Parkes, New South Wales

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Parkes
New South Wales
Sir Henry Parkes statue in Parkes NSW.jpg
A statue of Sir Henry Parkes, the town's namesake
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Parkes
Coordinates 33°08′0″S148°10′0″E / 33.13333°S 148.16667°E / -33.13333; 148.16667 Coordinates: 33°08′0″S148°10′0″E / 33.13333°S 148.16667°E / -33.13333; 148.16667
Population11,408 (30 June 2016) [1] [2]
Established1873
Postcode(s) 2870
Elevation324 m (1,063 ft) [3]
LGA(s) Parkes Shire
County Ashburnham
State electorate(s) Orange
Federal Division(s) Calare
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
23.4 °C
74 °F
10.9 °C
52 °F
587.5 mm
23.1 in
The 64m radio telescope of the Parkes Observatory in Parkes, New South Wales, Australia is an important, Southern hemisphere radio telescope. ParkesTelescopeNight.png
The 64m radio telescope of the Parkes Observatory in Parkes, New South Wales, Australia is an important, Southern hemisphere radio telescope.

Parkes is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the main settlement in the local government area of Parkes Shire. Parkes had a population of 11,408 [2] as at 30 June 2016.

Central West (New South Wales) Region in New South Wales, Australia

The Central West is a region of New South Wales, Australia. The region is geographically in eastern New South Wales, in the area west of the Blue Mountains, which are west of Sydney. It has an area of 63,262 square kilometres (24,426 sq mi).

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Local government in Australia is the third tier of government in Australia administered by the states and territories, which in turn are beneath the federal tier. Local government is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia and two referenda in the 1970s and 1980s to alter the Constitution relating to local government were unsuccessful. Every state government recognises local government in their respective constitutions. Unlike Canada or the United States, there is only one level of local government in each state, with no distinction such as cities and counties.

Contents

History

Parkes was founded in 1853 as the settlement Currajong, named for the abundance of kurrajong trees in the local area by the settlers, but was then known as Bushman's (from the local mine named Bushman's Lead). [4]

<i>Brachychiton</i> genus of plants

Brachychiton is a genus of 31 species of trees and large shrubs, native to Australia, and New Guinea. Fossils from New South Wales and New Zealand are estimated to be 50 million years old, corresponding to the Paleogene.

In August 1873, Henry Parkes (later Sir Henry) visited the area and in December 1873 the town was officially renamed Parkes in his honour . [5] [6] [7] (Sir Henry Parkes is recognised in Australia as having played an instrumental role in Australia becoming a unified and federated country.) In March 1885, Parkes was proclaimed a town. [5]

Henry Parkes Australian Statesman and Politician

Sir Henry Parkes, was a colonial Australian politician and longest non-consecutive Premier of the Colony of New South Wales, the present-day state of New South Wales in the Commonwealth of Australia. He has been referred to as the "Father of Federation" due to his early promotion for the federation of the six colonies of Australia, as an early critic of British convict transportation and as a proponent for the expansion of the Australian continental rail network.

Bushman's Lead Post Office opened on 1 August 1872 and was renamed Parkes in 1873. [8] The railway from Molong via Parkes to Forbes, was officially opened on 18 December 1893. [9]

Molong railway station

Molong railway station is a heritage-listed former railway station and now library on the Main Western railway line at Molong, Cabonne Shire, New South Wales, Australia. The property is owned by RailCorp, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Forbes, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Forbes is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia, located on the Newell Highway between Parkes and West Wyalong. At the 2016 census, Forbes had a population of 8,432. Forbes is probably named after Sir Francis Forbes, first Chief Justice of NSW.

Parkes attracted significant attention during the gold rush of the 1870s onwards, and even to this day modern mining companies still have sites in the region.

Gold rush new discovery of gold that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune

A Gold Rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere.

In 1939, Parkes became a sister city with Coventry in the United Kingdom. [10] This was in honour of the fact Sir Henry Parkes was born in Coventry.

Coventry City and Metropolitan borough in England

Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

Heritage listings

Parkes has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Parkes today

With the presence of the nearby Parkes Observatory, Parkes has had an important role in the scientific community. In addition to local research conducted at the radio telescope, Parkes scientists have assisted NASA for several missions as a Southern Hemisphere relay and communications station. (The movie The Dish was based somewhat loosely on the role the telescope played during the 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing.)

A rich variety of farming is conducted in the region immediately surrounding Parkes, although the staple farming products are wheat and wool.

Parkes prides itself on its modernising ideology, historically and culturally. The Dish , although set in Parkes, was largely filmed in Forbes' historic precinct. This is due to very few historic buildings remaining in Parkes. Parkes is also home to the Parkes Spacemen rugby league club.

The area is supported by a gold and copper mine, Northparkes, 27 km north-north-west of the town.

Parkes became a key country location after the completion of the railway in 1893, serving as a hub for a great deal of passenger and freight transport until the 1980s. Unfortunately, as successive governments reduced the NSW country rail systems, this part of the economy was largely lost to the community.

Periodically governments and businesses have raised the topic of an "inland port" whereby Parkes Regional Airport would be expanded considerably to serve as a starting point for domestic and international freight destined for areas in NSW, Victoria and Queensland. Environmental studies are complete, development consents are in place, contracts have been exchanged, some properties have changed hands and studies are continuing.

Parkes Shire Council, with approval from the State Government, has rezoned 516 hectares of agricultural and industrial land on the western edge of the town for the development of the Parkes National Logistics Hub [13] with an additional reserve of over 100 hectares. The site has been specifically designed for the 24-hour, 7-day-per-week operation of a multi-modal transport facility.

FCL runs a significant intermodal operation at Goobang Junction on Parkes' western outskirts. On 20 October 2006, Premier Morris Iemma opened Specialised Container Transport's intermodal terminal nearby on a 296 hectare site. It has 5 km of rail sidings, a 7,400 square metre warehouse and about 40 staff. [14] An even larger terminal to be sited nearby is also being promoted.

The Roads & Maritime Services' Western Regional Office is located in Parkes. Essential Energy also is represented by a training and maintenance centre.

Main tourist attractions are the CSIRO Telescope 20 km north of town on the Newell Highway, Bushmans Hill, and the War Memorial Lookout. Nearby there is the Goobang National Park, and Peak Hill which features an Open Cut Mine that can be toured during holidays. There are also many great parks.

Parkes has a high percentage population of school age students and an associated number of schools. Parkes Public School was founded in 1876 under Archibald Booth as educator, Parkes East Public School and Middleton Public School are also in the area. Holy Family Catholic School and Parkes Christian School operate in the town, with Saint Patrick's School Trundle and St Joseph's School, Peak Hill also operating the shire.

Parkes High School is the main public high school for the town. Parkes Christian School offers education for students from Kindergarten to Year 10 in 2013, extending to Year 11 in 2014 and Year 12 in 2015. Many Parkes students also attend the nearby Red Bend Catholic College in Forbes.

Geography

Parkes is located on the Australian transcontinental railway line, and the Newell Highway linking Victoria to Queensland.

Climate

Parkes has a warm temperate climate, with significant temperature variations between summer and winter. Under the Köppen climate classification, Parkes lies in the transitional zone between humid subtropical (Cfa) and semi-arid (Bsk) climates. [15] Summer maximum temperatures average out at 32 °C (90 °F), however frequently reach 35 °C (95 °F), and there are usually a few days that top 40 °C (104 °F) each year.[ citation needed ] Winters are cool and sunny, however occasional cold fronts can bring prolonged periods of light, misty rain with low maximum temperatures.[ citation needed ] Rainfall in spring and summer usually falls as thunderstorms, with an annual average of 587.5 mm (23.13 in) of rainfall. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −4.2 to 45.5 °C (24.4 to 113.9 °F). Parkes is considerably sunny, having around 135.0 clear days annually. [3]

Climate data for Parkes (Macarthur Street)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)45.2
(113.4)
45.5
(113.9)
40.0
(104)
35.4
(95.7)
27.8
(82)
26.7
(80.1)
23.3
(73.9)
27.8
(82)
34.0
(93.2)
37.7
(99.9)
44.0
(111.2)
42.5
(108.5)
45.5
(113.9)
Average high °C (°F)32.3
(90.1)
31.5
(88.7)
28.5
(83.3)
23.6
(74.5)
18.6
(65.5)
15.0
(59)
14.0
(57.2)
15.9
(60.6)
19.5
(67.1)
23.6
(74.5)
27.7
(81.9)
30.6
(87.1)
23.4
(74.1)
Average low °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
17.8
(64)
15.0
(59)
10.9
(51.6)
7.5
(45.5)
5.1
(41.2)
4.0
(39.2)
4.9
(40.8)
7.3
(45.1)
10.4
(50.7)
13.5
(56.3)
16.2
(61.2)
10.9
(51.6)
Record low °C (°F)6.8
(44.2)
6.0
(42.8)
4.5
(40.1)
0.5
(32.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
−4.0
(24.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.0
(33.8)
3.0
(37.4)
6.2
(43.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches)57.6
(2.27)
49.1
(1.93)
47.4
(1.87)
41.4
(1.63)
47.2
(1.86)
49.5
(1.95)
49.1
(1.93)
49.2
(1.94)
41.8
(1.65)
52.4
(2.06)
49.5
(1.95)
53.0
(2.09)
587.2
(23.13)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm)5.85.45.45.37.29.310.29.37.77.76.46.285.9
Average afternoon relative humidity (%)34373943536060544842363245
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [3]

Transport

Parkes has a local bus service provided by Western Road Liners, which acquired Harris Bus Lines in March 2006. The Indian Pacific also stops twice a week, as well as the Outback Xplorer service, run by NSW TrainLink, which heads to Broken Hill on Mondays and Sydney on Tuesdays. [16] Parkes railway station is situated on the Broken Hill railway line, and opened in 1893. A smaller station served Parkes Racecourse between 1923 and 1937. [17] Parkes Regional Airport is served regular air services to Sydney operated by Regional Express Airlines. The airport is located approximately five kilometres east of the central business district.

Media

Radio

.Vision radio 87.6 fm. Christian Radio

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) transmit four stations into Parkes and the surrounding region:

Some stations from Dubbo and Orange also transmit into Parkes and the surrounding region.

Television

Parkes receives five free-to-air television stations (digital) including two government funded networks:

The ABC, SBS and three commercial networks:

SBS offer digital high-definition simulcasts of their main channel, SBS ONE on SBS HD.

The other networks broadcast nine additional channels: 7Two, 7mate, 9GO!, 9GEM, ABC2, ABC3, ABC News 24, SBS Two, One HD and Eleven.

Newspapers

There are two local newspapers servicing Parkes.

Notable people

Festivals

Parkes hosts the annual Parkes Elvis Festival. [28] It is held in early January to celebrate Presley's birthday and to boost tourism.

Military History

During World War 2, Parkes was the location of RAAF Station Parkes, and RAAF No.18 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot (IAFD), completed in 1942 and closed on 14 August 1944. Usually consisting of 4 tanks, 31 fuel depots were built across Australia for the storage and supply of aircraft fuel for the RAAF and the US Army Air Forces at a total cost of £900,000 ($1,800,000). [29]

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