John Gauden

Last updated

John Gauden
Bishop of Worcester
Miniature of Gauden by John Hoskins, 1655
Diocese Diocese of Worcester
In office10 June 20 September 1662 (d.) [1]
Predecessor George Morley
Successor John Earle
Other post(s)
Consecration2 December 1660
by  Accepted Frewen
Personal details
Died(1662-09-20)20 September 1662
Denomination Anglican
Alma mater St John's College, Cambridge
Monument to John Gauden, Worcester Cathedral Worcester Cathedral 20190211 125500 (46709050515).jpg
Monument to John Gauden, Worcester Cathedral

John Gauden (died 20 September 1662) [1] was an English cleric. He was Bishop of Exeter then Bishop of Worcester. He was also a writer, and the reputed author of the important Royalist work Eikon Basilike .



He was born at Mayland, Essex, where his father, also named John Gauden, was vicar of the parish, and educated at Bury St Edmunds school and at St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1623, M.A. 1626. [2] By his matriculation at Michaelmas 1619, the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography gives him a birth year 1599/1600; [3] whereas A Cambridge Alumni Database gives 1605. [4] He then moved to Oxford, where he graduated B.D. 1635 (at Wadham College, Oxford), D.D. 1641. [4]

He married Elizabeth, daughter of William Russell of Chippenham, Cambridgeshire, Treasurer of the Navy and his second wife Elizabeth Gerard, and widow of Edward Lewkenor of Denham in Suffolk, and was tutor at Oxford to two of his wife's brothers. They had five children, four sons and a daughter. He seems to have remained at Oxford until 1630, when he became vicar of Chippenham. His sympathies were at first with the parliamentary party. He was chaplain to Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, and preached before the House of Commons in 1640. [2]

In 1641 he was appointed to the rural deanery of Bocking. Apparently, his views changed as the revolutionary tendency of the Presbyterian party became more pronounced, for in 1649 he addressed to Lord Fairfax A Religious and Loyal Protestation... against the proceedings of the parliament. Under the Commonwealth he faced both ways, keeping his ecclesiastical preferment, but publishing from time to time pamphlets on behalf of the Church of England. [5] While in Bocking he met William Juniper, the "Gosfield Seer" whom he first dismissed as a harmless fool. However, he was later impressed by prophecies made by Juniper, first that the King would be overthrown, and then that the monarchy would be restored. [6]

At the Restoration he was made Bishop of Exeter; he was elected to the See on 3 November 1660, confirmed 17 November, [7] and consecrated a bishop on 2 December 1660. He immediately began to complain to Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of the See, and based claims for a better benefice on a certain secret service, which he explained in January 1661 to be the sole invention of the Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of his sacred Majestie in his Solitudes and Sufferings, put forth within a few hours after the execution of Charles I as written by the king himself. To which Clarendon replied that he had been before acquainted with the secret and had often wished he had remained ignorant of it. Gauden was advanced in 1662, not as he had wished to the See of Winchester, but to Worcester. [5] He was duly elected to the See of Worcester on 23 May and that election was confirmed on 10 June 1662. He died on 20 September [1] the same year: his enemies said that he had died of chagrin at not getting the see of Winchester. His widow died in 1671: Samuel Pepys, a close friend of John's brother Sir Denis Gauden, the Navy Victualler, praised her charm and conversational skills.

Authorship question

The famous frontispiece of the Eikon Basilike. Eikon.png
The famous frontispiece of the Eikon Basilike .

The evidence in favour of Gauden's authorship rests chiefly on his own assertions and those of his wife (who after his death sent to her son John a narrative of the claim), and on the fact that it was admitted by Clarendon, who should have had means of being acquainted with the truth. Gauden's letters on the subject are printed in the appendix to vol. iii. of the Clarendon Papers. [5]

The argument is that Gauden had prepared the book to inspire sympathy with the king through a representation of his pious and forgiving disposition, and so to rouse public opinion against his execution. In 1693 further correspondence between Gauden, Clarendon, the Duke of York (later James II & VII), and Sir Edward Nicholas was published by Arthur North, who had found them among the papers of his sister-in-law, a daughter-in-law of Bishop Gauden; but doubt has been thrown on the authenticity of these papers. Gauden stated that he had begun the book in 1647 and was entirely responsible for it. But it is contended that the work was in existence at the Battle of Naseby, and testimony to Charles's authorship is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen Charles himself occupied with it at various times during his imprisonment. [5]

It is stated that the MS. was delivered by one of the king's agents to Edward Symmons, rector of Raine, near Bocking, and that it was in the handwriting of Oudart, Sir Edward Nicholas's secretary. The internal evidence has, as is usual in such cases, been brought forward as a conclusive argument in favour of both contentions. [5]

Doubt was thrown on Charles's authorship in John Milton's Eikonoklastes (1649), which was followed almost immediately by a royalist answer, The Princely Pelican. Royall Resolves Extracted from his Majestys Divine Meditations, with satisfactory reasons that his Sacred Person was the only Author of them (1649). The history of the whole controversy, which has been several times renewed, was dealt with in Christopher Wordsworth's tracts in a most exhaustive way. He eloquently advocated Charles's authorship. Since he wrote in 1829, some further evidence has been forthcoming in favour of the Naseby copy. [5]

A correspondence relating to the French translation of the work has also come to light among the papers of Sir Edward Nicholas. None of the letters show any doubt that King Charles was the author. S. R. Gardiner (Hist. of the Great Civil War, iv, 325) regards Charles Doble's articles [8] as finally disposing of Charles's claim to the authorship, but this is by no means the attitude of other writers. [5]

If Gauden was the author, he may have incorporated papers, &c., by Charles, who may have corrected the work and thus been joint-author. This theory would reconcile the conflicting evidence, that of those who saw Charles writing parts and read the MS. before publication, and the deliberate statements of Gauden. [5]


  1. 1 2 3 Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857, vol. 7, 1992, pp. 105–109
  2. 1 2 Chisholm 1911, p. 530.
  3. "Gauden, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/10456.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. 1 2 "Gauden, John (GDN619J)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Chisholm 1911, p. 531.
  6. Tabor, Henry (October 1912). "William Juniper, the Gosfield Seer". Essex Review. XXI (84): 205–209.
  7. "Page:Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae Vol.1 body of work.djvu/422 - Wikisource, the free online library".
  8. In the Academy May and June 1883

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gilbert Sheldon</span> English religious leader (1598–1677)

Gilbert Sheldon was an English religious leader who served as the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1663 until his death.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Earle (bishop)</span> 17th-century English bishop

John Earle was an English cleric, author and translator, who was chaplain to Charles II. Towards the end of his life he was Bishop of Worcester and then Salisbury.

This article contains information about the literary events and publications of 1649.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas Stanley (author)</span> English author and translator

Sir Thomas Stanley was an English author and translator.

<span title="Greek-language text"><i lang="el-Latn">Eikon Basilike</i></span> 1649 purported autobiography by Charles I of England

The Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of His Sacred Majestie in His Solitudes and Sufferings, is a purported spiritual autobiography attributed to King Charles I of England. It was published on 9 February 1649, ten days after the King was beheaded by Parliament in the aftermath of the English Civil War in 1649.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christopher Wordsworth (divine)</span> English divine and scholar

Christopher Wordsworth was an English divine and scholar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George Morley (bishop)</span> English bishop (1598–1684)

George Morley, was a senior member of the Church of England from London, who served as Bishop of Worcester from 1660 to 1662, and of Winchester from 1662 to 1684.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Endymion Porter</span> English diplomat and royalist

Endymion Porter (1587–1649) was an English diplomat and royalist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Savoy Conference</span> 1661 liturgical conference in London

The Savoy Conference of 1661 was a significant liturgical discussion that took place, after the Restoration of Charles II, in an attempt to effect a reconciliation within the Church of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Marshall (illustrator)</span> British engraver and illustrator

William Marshall was a seventeenth-century British engraver and illustrator, mostly known for his allegorical portrait of King Charles I of England as a Christian martyr, which was published as the frontispiece to the Eikon Basilike.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caroline Divines</span> Influential theologians and writers in the 17th-century Anglican Church

The Caroline Divines were influential theologians and writers in the Church of England who lived during the reigns of King Charles I and, after the Stuart Restoration, King Charles II. There is no official list of Caroline-era divines; they are defined by the era in which they lived, and Caroline Divines hailed from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. However, of these four nations, it is Caroline England which is most commonly considered to have fostered a golden age of Anglican scholarship and devotional writing, despite the socio-cultural upset of civil war, regicide, and military rule under Oliver Cromwell. Importantly, the term divine is restricted neither to canonised saints nor to Anglican figures, but is used of many writers and thinkers in the wider Christian church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brian Duppa</span> English bishop

Brian Duppa was an English bishop, chaplain to the royal family, Royalist and adviser to Charles I of England.

Richard Royston was an English bookseller and publisher, bookseller to Charles I, Charles II and James II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Levett (courtier)</span>

William Levett, Esq., was a long serving courtier to King Charles I of England. Levett accompanied the King during his flight from Parliamentary forces, including his escape from Hampton Court palace, and eventually to his imprisonment in Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight, and finally to the scaffold on which he was executed. Following the King's death, Levett wrote a letter claiming that he had witnessed the King writing the so-called Eikon Basilike during his imprisonment, an allegation that produced a flurry of new claims about the disputed manuscript and flamed a growing movement to rehabilitate the image of the executed monarch.


Eikonoklastes is a book by John Milton, published October 1649. In it he provides a justification for the execution of Charles I, which had taken place on 30 January 1649. The book's title is taken from the Greek, and means "Iconoclast" or "breaker of the icon", and refers to Eikon Basilike, a Royalist propaganda work. The translation of Eikon Basilike is "icon of the King"; it was published immediately after the execution. Milton's book is therefore usually seen as Parliamentarian propaganda, explicitly designed to counter the Royalist arguments.

Politics were an important part of John Milton's life. Milton enjoyed little wide-scale early success, either in prose or poetry, until the production of his later, controversial political works starting with The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates and Eikonoklastes.

William Dugard, or Du Gard, was an English schoolmaster and printer. During the English Interregnum, he printed many important documents and propaganda, first in support of Charles I and later of Oliver Cromwell. He also proved a successful master at a number of schools, including the Merchant Taylor's School, Colchester Royal Grammar School and Stamford School, and wrote a number of non-fiction works.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Nicholson (English bishop)</span> English clergyman

William Nicholson was an English clergyman, a member of the Westminster Assembly and Bishop of Gloucester.

John Wilson was an English composer, lutenist and teacher. Born in Faversham, Kent, he moved to London by 1614, where he succeeded Robert Johnson as principal composer for the King's Men, and entered the King's Musick in 1635 as a lutenist. He received the degree of D.Mus from Oxford in 1644, and he was Heather Professor of Music there from 1656 to 1661. Following the Restoration, he joined the Chapel Royal in 1662. He died at Westminster.

<i>Reliquiae Sacrae Carolinae</i> 1650 civil and sacred writing by Charles I of England

The Reliquiae Sacrae Carolinae, or The Works of That Great Monarch and Glorious Martyr King Charls the I, is a book that deals with the events leading to the execution of Charles I of England. Originally published in 1650, it is a collective work of the civil and sacred writings on the King. It incorporates the Eikon Basilike as well as speeches and letters by the King during the rise of Oliver Cromwell and the Parliamentarians. It is sometimes referred to as "The King's Works".


Church of England titles
Preceded by Bishop of Exeter
Succeeded by
Preceded by Bishop of Worcester
Succeeded by