Timeline of the Spanish–American War

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Spanish–American War
Part of the Philippine Revolution and the Cuban War of Independence
The sunken USS Maine in Havana Harbor in February 1898
DateApril 25, 1898 – August 12, 1898
(3 months, 2 weeks and 4 days)
Cuba and Puerto Rico (Caribbean)
Philippines and Guam (Asia-Pacific)

Treaty of Paris

Spain relinquishes sovereignty over Cuba to U.S.; cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to U.S.; cedes Philippine Islands to U.S. for $20 million

Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg United States
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba [lower-alpha 1]
Flag of the Philippines (1898-1901).svg Revolutionary Government of the Philippines [lower-alpha 2]


Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Spain

Commanders and leaders
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg William McKinley
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg Nelson A. Miles
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg Theodore Roosevelt
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg William R. Shafter
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg George Dewey
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg William Sampson
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg Wesley Merritt
Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg Joseph Wheeler
Flag of the Philippines (1898-1901).svg Emilio Aguinaldo
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Maria Christina
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Práxedes Sagasta
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Patricio Montojo
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Pascual Cervera
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Arsenio Linares
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Manuel Macías
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Ramón Blanco
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Valeriano Weyler
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg José Toral
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Fermín Jáudenes

Cuban Republic:

30,000 irregulars [1]

United States:

300,000 regulars and volunteers [2]

Spanish Army:

278,447 regulars and militia [3] (Cuba),
10,005 regulars and militia [3] (Puerto Rico),
51,331 regulars and militia [3] (Philippines)
Casualties and losses

Cuban Republic:

10,665 dead [3]

United States: [4]

2,910 dead
345 from combat
Army: 280
Navy: 16
Other: 49
2,565 from disease
1,577 wounded
Army: 1,509
Navy: 68

Spanish Navy :

560 dead,
300–400 wounded [4]

Spanish Army :

3,000 dead or wounded
6,700 captured, [5] (Philippines)
13,000 diseased [3] (Cuba)
10,000 dead from combat [6]
50,000 dead from disease [6]

The timeline of events of the Spanish–American War covers major events leading up to, during, and concluding the Spanish–American War, a ten-week conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States of America.

The conflict had its roots in the worsening socio-economic and military position of Spain after the Peninsular War, the growing confidence of the United States as a world power, a lengthy independence movement in Cuba and a nascent one in the Philippines, and strengthening economic ties between Cuba and the United States. [7] [8] [9] Land warfare occurred primarily in Cuba and to a much lesser extent in the Philippines. Little or no fighting occurred in Guam, Puerto Rico, or other areas. [10]

Although largely forgotten in the United States today, [11] the Spanish–American War was a formative event in American history. The destruction of the USS Maine, yellow journalism, the war slogan "Remember the Maine!", and the charge up San Juan Hill are all iconic symbols of the war. [12] [13] [14] [15] The war marked the first time since the American Civil War that Americans from the North and the South fought a common enemy, and the war marked the end of strong sectional feeling and the "healing" of the wounds of that war. [16] The Spanish–American War catapulted Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency, [17] marked the beginning of the modern United States Army, [18] and led to the first establishment of American colonies overseas. [19]

The war proved seminal for Spain as well. The loss of Cuba, which was seen not as a colony but as part of Spain itself, [20] was traumatic for the Spanish government and Spanish people. This trauma led to the rise of the Generation of '98, a group of young intellectuals, authors, and artists who were deeply critical of what they perceived as conformism and ignorance on the part of the Spanish people. They successfully called for a new "Spanish national spirit" that was politically active, anti-authoritarian, and generally anti-imperialistic and anti-military. [21] The war also greatly benefited Spain economically. No longer spending large sums to maintain its colonies, significant amounts of capital were suddenly repatriated for use domestically. [22] This sudden and massive influx of capital led to the development for the first time of large, modern industries in banking, chemicals, electrical power generation, manufacturing, ship building, steel, and textiles. [23] [24]

The war led to independence for Cuba within a few years. [25] The United States imposed a colonial government on the Philippines, quashing the young Philippine Republic. This led directly to the Philippine–American War, [26] a brutal guerilla conflict that caused the deaths of about 4,100 Americans and 12,000 to 20,000 Filipino guerilla and regular troops. [27] [28] [29] Another 200,000 to 1,500,000 Filipino civilian deaths occurred. [29] [30] [31] However, the conflict brought William Howard Taft to the attention of President Theodore Roosevelt, and led to Taft's ascension to the U.S. presidency in 1908. [32] The American presence in the Philippines still existed at the beginning of World War II. Along with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the American experience in the Philippines at the start of the war (the Philippines Campaign, the Bataan Death March, the Battle of Corregidor) became another formative episode in the American experience [33] [34] and rehabilitated the career of General Douglas MacArthur. [35] [36] [37] [38]









Yellow journalism, like these headlines about the destruction of the USS Maine in the New York Journal, worsened war hysteria in the U.S. and helped cause the Spanish-American War. Journal98.gif
Yellow journalism, like these headlines about the destruction of the USS Maine in the New York Journal, worsened war hysteria in the U.S. and helped cause the Spanish–American War.




1898 color lithograph depicting the Battle of Manila Bay USS Olympia art NH 91881-KN.jpg
1898 color lithograph depicting the Battle of Manila Bay


Emilio Aguinaldo in 1898 Aguinaldo.jpg
Emilio Aguinaldo in 1898


Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill by Frederic Remington Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill.JPG
Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill by Frederic Remington
Somewhat fictional depiction of the beginning of the naval Battle of Santiago de Cuba. Battle of Santiago Bay - 1898-07-03.jpg
Somewhat fictional depiction of the beginning of the naval Battle of Santiago de Cuba.


The American flag is raised over Fort Santiago after the surrender of Manila on August 13. American troops raising the Flag at Fort San Antonio De Abad, Malate, Philippines (1899).jpg
The American flag is raised over Fort Santiago after the surrender of Manila on August 13.



U.S. Secretary of State John Hay signs the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. John Hay signs Treaty of Paris, 1899.JPG
U.S. Secretary of State John Hay signs the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898.




See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Paris (1898)</span> Treaty ending the Spanish–American War

The Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain, commonly known as the Treaty of Paris of 1898, was signed by Spain and the United States on December 10, 1898, that ended the Spanish–American War. Under it, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to territories described there as the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones, the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within the following line:, to the United States. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the United States to Spain.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Puerto Rico campaign</span> Military campaign of the Spanish–American War

The Puerto Rico campaign was the American military sea and land operation on the island of Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War. The offensive began on May 12, 1898, when the United States Navy attacked the capital, San Juan. Though the damage inflicted on the city was minimal, the Americans were able to establish a blockade in the city's harbor, San Juan Bay. On June 22, the cruiser Isabel II and the destroyer Terror delivered a Spanish counterattack, but were unable to break the blockade and Terror was damaged.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Manila (1898)</span> Part of the Spanish-American War

The Battle of Manila, sometimes called the Mock Battle of Manila, was a land engagement which took place in Manila on August 13, 1898, at the end of the Spanish–American War, four months after the decisive victory by Commodore Dewey's Asiatic Squadron at the Battle of Manila Bay. The belligerents were Spanish forces led by Governor-General of the Philippines Fermín Jáudenes, and American forces led by United States Army Major General Wesley Merritt and United States Navy Commodore George Dewey. American forces were supported by units of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Segismundo Bermejo y Merelo</span>

Admiral Segismundo Bermejo y Merelo was a Spanish naval officer who served as chief of staff in the Spanish Navy and Minister of the Navy during the Spanish–American War. He was most notable for his role in dispatching Rear Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete, in command of a squadron of four cruisers and three destroyers, to Cuba in May 1898. It set up the conditions for the naval Battle of Santiago de Cuba. Bermejo himself was forced to resign as naval minister after the defeat of the Spanish Pacific Squadron at the Battle of Manila Bay by the U.S. Navy, and he died a year later.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of the Aguadores</span>

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  1. Unrecognized as a participant by the primary belligerents.
  2. Unrecognized as a participant by the primary belligerents.
  3. The United States was informally allied with Katipunan forces under Emilio Aguinaldo from the time of Aguinaldo's return to Manila on May 19, 1898, until those forces were absorbed into the dictatorial government proclaimed by Aguinaldo on May 24, 1898. These forces became part of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines on June 12, 1898. The revolutionary government was informally allied with the United States until the end of the Spanish–American War.
  4. Accurate information for both the number of crew and dead are difficult vary widely.
  5. The act also permitted the government to float up to $100 million in war bonds with a maturity of less than a year. This proves "a turning point" in the federal government's ability to create flexible financial instruments critical to maintaining the credit of the United States. [109]
  6. The estate tax was not the first estate tax enacted in the history of the United States, but its graduated nature made it the precursor to the modern federal estate tax. The 1898 estate tax was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in Knowlton v. Moore , 178 U.S. 41 (1900). [110]
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