines produced by American manufacturer Cummins. In production since 1984, the B series engine family is intended for multiple applications on and off-highway, light-duty, and medium-duty. In the automotive industry, it is best known for its use in school buses, public service buses in the United Kingdom and Dodge/Ram pickup trucks.

Engine control unit Control unit for the control, regulation and monitoring of engine functions in a car engine

An engine control unit (ECU), also commonly called an engine control module (ECM), is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance. It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps, and adjusting the engine actuators. Before ECUs, air–fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed were mechanically set and dynamically controlled by mechanical and pneumatic means.

The L-series engine is an automotive diesel engine built by Powertrain Ltd, a sister company of MG Rover.

Unit injector fuel injection technology for diesel engines

A Unit injector (UI) is a high pressure integrated direct fuel injection system for diesel engines, combining the injector nozzle and the injection pump in a single component. The plunger pump used is usually driven by a shared camshaft. In a unit injector, the device is usually lubricated and cooled by the fuel itself.

Internal combustion engines come in a wide variety of types, but have certain family resemblances, and thus share many common types of components.

An electronically controlled unit injector (EUI) is a unit injector (UI) with electronic control. It performs the same function as a conventional unit injector in an internal combustion engine, such as in an on-road or off-road vehicle or a diesel-electric locomotive. The pressurized delivery of fuel is camshaft-driven, but the timing of the injector's internal operations are controlled by the engine control unit so as to achieve certain advantages.

4 VD 14,5/12-1 SRW Industrial diesel engine made by the VEB IFA Motorenwerke Nordhausen

The 4 VD 14,5/12-1 SRW is an inline four-cylinder diesel engine produced by the VEB IFA Motorenwerke Nordhausen from 1967 to 1990. The engine was one of the standard modular engines for agricultural and industrial use in the Comecon-countries. Approximately one million units were made.

Mercedes-Benz OM 138 Diesel engine model made by Daimler-Benz

The Mercedes-Benz OM 138 is a diesel engine manufactured by Daimler-Benz. In total, 5,719 units were produced between 1935 and 1940. It was the first diesel engine especially developed and made for a passenger car. The first vehicle powered by the OM 138 was the Mercedes-Benz W 138. The light Mercedes-Benz trucks L 1100 and L 1500 as well as the bus O 1500 were also offered with the OM 138 as an alternative to the standard Otto engine.


  1. Maxwell, R. J.; Dixon, P. L. (1988). "HIGH PRESSURE INJECTION INJURIES OF THE HAND: A REPORT OF THREE CASES". ANZ Journal of Surgery. 420: 344–346. doi:10.1111/j.1445-2197.1988.tb01068.x.