Spiro, Oklahoma

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Spiro, Oklahoma
Spirospiderlarge.png
Spider engraved on shell, from Spiro Mounds, near the town of Spiro.
OKMap-doton-Spiro.PNG
Location of Spiro, Oklahoma
Coordinates: 35°14′29″N94°37′15″W / 35.24139°N 94.62083°W / 35.24139; -94.62083 Coordinates: 35°14′29″N94°37′15″W / 35.24139°N 94.62083°W / 35.24139; -94.62083
Country United States
State Oklahoma
County Le Flore
Area
  Total2.2 sq mi (5.7 km2)
  Land2.1 sq mi (5.5 km2)
  Water0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation
492 ft (150 m)
Population
(2010)
  Total2,167
  Density1,049.5/sq mi (405.2/km2)
Time zone UTC-6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code
74959
Area code(s) 539/918
FIPS code 40-69350 [1]
GNIS feature ID1098363 [2]

Spiro is a town in Le Flore County, Oklahoma, United States. It is part of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 2,164 at the 2010 census, a 2.8 percent decline from 2,227 at the 2000 census. [3]

Le Flore County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Le Flore County is a county located along the eastern border of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,384. Its county seat is Poteau. The name honors a Choctaw family named LeFlore.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Fort Smith, Arkansas City in Arkansas, United States

Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford, Franklin, and Sebastian, and the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah.

Contents

Developed as a railroad station in an agricultural area in the late 19th century, the small town is notable for its proximity to the Spiro Mounds. This is a Mississippian culture center that was active from about 900 to 1450 CE that was part of a culture in Eastern Oklahoma and Western Arkansas. Today the 80-acre site with several earthwork mounds is preserved as Oklahoma's only State Archeological Park and one of North America's most important archaeological sites. It is the westernmost site of the expansive Mississippian culture, which had associated centers through the Mississippi and tributary river valleys.

Spiro Mounds

Spiro Mounds is a major Northern Caddoan Mississippian archaeological site located in present-day Eastern Oklahoma. The 80-acre site lies near the Arkansas River in Fort Coffee, seven miles north of the town of Spiro.

Mississippian culture Mound-building Native American culture in Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States

The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from about 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.

History

In 1895 and 1896, the Kansas City, Pittsburg and Gulf Railroad (later owned by the Kansas City Southern Railroad) established a station at the present site of Spiro, which connected the area to the city of Fort Smith, Arkansas. This railroad access attracted residents from the nearby town of Skullyville, and Spiro soon developed as the principal town in this area. The town population was 543 in 1900. [4]

Skullyville, Oklahoma Unincorporated community in Oklahoma, United States

Skullyville is a small unincorporated rural community in Le Flore County, Oklahoma, United States. It is about one mile east of Spiro, Oklahoma and 15 miles (24 km)west of Fort Smith, Arkansas. Now essentially nothing but a cemetery remains, but it was an important community before the Civil War. Skullyville was the site of the Choctaw Agency from 1832 until 1839. It then became the capital of the Mushulatubbe District of the Choctaw Nation, a stop for the Butterfield Stage and capital of the Choctaw Nation. The town suffered serious damage during the Civil War, then was bypassed by the railroad and abandoned by businessmen who moved to the nearest railroad station. Closure of the post office in 1917 was essentially the death knell of the town. It is now considered a ghost town.

The US Post Office at Spiro was established in 1898. Several accounts differ as to how the post office was named. One claims that Spiro was the maiden name of the first postmistress. Another claims it was the maiden name of the mother of a Fort Smith banker.

According to the Oklahoma Historical Society, Spiro OK was named after Celia Spiro, wife of an Oklahoma banker, Iser H Nakdimen. He founded the City National Bank in Ft. Smith, Arkansas and the First National Bank in Muldrow, OK. See page 368 of Chronicles of Oklahoma, 1944 for the history of the name. [5]

Cotton was an important cash crop. In 1901, Spiro had three cotton yards and one cotton gin. By 1910, there were three cotton gins and the population had grown to 1,173. As cotton cultivation became more mechanized, labor needs declined. The Great Depression of the 1930s took the heart out of the market. Timber harvesting and processing and livestock became important industries in the region. The population declined to 969 in 1930, as agricultural workers migrated to other areas for jobs. It rebounded to 1,365 by 1950 as the economy grew. [4]

Cotton gin machine that separates cotton fibers from seeds

A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are then processed into various cotton goods such as linens, while any undamaged cotton is used largely for textiles like clothing. The separated seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil.

Great Depression 20th-century worldwide economic depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.

On March 26, 1976, the town was struck by an F5 tornado, the highest level on the Fujita scale, resulting in two deaths. [6] The town was again hit by a tornado on April 21, 1996 as the storm moved across the Sunset Corners area and eastward through the town center, however the storm resulted in no deaths in Spiro although 4 people were killed as the storm moved into Arkansas.

The April 1996 tornado outbreak sequence was a series of tornado outbreaks that occurred over a three-day period between April 19 to April 21, 1996 across a large area of eastern North America. It was the most notable outbreak of the year; the 19th was the most prolific tornado outbreak in Illinois history.

Geography

Spiro is located at 35°14′29″N94°37′15″W / 35.24139°N 94.62083°W / 35.24139; -94.62083 (35.241464, -94.620717). [7] It is 3 miles (4.8 km) south of the Arkansas River, 17 miles (27 km) southwest of Fort Smith, Arkansas, and 10 miles (16 km) west of the Oklahoma-Arkansas border. [4]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.2 square miles (5.7 km2), of which, 2.1 square miles (5.4 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (3.18%) is water.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1900 543
1910 1,173116.0%
1920 1,162−0.9%
1930 969−16.6%
1940 1,0417.4%
1950 1,36531.1%
1960 1,4506.2%
1970 2,05741.9%
1980 2,2218.0%
1990 2,146−3.4%
2000 2,2273.8%
2010 2,164−2.8%
Est. 20152,167 [8] 0.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [9]

As of the census [1] of 2000, there were 2,227 people, 875 households, and 587 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,049.5 people per square mile (405.6/km²). There were 992 housing units at an average density of 467.5 per square mile (180.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 80.47% White, 5.21% African American, 6.11% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 1.35% from other races, and 6.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.51% of the population.

There were 875 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.8% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the town, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $18,241, and the median income for a family was $25,556. Males had a median income of $23,716 versus $16,694 for females. The per capita income for the town was $11,195. About 23.2% of families and 29.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.8% of those under age 18 and 29.9% of those age 65 or over.

Notable people

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References

  1. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. CensusViewer: Population of Spiro, Oklahoma
  4. 1 2 3 Harold Crain, "Spiro", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  5. https://archive.org/stream/chroniclesofokla2231okla/chroniclesofokla2231okla_djvu.txt
  6. Grazulis, Thomas P. (1993). Significant tornadoes, 1680-1991. St. Johnsbury, Vt.: Environmental Films. ISBN   1-879362-03-1.
  7. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  8. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  9. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  10. http://www.mallory.org/memsol.cgi?user_id=1155237