Major League Soccer (MLS) is the premier professional soccer league in the United States and Canada. The league has 24 teams in 24 stadiums as of the 2019 season: 21 in the United States and 3 in Canada. At the time of the league's inauguration in 1996, MLS teams used multi-purpose stadiums, often shared with National Football League (NFL) or college football teams. Because of lower attendance, these stadiums had parts tarped off to artificially reduce capacity. Starting in 1999 with the Columbus Crew's construction of Mapfre Stadium, the league has constructed soccer-specific stadiums which are tailor-made for soccer and which have smaller capacity. Today, the majority of MLS stadiums are soccer-specific stadiums.
Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation which represents the sport's highest level in the United States. The league comprises 24 teams—21 in the U.S. and 3 in Canada and constitutes one of the major professional sports leagues in both countries. The regular season runs from March to October, with each team playing 34 games; the team with the best record is awarded the Supporters' Shield. Fourteen teams compete in the postseason MLS Cup Playoffs through October and November, culminating in the championship game, the MLS Cup. MLS teams also play in domestic competitions against teams from other divisions in the U.S. Open Cup and in the Canadian Championship. MLS teams also compete against continental rivals in the CONCACAF Champions League. The league plans to expand to 27 teams with the addition of Inter Miami CF and Nashville SC in 2020 and Austin FC in 2021, with further plans to expand to 28 teams by 2022 and 30 teams at a later date.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be easily used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could potentially host more than one type of sport or event, this concept usually refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity. It is used most commonly in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field, while baseball is played on a diamond and large outfield. This requires a particular design to accommodate both, usually an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it also imposes some challenges.
The following is a list of current primary MLS stadiums.
|Image||Stadium||Franchise||Location||First MLS year in stadium||Capacity||Opened||Surface||Field dimensions||Coordinates||Roof type||Soccer specific||Ref(s)|
|Allianz Field||Minnesota United FC||Saint Paul, Minnesota||2019||19,400||2019||Grass||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Coordinates:||Open||Yes|
|Audi Field||D.C. United||Washington, D.C.||2018||20,000||2018||Grass||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Avaya Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||San Jose, California||2015||18,000||2015||Grass||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Banc of California Stadium||Los Angeles FC||Los Angeles||2018||22,000||2018||Grass||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|BBVA Compass Stadium||Houston Dynamo||Houston||2012||22,039||2012||Grass||115 yd × 73 yd (105 m × 67 m)||Open||Yes|
| BC Place ||Vancouver Whitecaps FC||Vancouver||2011||54,500|
|1983||Polytan||117 yd × 75 yd (107 m × 69 m)||Retractable||No|
|BMO Field||Toronto FC||Toronto||2007||30,991||2007||Grass||115 yd × 74 yd (105 m × 68 m)||Open||No|
|CenturyLink Field||Seattle Sounders FC||Seattle||2009||69,000|
|2002||FieldTurf||114 yd × 74 yd (104 m × 68 m)||Open||No|
|Children's Mercy Park||Sporting Kansas City||Kansas City, Kansas||2011||18,467||2011||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Dick's Sporting Goods Park||Colorado Rapids||Commerce City, Colorado||2007||18,061||2007||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Dignity Health Sports Park||LA Galaxy||Carson, California||2003||27,000||2003||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||No|
|Gillette Stadium||New England Revolution||Foxborough, Massachusetts||2002||65,878|
|2002||FieldTurf||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Open||No|
|Mapfre Stadium||Columbus Crew SC||Columbus, Ohio||1999||19,968||1999||Grass||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
| Mercedes-Benz Stadium ||Atlanta United FC||Atlanta||2017||72,035|
|2017||FieldTurf||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Retractable||No|
|Nippert Stadium||FC Cincinnati||Cincinnati||2019||40,000|
|1915||Act Global UBU Sports Speed M6-M||115 yd × 75 yd (105 m × 69 m)||Open||No|
|Orlando City Stadium||Orlando City SC||Orlando, Florida||2017||25,500||2017||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Providence Park||Portland Timbers||Portland, Oregon||2011||≈25,000||1926||FieldTurf||110 yd × 75 yd (101 m × 69 m)||Open||No|
|Red Bull Arena||New York Red Bulls||Harrison, New Jersey||2010||25,000||2010||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Rio Tinto Stadium||Real Salt Lake||Sandy, Utah||2008||20,213||2008||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Saputo Stadium||Montreal Impact||Montreal||2012||20,801||2008||Grass||120 yd × 77 yd (110 m × 70 m)||Open||Yes|
|SeatGeek Stadium||Chicago Fire||Bridgeview, Illinois||2006||20,000||2006||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Talen Energy Stadium||Philadelphia Union||Chester, Pennsylvania||2010||18,500||2010||Grass||120 yd × 75 yd (110 m × 69 m)||Open||Yes|
|Toyota Stadium||FC Dallas||Frisco, Texas||2005||20,500||2005||Grass||117 yd × 74 yd (107 m × 68 m)||Open||Yes|
|Yankee Stadium||New York City FC||Bronx, New York||2015||47,309|
|2009||Grass||110 yd × 70 yd (101 m × 64 m)||Open||No|
The following is a list of other current stadiums used by MLS teams for the U.S. Open Cup, CONCACAF Champions League, premier, special, or international friendly matches.
The Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup, commonly known as the U.S. Open Cup (USOC), is a knock-out cup competition in American soccer. It is the oldest ongoing national soccer competition in the U.S. The 105th edition, held in 2018, was contested by 97 clubs from the two professional leagues sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation: Major League Soccer (MLS), and the United Soccer League, and also amateur clubs in the earlier rounds of the tournament after qualifying through their leagues. The overall champion earns a total of $300,000 in prize money, while the runner-up receives $100,000, and the furthest-advancing team from each lower division league receives $25,000. In addition, the tournament winner qualifies for the group stage of the CONCACAF Champions League.
The CONCACAF Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organized by CONCACAF for the top football clubs in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. The winner of the CONCACAF Champions League automatically qualifies for the quarter-finals of the FIFA Club World Cup. The tournament is officially known as the Scotiabank CONCACAF Champions League, since February 2015, due to sponsorship by Scotiabank. The competition has been completed 52 times through the 2016–17 event, with 54 champions due to a three-way shared title in the 1978 competition.
|Artificially reduced capacity|
|Image||Stadium||Franchise||Location||Year Since Use||Capacity||Opened||Surface||Roof Type||Soccer specific||Ref(s)|
|Citi Field||New York City FC||Queens, New York||2017–||41,922||2009||Grass||Open||No|
|Coffey Field||New York City FC||Bronx, New York||2014–||7,000||1930||FieldTurf||Open||No|
|Fifth Third Bank Stadium||Atlanta United FC||Kennesaw, Georgia||2017–||8,318||2010||Hybrid surface||Open||No|
|Kezar Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||San Francisco||2012–||3,888||1990||Grass||Open||No|
|Levi's Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||Santa Clara, California||2014–||48,765||2014||Grass||Open||No|
|Lincoln Financial Field||Philadelphia Union||Philadelphia||2010–||37,500||2003||Grass||Open||No|
|Maryland SoccerPlex||D.C. United||Germantown, Maryland||2001–||3,200||2000||Grass||Open||No|
| Olympic Stadium ||Montreal Impact||Montreal||2012–||66,308|
|1976||Xtreme Turf by Act Global||Domed (Fixed)||No|
|Pratt & Whitney Stadium at Rentschler Field||New York City FC||East Hartford, Connecticut||2017–||40,642||2003||Grass||Open||No|
| Rogers Centre ||Toronto FC||Toronto||2012–||49,282|
|1989||AstroTurf 3D Xtreme||Retractable||No|
|Stanford Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||Stanford, California||2011–||50,000||2006||Grass||Open||No|
|Starfire Sports Complex||Seattle Sounders FC||Tukwila, Washington||2009–||4,500||2005||FieldTurf||Open||No|
The following is a table of future MLS stadiums that are undergoing construction, or have been approved for construction.
New York City FChave had potential sites rejected by local governments and have yet to identify alternatives. In addition, the New England Revolution have reportedly been in negotiations over a potential site in South Boston.
The New York City FC Stadium is a proposed soccer-specific stadium to be built in New York City for New York City FC of Major League Soccer. The team currently plays its home games at Yankee Stadium.
The New England Revolution is an American professional soccer club based in the Greater Boston area that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS), in the Eastern Conference of the league. It is one of the ten charter clubs of MLS, having competed in the league since its inaugural season.
South Boston is a densely populated neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, located south and east of the Fort Point Channel and abutting Dorchester Bay. South Boston, colloquially known as Southie, was once a predominantly working class Irish Catholic community, but is nowadays a hot spot for the millennial population.
|Artificially reduced capacity|
|Surface||Roof type||Soccer specific||Ref|
|West End Stadium||FC Cincinnati||Cincinnati, Ohio||26,000||2018||2021||Grass||Open||Yes|
|Austin FC stadium||Austin FC||Austin, Texas||20,500||2019||2021||Grass||Open||Yes|
|Nashville Fairgrounds Stadium||Nashville SC||Nashville, Tennessee||30,000||2019||2022||Grass||Open||Yes|
|Inter Miami CF stadium||Inter Miami CF||Miami, Florida||25,000||TBD||2021||Grass||Open||Yes|
|New Crew Stadium||Columbus Crew SC||Columbus, Ohio||20,000||TBD||2021||Grass||Open||Yes|
The following is a list of former MLS stadiums.
|Artificially reduced capacity|
|Image||Stadium||Franchise(s)||Location||Used for MLS||Capacity||Opened||Surface||Ref(s)|
|Arrowhead Stadium||Kansas City Wizards||Kansas City, Missouri||1996–2007||79,451 |
|Bobby Dodd Stadium||Atlanta United FC||Atlanta||2017||55,000||1913||Grass|
|Broncos Stadium at Mile High||Colorado Rapids||Denver, Colorado||2002–2006||76,125 |
|Buck Shaw Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||Santa Clara, California||2008–2014||10,525||1962||Grass|
|Camping World Stadium||Orlando City SC||Orlando, Florida||2015–2016||65,438|
|Cardinal Stadium||Chicago Fire||Naperville, Illinois||2002–2003||15,000||1999||FieldTurf|
|CommunityAmerica Ballpark||Kansas City Wizards||Kansas City, Kansas||2008–2010||10,385||2003||Grass|
|Cotton Bowl||Dallas Burn||Dallas, Texas||1996–2002, 2004||92,100 |
|Dragon Stadium||Dallas Burn||Southlake, Texas||2003||11,000||2001|
|Empire Field||Vancouver Whitecaps FC||Vancouver, British Columbia||2011||20,500||2010||FieldTurf|
|Foxboro Stadium||New England Revolution||Foxborough, Massachusetts||1996–2001||60,292 |
|Giants Stadium|| New York Red Bulls |
|East Rutherford, New Jersey||1996–2009||78,148 |
|1976||Grass; AstroTurf; FieldTurf|
|Mile High Stadium||Colorado Rapids||Denver, Colorado||1996–2001||76,273 |
|Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium||D.C. United||Annapolis, Maryland||2018||34,000||1959||FieldTurf|
|Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum||San Jose Earthquakes||Oakland, California||2008–2009||63,132 |
|Ohio Stadium||Columbus Crew||Columbus, Ohio||1996–1998||89,841 |
|RFK Stadium||D.C. United||Washington, D.C.||1996–2017||45,596|
|Rice-Eccles Stadium||Real Salt Lake||Salt Lake City, Utah||2005–2008||45,634 |
|Robertson Stadium||Houston Dynamo||Houston, Texas||2005–2011||32,000 |
|Rose Bowl||Los Angeles Galaxy||Pasadena, California||1996–2002||104,091 |
|Soldier Field||Chicago Fire||Chicago||1998–2002, 2004–2005||61,500 |
|Spartan Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||San Jose, California||1996–2005||31,218 |
|TCF Bank Stadium||Minnesota United FC||Minneapolis||2017–2018||50,805 |
|Artificially reduced capacity|
|Image||Stadium||Team(s)||Location||Used for MLS||Capacity||Opened||Surface||Field Dimensions||Ref(s)|
|Houlihan's Stadium||Tampa Bay Mutiny||Tampa, Florida||1996–1998||16,000||1967||Grass||unknown|
|Lockhart Stadium||Miami Fusion||Fort Lauderdale, Florida||1998–2002||20,450||1959||Grass||116 by 75 yards (106 m × 69 m)|
|Raymond James Stadium||Tampa Bay Mutiny||Tampa, Florida||1999–2002||32,000||1998||Grass||115 by 72 yards (105 m × 66 m)|
|StubHub Center||Chivas USA||Carson, California||2005–2014 (Chivas USA)||18,800||2003||Grass||120 by 75 yards (110 m × 69 m)|
Columbus Crew Soccer Club is an American professional soccer club based in Columbus, Ohio. The Crew competes in Major League Soccer (MLS) as a member of the league's Eastern Conference and began play in 1996 as one of the ten charter clubs of the league. The team is currently being operated by an ownership group led by the Haslam family and former team doctor Pete Edwards. The Haslam/Edwards group is the third owner in club history.
Soccer-specific stadium is a term used mainly in the United States and Canada to refer to a sports stadium either purpose-built or fundamentally redesigned for soccer and whose primary function is to host soccer matches, as opposed to a multipurpose stadium which is for a variety of sports. A soccer-specific stadium may host other sporting events and concerts, but the design and purpose of a soccer-specific stadium is primarily for soccer. Some facilities have a permanent stage at one end of the stadium used for staging concerts.
Kei Ansu Kamara is a Sierra Leonean footballer who currently plays as a striker for Colorado Rapids in MLS. In 2015, Kamara tied for top scorer in MLS with 22 goals, losing out to Sebastian Giovinco on the Golden Boot on fewer assists. He is one of only 10 players to have scored 100 goals in MLS history, achieving the landmark in 300 appearances.
Toronto Football Club, commonly referred to as Toronto FC, is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Toronto, Ontario. The team competes in Major League Soccer (MLS) as a member of the Eastern Conference. The team plays its home matches at BMO Field, located at Exhibition Place on Toronto's shoreline. Toronto FC joined MLS in 2007 as an expansion team and was the first Canadian-based franchise in the league.
Adam John William Moffat is a former Scottish footballer who played as a midfielder and spent the majority of his career playing in the various professional leagues in the United States. After beginning his career in Scottish football with Ross County and Elgin City, Moffat has played in the United States since 2007, initially with Cleveland City Stars. He then played for Major League Soccer (MLS) teams Columbus Crew, Portland Timbers, Houston Dynamo and Seattle Sounders and FC Dallas prior to joining the New York Cosmos in 2015 and finishing his career with Sacramento Republic. He won the MLS Cup with Columbus in 2008.
Expansion of Major League Soccer has occurred several times since the league began play in 1996. Major League Soccer was established as the top level of professional soccer in the United States in 1993 with 10 teams and began play in 1996. It has expanded several times since 1998 into new markets across the United States and, since 2006, into Canada.
The Portland Timbers are an American professional soccer club based in Portland, Oregon. The Timbers compete in Major League Soccer (MLS) as a member club of the league's Western Conference. The Timbers have played their home games at Providence Park since 2011, when the team began play as an expansion team in the league.
Tony Tchani is a Cameroonian footballer.
The Montreal Impact is a Canadian professional soccer team based in Montreal, Quebec. The Impact competes as a member of the Eastern Conference in Major League Soccer (MLS). The team began play in 2012 as an expansion team of the league, being the league's third Canadian club, and replaced the North American Soccer League team of the same name.
The 2013 Major League Soccer season was the 101st season of FIFA-sanctioned soccer in the United States and Canada, the 35th with a national first-division league, and the 18th season of Major League Soccer. The season featured 19 total clubs.
Major League Soccer is the premier professional soccer league in the United States and Canada. Competition began in 1996, the 2016 season saw an average 21,692 spectators between the 20 teams, the highest average attendance in league history. MLS has the third-highest average attendance among all professional sports leagues with teams in the United States, ranking behind the National Football League and Major League Baseball but ahead of the National Basketball Association and National Hockey League. Among all North American professional sports leagues, MLS ranks fifth in average attendance per game behind the NFL and MLB as well as Liga MX and the Canadian Football League.
The 2012 Houston Dynamo season is the seventh season of the team's existence and the first season in their new soccer-specific stadium, BBVA Compass Stadium. The Dynamo will enter the season as both the defending MLS Cup runners-up and Texas Derby winners. The club also played in the 2012–13 CONCACAF Champions League.
The 2013 season is the Houston Dynamo's 8th competitive season in Major League Soccer, 8th year of existence as a football club, and their second consecutive season playing at BBVA Compass Stadium. They also competed in the CONCACAF Champions League, participating in the knockout phase of the 2012–13 campaign being eliminated by Santos Laguna in the quarterfinal 3-1 on Aggregate. They will be opening the 2013–14 group stage in late July or early August 2013.
Kekuta Manneh is a Gambian footballer who plays as a forward for FC Cincinnati in MLS.
Ryan Finley is a retired American professional soccer player.
Erik Hurtado is an American soccer player who currently plays as a forward for Sporting Kansas City in Major League Soccer.
The History of Major League Soccer began in 1988, when the United States Soccer Federation pledged to create a Division 1 professional soccer league as a condition to FIFA awarding the 1994 FIFA World Cup to the United States. Major League Soccer was officially formed in 1995. The league began play in 1996 with 10 teams, and in 1998 grew to 12 teams. MLS experienced some difficulties in its first seasons, with the league losing money in the early years, resulting in two teams folding after the 2001 season. MLS has rebounded since then, with increased attendance and the development of soccer-specific stadiums. With an average attendance of over 20,000 per game, MLS has the third highest average attendance of any sports league in the U.S. after the National Football League (NFL) and Major League Baseball (MLB), and is the seventh highest attended professional soccer league worldwide. MLS currently has 24 teams, with further expansion planned. The league plans to expand to 27 teams with the addition of Inter Miami CF and Nashville SC in 2020 and Austin FC in 2021, with further plans to expand to 28 teams by 2022 and 30 teams at a later date. MLS is currently the largest first division professional soccer league in the world.
The 2015 MLS SuperDraft was the sixteenth SuperDraft conducted by Major League Soccer. The SuperDraft is held each year in conjunction with the annual National Soccer Coaches Association of America convention. The 2015 convention was held January 14–18, 2015 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.