Threatening government officials of the United States

Last updated

Threatening government officials of the United States is a felony under federal law. Threatening the president of the United States is a felony under 18 U.S.C.   § 871, punishable by up to 5 years of imprisonment, that is investigated by the United States Secret Service. [1] Threatening other officials is a Class D or C felony, usually carrying maximum penalties of 5 or 10 years under 18 U.S.C.   § 875, 18 U.S.C.   § 876 and other statutes, that is investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. When national boundaries are transcended by such a threat, it is considered a terrorist threat. [2]

Contents

When a threat is made against a judge, it can be considered obstruction of justice. [3] Threatening federal officials' family members is also a federal crime; in enacting the law, the Committee on the Judiciary stated that "Clearly it is a proper Federal function to respond to terrorists and other criminals who seek to influence the making of Federal policies and interfere with the administration of justice by attacking close relatives of those entrusted with these tasks." [4]

There are three elements of the offense of making an illegal threat: (i) there must be a transmission in interstate commerce; (ii) there must be a communication containing the threat; (iii) and the threat must be a threat to injure the person of another. [5] Threats can also sometimes be punished under the statutes criminalizing assaulting, resisting, or impeding certain United States Government officers or employees [6] or assassinating, kidnapping, and assaulting government officials of the United States.

United States Sentencing Guidelines take a number of factors into consideration in determining the recommended penalty, including evidence of the person's intent to carry out the threat; disruption to the government function; and the possibility of inciting others to violence. [7] There is also a 6-level official victim enhancement, which makes the recommended penalty, per the sentencing table, approximately double that which would apply if an ordinary citizen were the victim. [8] There can be many motives for making threats, including political motives or a desire to frame someone else for making the threat. [9] The person's intent can greatly affect the sentence.

In determining what constitutes a true threat, the courts hold that what must be proved is that a reasonable recipient of the communication would consider it a threat under the circumstances. Thus, a statement to a judge that "You and your family are going to die" would be regarded as a true threat, even if the defendant claimed that he meant it as a literal, biological truth. [10] If a threat is made to multiple individuals, it may be considered to be outside of the guidelines heartland, and therefore to warrant an enhancement. [11]

Incidents

Presidents

The Secret Service prefers not to publicize incidents of Presidential assassination threats, because it believes that it will generate more criminal behavior, especially among the mentally ill. [12] Reports have circulated in the British press that Barack Obama received four times as many threats as his predecessor, [13] a claim that Secret Service Director Mark Sullivan denies. [14] Historically, prosecutions for presidential assassination threats have risen during periods of national crisis, such as the World Wars and the Vietnam War era. [15] New communication technologies such as Facebook, [16] [17] MySpace, [18] and Twitter [19] have become vectors for investigated alleged threats against the President. After the 2016 Presidential election mashable.com reported 12,000 calls for President Donald Trump's assassination in Twitter. [20]

Legislators

There have been comparatively few physical assaults on Members of Congress. On May 22, 1856, Senator Charles Sumner was savagely beaten down to the floor of the Senate chamber with a gold-knobbed cane by Representative Preston Brooks after Sumner delivered a fiery oration against slavery. [21] In 1954, four Puerto Rican nationalists opened fire on the House chamber, wounding five Members of Congress. [22] In 1978, Representative Leo Ryan was shot and killed in Jonestown, Guyana, becoming the only member of Congress to lose his life in the line of duty. [23] Representative Gabby Giffords was shot and severely injured in January 2011 outside a supermarket where she met with constituents. [24] Representative Steve Scalise was gravely wounded in 2017 when he was shot by a former volunteer for Bernie Sanders's 2016 Presidential campaign. [25] Senator Rand Paul suffered several rib fractures and developed pneumonia after a November 2017 attack by a neighbor over a dispute over lawn care. [26]

A data analysis by the Prosecution Project for the Monitor found that since the 1990s, the majority of felony prosecutions involved death threats by right-wing extremists against Democratic politicians. A similar analysis in 2018 that included felony and misdemeanor prosecutions – a larger data set – also found that Democrats were far more likely to be targeted.

By contrast, the recent wave of indictments shows that pro-Trump individuals may be as likely to level death threats against Republicans as Democrats. No similar pattern has emerged on the political left.  

Threats and intimidation directed against Members of Congress are more common than physical assaults. A prominent example was the burning of a cross, an intimidation tactic of the Ku Klux Klan, on House Speaker Sam Rayburn's front lawn in Texas during debate on civil rights legislation in the 1960s. [22] The United States Capital Police investigates threats against Members of Congress and reports to the chair and Ranking Member of the Committee on House Administration and/or the United States Senate Committee on Rules and Administration.

Social media have been used to publish threats and intimidating messages. Threats have been made through YouTube videos [27] and Twitter (which hosted direct threats of violence against Members of Congress such as Representative Bob Goodlatte, and Senators Roy Blunt and John Hoeven). Concern has been voiced in the press over Twitter's failure in some cases to promptly remove threats made against Members of Congress. Kyler Schmitz's threats to shoot Senator Roy Blunt remained on Twitter after Schmitz had been arrested for illegally using interstate communications to make the threat. [28] Christopher Michael McGowan was arrested in April 2018 for a series of Tweets threatening Representative Goodlatte and other lawmakers made from January to April 2018. [29] Twitter's stated policy on "Violent threats and glorification of violence" says "You may not make specific threats of violence or wish for the serious physical harm, death, or disease of an individual or group of people". [30]

2010 legislation for health care reform in the United States saw an increased number of threatening communications and actions directed at legislators. Several Members of Congress received threatening messages. Representative Eric Cantor received a threat from Norman Leboon, a donor to Barack Obama who had produced more than 2,000 threatening YouTube videos; [31] the Democratic Party said that it would donate the funds to charity. [32] Other lawmakers' windows were broken with bricks and other objects. [33]

House Minority Leader John Boehner stated, "Violence and threats are unacceptable. Yes, I know there is anger, but let's take that anger, and go out and register people to vote, go volunteer on a political campaign, and let's do it the right way." [34] Rep. Cantor, who received a bullet through his campaign office window, stated, "Security threats against members of Congress are not a partisan issue, and they should never be treated that way. To use such threats as political weapons is reprehensible." [35] He accused Representative Chris Van Hollen of "dangerously fanning the flames by suggesting that these incidents be used as a political weapon." [36] A spokesman for the Southern Poverty Law Center remarked, "I think it is astounding that we are seeing this wave of vigilantism." [37]

After the 2016 Presidential election, personal attacks gained a more prominent place in dialogue between the President and legislators from both major US parties, with at least one Member of Congress advocating harassment of other Federal officials outside of work. In June 2018, Representative Maxine Waters, speaking at an outdoor rally said, "If you see anybody from that (Trump) Cabinet in a restaurant, in a department store, at a gasoline station, you get out and you create a crowd and you push back on them, and you tell them they're not welcome anymore, anywhere." [38]

In July 2018, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell was confronted with shouted personal insults and the threat "we know where you live" by a crowd of protesters; earlier, McConnell and his wife Elaine Chao were subjected to verbal abuse by a crowd as they left an event at Georgetown University. [39] According to National Public Radio, at least three Trump administration officials — Secretary of Homeland Security Kirstjen Nielsen, Trump adviser Stephen Miller and White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders, along with her family — have been forced out by vocal protesters from restaurants or denied service. [38]

Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer and House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi denounced the tactic of harassing their political enemies. Both Schumer and Pelosi referred to President Trump's personal attacks on political opponents on Twitter while disavowing the tactics of Rep. Maxine Waters. [38]

During Senate confirmation hearings on Brett Kavanaugh's appointment to the US Supreme Court, Senator Ted Cruz's Houston campaign office received an envelope containing white powder just after two envelopes containing the poison ricin were mailed to US Secretary of Defense James Mattis and the Chief of Naval Operations. [40] Sen. Cruz and his wife also had to leave their table at a Washington restaurant when protesters shouted them down at their table. [41]

According to Newsweek , Senator Susan Collins's office received "threatening, profanity-laced phone calls and letters, telling her to vote against the confirmation of Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court". One caller told a young woman working for Collins that he hoped she would be raped and impregnated, according to a voicemail provided to the New York Times by Collins's spokeswoman. [42]

In 2020, Twitter announced that any posts wishing for Trump's death from coronavirus would be removed for violating the platform's terms of service. Democratic congresswomen Rashida Tlaib, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Ilhan Omar, and Ayanna Pressley criticized Twitter for not taking threats against them seriously, pointing out posts calling for their deaths that had been allowed to remain on the site. [43]

Doxing of legislators also occurs. Jackson A. Cosko, a member of Representative Sheila Jackson Lee's staff, was arrested by US Capitol Police in October 2018, charged with public restricted information, unauthorized access of a government computer, burglary, threatening Federal officials and other crimes. [44] According to a Federal arrest warrant filed by Capitol Police, Cosko threatened an aide of Senator Maggie Hassan who found him using a computer in Sen. Hassan's office, then ordered him to leave in an E-mail. Mr. Cosko posted confidential personal information such as home and office addresses and home telephone numbers of five US senators, including Senate Judiciary Committee members Lindsey Graham, Mike Lee and Orrin Hatch, to their Wikipedia articles. [45] In April 2019 Cosko pleaded guilty to two counts of Making Public Restricted Personal Information, one count of Computer Fraud, one count of Witness Tampering, and one count of Obstruction of Justice, in exchange for an agreement by the prosecutors to drop other applicable charges. On June 19, 2019, Cosko was sentenced to 4 years in Federal prison. [46]

Cyberstalking of legislators is a related problem. Juan McCullum, a former member of Congressional delegate Stacey Plaskett and Representative Frederica Wilson's staffs was charged in July 2017 with illegally obtaining private nude photographs of Delegate Plaskett and videos of her family from Ms. Plaskett's iPhone while he worked for her, then using an Internet account under an assumed name to distribute the photos and encourage other Internet users to share them online. [47]

Judges and prosecutors

Threats against federal judges can include threats of vigilantism. For instance, in 2004, gun-rights activist, Denver businessman and former Libertarian candidate for U.S. Senate Rick Stanley was sentenced to six years of imprisonment for sending two judges, Thornton Municipal Judge Charles J. Rose and 17th Judicial District Judge Donald W. Marshall, Jr., a "notice of order" demanding that they reverse his conviction for a weapons violation or face arrest by Stanley's Mutual Defense Pact Militia and a trial for treason. Stanley was also ordered to pay $8,250 restitution to police who worked overtime to protect the judges. [48]

Threats against federal judges and prosecutors have more than doubled in recent years, with threats against federal prosecutors rising from 116 to 250 from 2003 to 2008, [49] and threats against federal judges climbing from 500 to 1,278 in that same period, [50] [51] prompting hundreds to get 24-hour protection from armed U.S. marshals. The problem has become so pronounced that a threat management center has been opened in Crystal City, Arlington, Virginia, where a staff of about 25 marshals and analysts monitor a 24-hour number for reporting threats, use sophisticated mapping software to track those being threatened and tap into a classified database linked to the FBI and CIA. [52] In 2009, a radio host was indicted for, after criticizing three appellate judges of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit who affirmed a lower court decision to dismiss challenges to Chicago's handgun ban as "cunning, ruthless, untrustworthy, disloyal, unpatriotic, deceitful scum", allegedly saying, "Let me be the first to say this plainly: These judges deserve to be killed." [53] He also allegedly posted blog entries providing a photo and a map of the Dirksen Federal Building in Chicago, where the court is located, with arrows pointing to "anti-truck bomb barriers." [54] That case resulted in two hung juries. [55] The sending of white powder as part of a threatening communication has become common since the 2001 anthrax attacks. [56]

The making of these threats coincided with high-profile violence against federal officials in that same period, including Baltimore Assistant U.S. Attorney Jonathan Luna, who was stabbed 36 times with his own penknife and drowned in a creek, and Thomas C. Wales, an assistant U.S. attorney in Seattle gunned down at his home. Such incidents lead U.S. officials to take threats seriously. However, actual attacks on government officials are still rare in the U.S. relative to many countries with more unstable governments (e.g. so-called "banana republics" that frequently experience coups and assassinations) as evidenced by the fact that the most famous judge to be assassinated in recent times was John H. Wood, Jr. back in 1979. [57]

Case law records that many threats are made from prisoners dissatisfied with the handling of their own case or fellow inmates', or wanting to serve time in the federal system. [58] Often the penalties for making the threat are more serious than those imposed for the original offense. [59] Threats by inmates are taken seriously if the person has contacts on the outside who are capable of carrying out the threat. Federal officials attribute the rising threat rate to disgruntled defendants, terrorism and gang cases that bring more violent offenders into federal courts, frustration over the economic crisis and the rise of the "sovereign citizen" movement a loose collection of tax protesters, white supremacists and others who don't respect federal authority. [60]

Social media has become notable in threats against high-profile Federal judges. Several threats or encouragements of others to kill United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit judge Brett Kavanaugh or members of the Senate who supported confirmation of his appointment to the US Supreme Court were made on Twitter. Twitter formally forbids users to "make specific threats of violence or wish for the serious physical harm, death, or disease of an individual or group of people". [30] [61] [62]

Other civil servants

The Internal Revenue Service is frequently a target of threats. Examples include the case of U.S. v. Darby, in which the defendant told the IRS he was tired of their bullshit, asked how they would like to have a pipe bomb delivered to their place of employment, and said that he didn't eat his victims like Jeffrey Dahmer but just killed them by blowing them up; [63] David J. D'Addabbo, who sent a petition to IRS workers warning that they would be "tried by a jury and your penalty will be sought for it to be death by firing squad" and told the arresting agents to "watch your back"; [64] [65] and John Barker, who perpetrated an anthrax hoax against the IRS. According to the U.S. Treasury Department's Inspector General for Tax Administration, threats against the IRS have been rising in recent years, and in 2009 rose from 834 to 1,014 per year, [66] an increase of 21.5% over the prior year. [67] There have been incidents of actual violence against the IRS to take place as well, by people ramming cars into IRS offices, setting them on fire, and taking out hits on IRS employees, [68] although the 2010 Austin plane crash was one of the more high-profile incidents. According to a Cato Institute commentator, "this trend is likely to continue until there is a fundamental change in our tax laws and collection methods. People who do not have access to the media and cannot afford expensive tax lawyers sometimes reach such a level of frustration with the IRS that they resort to violent or irrational behavior." [69] There is a special statute, 26 U.S.C.   § 7212, that protects IRS employees from threats, which according to the U.S. Attorneys' Manual, "provides a particularly helpful alternative in cases where there is simply an offer of violence unaccompanied by the potential for imminent use of physical force." [70]

Federal law enforcement agencies are often the target of threats. Examples include Jeff Henry Williamson, who threatened to blow up FBI headquarters, CIA headquarters and the Justice Department; [71] and Micha Godfrey, who allegedly emailed medical cannabis websites threats against DEA agents and their families, and a search of whose house subsequently turned up four firearms, a bulletproof vest, and cannabis plants. [72] [73] Government agencies are sometimes the subject of blackmail attempts, as when an informer threatened to falsely accuse the FBI of knowing in advance that the World Trade Center would be bombed and of failing to stop it. [74]

Doxing is also used against law enforcement officers. During the controversy over full enforcement of immigration laws in the United States in June 2018, the activist Web site WikiLeaks published the identities of over 9,000 alleged current and former employees of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement gleaned from the LinkedIn Web site, with their places of employment and contact information. [75]

Enforcement

When the FBI receives threats over the Internet, it can use National Security Letters to obtain the real name, street address and Internet logs of the sender, and those who provide the information were forbidden by the PATRIOT Act from revealing the request to anyone, until the Doe v. Ashcroft case overturned that gag rule. [76] According to the federal investigators, political protesters who threaten elected officials or turn violent are easier for law enforcement officials to track due to their vocal and high-profile statements on the internet. For instance, Nigel Coleman posted the address of Rep. Tom Perriello online and invited people to "visit" the official at his home. The address was actually Perriello's brother Bo. A severed gas line at the home was discovered one day after the address was made public. [77] [78]

See also

Related Research Articles

Chuck Schumer American politician (born 1950)

Charles Ellis Schumer is an American politician serving as Senate Majority Leader since January 20, 2021. A member of the Democratic Party, Schumer is the senior United States senator from New York, a seat he has held since 1999. He is the dean of New York's congressional delegation.

John Cornyn American lawyer and politician (born 1952)

John Cornyn III is an American politician and attorney serving as the senior United States senator for Texas, a seat he has held since 2002. He was the Republican Senate majority whip for the 114th and 115th Congresses. Cornyn also previously served as chair of the National Republican Senatorial Committee from 2009 to 2013.

Debbie Stabenow American politician (born 1950)

Deborah Ann Stabenow is an American politician serving as the senior United States senator from Michigan, a seat she has held since 2001. A member of the Democratic Party, she became the state's first female U.S. senator after defeating Republican incumbent Spencer Abraham in the 2000 election. Before her election to the Senate, she was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, representing Michigan's 8th congressional district from 1997 to 2001. Previously she served on the Ingham County Board of Commissioners and in the Michigan State Legislature.

Susan Collins American politician (born 1952)

Susan Margaret Collins is an American politician serving as the senior United States senator from Maine. A member of the Republican Party, she has held her seat since 1997 and is Maine's longest-serving member of Congress.

Jeff Flake American diplomat and former United States senator from Arizona

Jeffry Lane Flake is an American politician and diplomat who is the current U.S Ambassador to Turkey. A member of the Republican Party, Flake served in the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013 and in the United States Senate from 2013 to 2019, representing Arizona. He was nominated by Democratic president Joe Biden and confirmed by the Senate for his ambassador post on October 26, 2021. He presented his credentials to Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan at the Presidential Complex of Republic of Turkey in Ankara on January 26, 2022.

Heidi Heitkamp Former United States Senator from North Dakota

Mary Kathryn Heitkamp is an American lobbyist, lawyer, and politician who served as a United States senator from North Dakota from 2013 to 2019. A member of the North Dakota Democratic–Nonpartisan League Party, she was the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate from North Dakota. Heitkamp served as the 28th North Dakota attorney general from 1992 to 2000 and 20th North Dakota tax commissioner from 1986 to 1992. As of 2022, she is the last Democrat to have represented North Dakota in Congress, and the last to hold statewide office.

Richard Burr American businessman and politician (born 1955)

Richard Mauze Burr is an American businessman and politician who is the senior United States senator from North Carolina, serving since 2005. A member of the Republican Party, Burr was previously a member of the United States House of Representatives. He is the dean of North Carolina's congressional delegation.

Abuse of power Unlawful use of powers in an official capacity

Abuse of power or abuse of authority, in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official abuse of power", is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties. Malfeasance in office is often a just cause for removal of an elected official by statute or recall election. Officials who abuse their power are often corrupt.

Dean Heller Former U.S. Senator from Nevada

Dean Arthur Heller is an American businessman and politician who served as a United States senator for Nevada from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Republican Party, he served as the 15th secretary of state of Nevada from 1995 to 2007 and U.S. representative for Nevada's 2nd congressional district from 2007 to 2011. He was appointed to the U.S. Senate by Governor Brian Sandoval and elected to a full term in the 2012 election. Heller unsuccessfully ran for a second term in 2018, losing to Democrat Jacky Rosen. He is a candidate for governor of Nevada in 2022.

Kevin Cramer American politician (born 1961)

Kevin John Cramer is an American politician who has served as the junior United States senator for North Dakota since 2019. A member of the Republican Party, he represented North Dakota's at-large congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 2013 to 2019.

Rod Rosenstein 37th U.S. Deputy Attorney General

Rod Jay Rosenstein is an American attorney who served as the 37th United States deputy attorney general from April 2017 until May 2019. Prior to his appointment, he served as a United States attorney for the District of Maryland. At the time of his confirmation as deputy attorney general in April 2017, he was the longest-serving U.S. attorney. Rosenstein had also been nominated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 2007, but his nomination was never considered by the U.S. Senate.

Brett Kavanaugh U.S. Supreme Court justice since 2018

Brett Michael Kavanaugh is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was nominated by President Donald Trump on July 9, 2018, and has served since October 6, 2018. He was previously a United States circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and worked as a staff lawyer for various offices of the federal government.

James E. Boasberg American judge

James Emanuel Boasberg is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. He served as the Presiding Judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court from 2020 to 2021 and is a former associate judge on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia.

Doxing or doxxing is the act of publicly revealing previously private personal information about an individual or organization, usually via the Internet. Methods employed to acquire such information include searching publicly available databases and social media websites, hacking, social engineering and, through websites such as Grabify, a site specialized in revealing IP addresses through a fake link. Doxing may be carried out for reasons such as online shaming, extortion, and vigilante aid to law enforcement. It also may be associated with hacktivism.

CongressEdits (@congressedits) was an automated Twitter bot account created in July 2014 that tweeted changes to Wikipedia articles that originated from IP addresses within the ranges assigned to the United States Congress. The changes could have been made by anyone using a computer on the U.S. Capitol complex's computer network, including both staff of U.S. elected representatives and senators as well as visitors such as journalists, constituents, tourists, and lobbyists. Previous to this, the best information about what congressional staff were editing was found in the articles "United States Congressional staff edits to Wikipedia" and "Wikipedia:Congressional staffer edits", which are manually updated. CongressEdits has been called a watchdog by NBC News.

2018 United States Senate election in Nevada

The 2018 United States Senate election in Nevada took place November 6, 2018, to elect one of two U.S. senators from Nevada. Democratic nominee Jacky Rosen defeated Republican incumbent Dean Heller.

President Donald Trump entered office with a significant number of judicial vacancies, including a Supreme Court vacancy due to the death of Antonin Scalia in February 2016. During the first eight months of his presidency, he nominated approximately 50 judges, a significantly higher number than any other recent president had made by that point in his presidency. By June 24, 2020, 200 of his Article III nominees had been confirmed by the United States Senate. According to multiple media outlets, Trump significantly impacted the composition of the Supreme Court and lower courts during his tenure.

Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court nomination United States Supreme Court nomination

On July 9, 2018, President Donald Trump nominated Brett Kavanaugh for Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to succeed retiring Justice Anthony Kennedy. When nominated, Kavanaugh was a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, a position he was appointed to in 2006 by President George W. Bush.

October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts Series of mail bombing attempts to high profile figures in the United States

From October 22 to November 1, 2018, sixteen packages found to contain pipe bombs were mailed via the U.S. Postal Service to several Democratic Party politicians and other prominent critics of U.S. President Donald Trump. Targets included former U.S. President Barack Obama, former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

Timeline of investigations into Donald Trump and Russia (July–December 2018)

This is a timeline of major events in second half of 2018 related to the investigations into links between associates of Donald Trump and Russian officials that are suspected of being inappropriate, relating to the Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. It follows the timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections before and after July 2016 up until election day November 8, and the transition, the first and second halves of 2017, and the first half of 2018, but precedes that of the first and second halves of 2019, 2020, and 2021. These events are related to, but distinct from, Russian interference in the 2018 United States elections.

References

  1. "18 U.S. Code § 3559 - Sentencing classification of offenses". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2019-09-12.
  2. 18 U.S.C.   § 2332b(a)(2)
  3. 18 U.S.C.   § 1503
  4. "UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee,v.James Edward GRAY, Defendant-Appellant.; No. 86-3085.; United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit". bulk.resource.org. February 3, 1987. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  5. United States v. DeAndino,958F.2d146(US Ct. App. 6th Cir.1992).
  6. United States v. Heliczer,373F. 2d241(Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit1967).
  7. U.S.S.G. §2A6.1, archived from the original on 2010-06-18
  8. U.S.S.G. §3A1.2, archived from the original on 2010-06-18
  9. Howard Pankratz & Joey Bunch (March 2, 2010), "Community College of Aurora librarian charged in mail threats", The Denver Post
  10. United States v. Teague, F3d1310 (10th Cir.2006).
  11. United States of America, Appellee, v. Samuel Adelman, Defendant-appellant, F.3d84 (Feb 19, 1999).
  12. "9-65.140 Publicity Concerning Threats Against Government Officials", U.S. Attorneys' Manual, 19 February 2015
  13. Harnden, Toby (3 Aug 2009), "Barack Obama faces 30 death threats a day, stretching US Secret Service", The Telegraph, London, archived from the original on 5 August 2009
  14. Secret Service Director: Threats Against Obama Not Up, December 3, 2009, archived from the original on December 7, 2009
  15. Comment, Threatening the President: Protected Dissenter or Potential Assassin, 57 Geo. L.J. 553 (1969)
  16. Secret Service Probing Obama Assassination Poll on Facebook, Fox News, September 29, 2009
  17. Charlie Spiering (Sep 29, 2009), "Should Facebook remove groups that want to kill George W. Bush?", Washington Examiner[ permanent dead link ]
  18. Teen Questioned Over Online Threats Against President Bush, Fox News, October 14, 2006
  19. Goldman, Russell & Ryan, Jason (March 22, 2010), Health Care Bill Spurs Assassination Calls on Twitter, ABC News
  20. Lekach, Sasha (2 February 2017). "Over 12,000 tweets are calling for Trump's assassination. Here's how the Secret Service handles it". Mashable. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  21. "U.S. Senate: The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  22. 1 2 Kellman, Laurie & Abrams, Jim (March 26, 2010), Congress members reveal more details about threats, Associated Press
  23. United States House of Representatives; Foreign Affairs Committee (May 15, 1979). Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee report on Ryan's assassination. Report of a Staff Investigative Group to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. United States Congress.
  24. Herszenhorn, Marc Lacey and David M. (8 January 2011). "Representative Gabrielle Giffords and 18 Shot Near Tucson". The New York Times . Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  25. Shear, Michael D. (14 June 2017). "Congressman Steve Scalise Gravely Wounded in Alexandria Baseball Field Ambush". The New York Times . Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  26. Jacobs, Julia (15 June 2018). "Rand Paul's Neighbor Is Sentenced to 30 Days in Prison After Attack". The New York Times . Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  27. Sherman, Jake (April 7, 2010), "Man arrested for Nancy Pelosi threats", Politico
  28. Swanson, Ian (2016-06-28). "Death threats against senators remained on Twitter for 2 weeks". TheHill. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  29. Chia, Jessica. "Virginia man arrested for making repeated threats against Republican congressman - NY Daily News". nydailynews.com. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  30. 1 2 "Violent threats and glorification of violence" . Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  31. "Man accused of making threats against Cantor". CNN. March 29, 2010.
  32. O'Brien, Michael (2010-03-29). "DNC will give Cantor threat suspect's donations to charity - The Hill's Blog Briefing Room". Thehill.com. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  33. FBI Probes Threats Directed at House Democrats, Fox News, March 24, 2010
  34. Bendavid, Naftali & Johnson, Fawn (March 26, 2010), "Parties Exchange Barbs Over Threat Reports", Wall Street Journal
  35. Kelley, Matt (2010-03-25), "House leaders decry threats, dish out blame", USA Today
  36. Pergram, Chad (2010-03-27), Words Have Power, Fox News, archived from the original on 2010-03-31, retrieved 2010-03-28
  37. Pettus, Emily Wagster (2010-03-25), Dems deal with threats over health care support, Associated Press
  38. 1 2 3 Davis, Susan (25 June 2018). "Congressional Leaders Criticize Maxine Waters For Urging Confrontation". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  39. Cole, Devan (9 July 2018). "McConnell chased from KY restaurant by protesters". CNN. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  40. "White powder mailed to Ted Cruz's office". New York Post. 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  41. Cole, Devan (25 September 2018). "Ted Cruz forced from restaurant amid Kavanaugh drama". CNN. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  42. "Staffers of Maine GOP Senator Susan Collins are receiving threatening and vulgar calls over Brett Kavanaugh". Newsweek. 2018-09-12. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  43. O'Sullivan, Donie; Elassar, Alaa (October 3, 2020). "Twitter bans posts wishing for Trump death. The Squad wonders where that policy was for them". Archived from the original on October 4, 2020. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  44. "Sheila Jackson Lee intern accused of 'doxing' GOP senators in Kavanaugh battle". HoustonChronicle.com. 2018-10-04. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  45. "Democratic ex-staffer contests charges he posted personal data on GOP senators, threatened witness in doxing". Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  46. Naham, Matt (2019-08-05). "'Angry' Ex-Dem Staffer Who Doxed GOP Senators During Brett Kavanaugh Hearings Is Going to Prison". lawandcrime.com. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  47. "Two former staffers charged in cyberstalking of U.S. House member, husband" . Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  48. Julie Poppen (September 11, 2004), "Six-year prison term for gun-rights activist: Threats to judges called 'an assault' on justice system", Rocky Mountain News
  49. Andrew Ramonas (January 4, 2010), Threats Against Federal Prosecutors Increased During 2000s, Main Justice, archived from the original on 2011-07-17, retrieved 2010-03-26
  50. Threats against federal judges increase, UPI, May 29, 2009
  51. "Threats against federal judges, prosecutors are up", USA Today, January 4, 2010
  52. Markon, Jerry (May 25, 2009), "Threats to Judges, Prosecutors Soaring", The Washington Post
  53. "Radio host denies threatening federal judges", Chicago Tribune, July 28, 2009
  54. Lynne Marek (November 24, 2009), "Trial Over Death Threats Against Federal Judges Could Test Free Speech Rules Online", National Law Journal
  55. Erin Geiger Smith (Mar 11, 2010), "Mistrial Number 2 For Blogger Accused Of Threatening Federal Judges", Business Insider Law Review
  56. Man sentenced for threatening Neb. federal judge, Associated Press, March 22, 2010[ permanent dead link ]
  57. Torsten Ove (December 14, 2003), "Threats part of landscape for prosecutors", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
  58. "Missouri man to prison for threatening judge", Lincoln Journal Star, March 22, 2010
  59. Man Sentenced for Threatening Federal Officials in Arizona (PDF), U.S. Department of Justice, June 16, 2009, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-05-28, retrieved 2010-03-26
  60. Jerry Markon (June 11, 2009), "Guarding the Halls of Justice Against an Escalating Threat", Washington Post
  61. "Rosemount teacher suspended for Brett Kavanaugh threat tweet". Bring Me The News. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  62. "Kavanaugh supporters should be castrated, D.C. professor wrote. Twitter shut her down". miamiherald. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  63. United States v. Darby ,37F.3d1059(4th Cir.October 21, 1994).
  64. Geoffrey Fattah (August 15, 2006), "Man admits threatening IRS", Deseret News, Salt Lake City
  65. Winslow, Ben (March 21, 2006), "Cache County man charged with threatening IRS workers", Deseret News, Salt Lake City
  66. Vaughan, Martin (February 21, 2010), "Threats Against IRS Employees on the Rise, Official Says", The Wall Street Journal
  67. Marcus Baram (March 1, 2010), "Threats Against IRS Employees On The Rise, Increased 21 Percent From 2008 To 2009", Huffington Post
  68. "Threats against IRS workers continue", The Washington Post, March 13, 2010
  69. Rahn, Richard W. (April 6, 2010), Morality and the IRS, The Cato Institute
  70. "1572. Assaults Upon Internal Revenue Service Personnel". 19 February 2015.
  71. Houston jury convicts man of threatening FBI, CIA, Associated Press, March 10, 2010
  72. Allan Lengel (2010-03-15), Calif. Man Under Investigation for Threatening Lives of DEA Agents and Families Arrested, TickleTheWire.com
  73. Calif. man investigated over alleged DEA threats, KansasCity.com, Associated Press, March 3, 2013
  74. Fried, Joseph P. (April 7, 1995), "Informer in Terrorism Trial Admits Threatening F.B.I.", The New York Times
  75. "WikiLeaks publishes identities and information about ICE employees amid intensifying anger". Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  76. Richard Willing (July 6, 2006), "With only a letter, FBI can gather private data", USA Today
  77. McCabe, Virginia (March 26, 2010), "Tea Party makes tracking political criminals easier for law enforcement", FBI Examiner
  78. Domenico Montanaro (March 24, 2010), FBI Looks into Gas Line Cut, MSNBC, archived from the original on March 29, 2010