A pergola is an outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that usually support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice, often upon which woody vines are trained.The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave.
As a type of gazebo, it also may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, with a green tunnel being a type of road under a canopy of trees.
Pergolas are sometimes confused with "arbors," as the terms are used interchangeably. Generally, an "arbor" is regarded as wooden bench seats with a roof, usually enclosed by lattice panels forming a framework for climbing plants; in evangelical Christianity, brush arbor revivals occur under such structures.
A pergola, on the other hand, is a much larger and more open structure. Normally, a pergola does not include integral seating.
A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that usually support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice, often upon which woody vines are trained.
As a type of gazebo, it may also be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions.
Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a building's door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide a sitting area that allows for breeze and light sun, but offer protection from the harsh glare of direct sunlight.
Pergolas also give climbing plants a structure on which to grow.
In 1498, Leonardo da Vinci decorated the Sala delle Asse of the Castello Sforzesco in Milan to give the illusion of the great square and vaulted reception hall being within a pergola that was made up of the intertwined branches of sixteen huge mulberry trees.The novel project was commissioned by the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza.
Pergolas are more permanent architectural features than the green tunnels of late medieval and early Renaissance gardens that often were formed of springy withies—easily replaced shoots of willow or hazel—bound together at the heads to form a series of arches, then loosely woven with long slats on which climbers were grown, to make a passage that was both cool, shaded, and moderately dry in a shower.
At the Medici villa, La Petraia, inner and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern that can be viewed from the long terrace above it.
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave.The English term was borrowed from Italian. The term was mentioned in an Italian context in 1645 by John Evelyn at the cloister of Trinità dei Monti in Rome He used the term in an English context in 1654 when, in the company of the fifth Earl of Pembroke, Evelyn watched the coursing of hares from a "pergola" built on the downs near Salisbury for that purpose.
The clearly artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Yet handsome pergolas on brick and stone pillars with powerful cross-beams were a feature of the gardens designed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll and epitomize their trademark of firm structure luxuriantly planted. A particularly extensive pergola is featured at the gardens of The Hill in Hampstead (London), designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Pergola in Wrocław was designed in 1911 and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006.
Modern pergola design materials including wood, vinyl, fiberglass, aluminum, and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) rather than brick or stone pillars, are more affordable and are increasing in popularity. Wooden pergolas are made either from a weather-resistant wood, such as western red cedar ( Thuja plicata ) or, formerly, of coast redwood ( Sequoia sempervirens ). They are painted, stained, or use wood treated with preservatives for outdoor use. For a low maintenance alternative to wood, the contemporary materials of vinyl, fiberglass, aluminum, and CPVC can be used. These materials do not require yearly paint or stain like a wooden pergola would, and their manufacture can make them even stronger and longer-lasting than a wooden pergola. These contemporary material pergolas can also be motorized to open and close.
Historically, a kiosk was a small garden pavilion open on some or all sides common in Persia, the Indian subcontinent, and in the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward. Today, several examples of this type of kiosk still exist in and around the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, and they can be seen in Balkan countries.
A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal or turret-shaped, often built in a park, garden or spacious public area. Some are used on occasions as bandstands.
Casa Vicens is a modernist building situated in the Gràcia neighbourhood of Barcelona. It is the work of architect Antoni Gaudí and is considered to be his first major project. It was built between 1883 and 1885, although Gaudí drew up the initial plans between 1878 and 1880. The work belongs to the orientalist style, similar to Neo-Mudéjar architecture, although interpreted in Gaudí’s own personal way, with a uniqueness that only he knew how to add to his projects. In this work, and for the first time, Gaudí outlined some of his constructive resources that would become regular features throughout the emergence of Modernism. The work was widely discussed when it was built and caused a great sensation among the general public at the time. When the building was constructed, Gràcia was still an independent urban nucleus of Barcelona; it had its own council and was classified as a town, though nowadays it is a district of the city.
The University of California, Davis Arboretum is an approximately 100-acre (0.40 km2) arboretum along the banks of the old north channel of Putah Creek on the south side of the University of California, Davis campus in unincorporated Yolo County, California, in the United States.
The Brindavan Gardens is a garden located 12 k.ms from the city of Mysore in the Mandya District of the Indian State of Karnataka. It lies adjoining the Krishnarajasagara Dam which is built across the river Kaveri. The work on laying out this garden was started in the year 1927 and completed in 1932. Visited by close to 2 million tourists per year, the garden is one of the major attractions of Srirangapatna. Sir Mirza Ismail, the Deewan of Mysore, a man with a penchant for gardens, founded the Brindavan Gardens and built the Cauvery River high-level canal to irrigate 120,000 acres in modern Mandya district. He was inspired by Hyder Ali who had earlier built the Lalbagh Botanical Gardens at Bangalore.
This page is a glossary of architecture.
A Chinese pavilion is a garden pavilion in traditional Chinese architecture. While often found within temples, pavilions are not exclusively religious structures. Many Chinese parks and gardens feature pavilions to provide shade and a place to rest.
Green Bay Botanical Garden is a nonprofit botanical garden located at 2600 Larsen Road, Green Bay, Wisconsin. It is open daily in the warmer months, or weekdays in the colder months; an admission fee is charged.
A bench is a long seat on which multiple people may sit at the same time. Benches are typically made of wood, but may also be made of metal, stone, or other synthetic materials. Many benches have back rests while others do not and can be sat on from either side. Arm rests are another common feature. In many American public areas, benches are often donated by persons or associations, which may then be indicated on it, e.g. by a small plaque. This is a common form of memorial to somebody who has died. Benches can be both outdoors and indoors, but they are more commonly found outdoors.
Victoria Peak Garden is a Victorian style garden near the summit of Victoria Peak in Hong Kong. The former Mountain Lodge, an alternate residence for the Governor of Hong Kong, was located there, which has since been demolished, but the park remains as an attraction at the Peak. It is managed by the Leisure and Cultural Services Department.
The structure of a thing is how the parts of it relate to each other. In gardens, the term can be applied to soil structure or planting design structure, but it is most often used for structures made out of hard materials including: timber, brick, concrete, metal, plastic, glass, etc.
A terrace is an external, raised, open, flat area in either a landscape near a building, or as a roof terrace on a flat roof.
Ratu Boko or Ratu Boko Palace is an archaeological site in Java. Ratu Boko is located on a plateau, about three kilometres south of Prambanan temple complex in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The original name of this site is still unclear, however the local inhabitants named this site after King Boko, the legendary king mentioned in Roro Jonggrang folklore. In Javanese, Ratu Boko means "Stork King".
A gridshell is a structure which derives its strength from its double curvature, but is constructed of a grid or lattice.
A trellis (treillage) is an architectural structure, usually made from an open framework or lattice of interwoven or intersecting pieces of wood, bamboo or metal that is normally made to support and display climbing plants, especially shrubs.
The Savill Building is a visitor centre at the entrance to The Savill Garden in Windsor Great Park, Surrey, England designed by Glen Howells Architects, Buro Happold and Engineers Haskins Robinson Waters. It was opened by the Duke of Edinburgh on 26 June 2006.
Foguang Temple is a Buddhist temple located five kilometres from Doucun, Wutai County, Shanxi Province of China. The major hall of the temple is the Great East Hall, built in 857 AD, during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). According to architectural records, it is the third earliest preserved timber structure in China. It was rediscovered by the 20th-century architectural historian Liang Sicheng (1901–1972) in 1937, while an older hall at Nanchan Temple was discovered by the same team a year later. The temple also contains another significant hall dating from 1137 called the Manjusri Hall. In addition, the second oldest existing pagoda in China, dating from the 6th century, is located in the temple grounds. Today the temple is part of a UNESCO World Heritage site and is undergoing restoration.
The Parc del Laberint d'Horta is a historical garden in the Horta-Guinardó district in Barcelona and the oldest of its kind in the city. Located on the former estate of the Desvalls family, next to the Collserola ridge, the park comprises an 18th-century neoclassical garden and a 19th-century romantic garden. On the lower terrace is the hedge maze that gives the park its name.
The Anak Woljongsa is an historic Buddhist temple, one of the National Treasures of North Korea (#75). It is located in Woljong-ni, Anak County, South Hwanghae Province. It is located near Mt. Kuwol.
The Architecture of Saudi Arabia is adapted to its geography and climate, and reflects the uniqueness of Arabian culture. It is located on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a Mediterranean and subtropical desert climate. The climate of different regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia differs, the architecture and the method of construction. The vernacular and the postmodern architecture reflect the traditional culture and environment on Saudi Arabia. Mashrabiya as a special architecture element in Saudi Arabia fully demonstrate the wisdom of local residents.