Temporal range: Early Permian,
|Genus:||† Timonya |
Cisneros et al., 2015
Timonya is an extinct genus of temnospondyl amphibian represented by the type species Timonya anneae from the Early Permian of Brazil. Timonya is a basal member of a clade or evolutionary grouping of temnospondyls called Dvinosauria. It was named in 2015 on the basis of several specimens from the lower part of the Pedra de Fogo Formation in Parnaíba Basin, which is about 278 million years old. It was likely a small aquatic predator that inhabited lakes and wetland areas. During the Early Permian the center of tetrapod diversity was in the equatorial regions of the supercontinent Pangea, and Timonya was part of this fauna.
Dissorophidae is an extinct family of medium-sized, temnospondyl amphibians that flourished during the late Carboniferous and early Permian periods. The clade is known almost exclusively from North America.
Temnospondyli is a diverse order of small to giant tetrapods—often considered primitive amphibians—that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods. A few species continued into the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Fossils have been found on every continent. During about 210 million years of evolutionary history, they adapted to a wide range of habitats, including freshwater, terrestrial, and even coastal marine environments. Their life history is well understood, with fossils known from the larval stage, metamorphosis, and maturity. Most temnospondyls were semiaquatic, although some were almost fully terrestrial, returning to the water only to breed. These temnospondyls were some of the first vertebrates fully adapted to life on land. Although temnospondyls are considered amphibians, many had characteristics, such as scales and armour-like bony plates, that distinguish them from modern amphibians (lissamphibians).
The Stereospondyli are a group of extinct temnospondyl amphibians that existed primarily during the Mesozoic period. They are known from all seven continents and were common components of many Triassic ecosystems, likely filling a similar ecological niche to modern crocodilians prior to the diversification of pseudosuchian archosaurs.
Archegosaurus is a genus of temnospondyl amphibian which lived during the Asselian to Wuchiapingian stages of the Permian, around 299-253 million years ago. The remains of this animal, consisting of at least 90 partial skeletons, have been found in Germany. The name Archegosaurus was coined by Goldfuss in 1847. Archegosaurus is a member of Archegosauridae and is that family's type genus.
Prionosuchus is an extinct genus of large temnospondyl. A single species, P. plummeri, is recognized from the Early Permian. Its fossils have been found in what is now northeastern Brazil.
Capetus is an extinct genus of temnospondyl from the Upper Carboniferous of the Czech Republic. It reached a length of 150 cm.
Saharastega is an extinct genus of basal temnospondyl which lived during the Late Permian period, around 251 to 260 million years ago. Remains of Saharastega, discovered by paleontologist Christian A. Sidor at the Moradi Formation in Niger, were described briefly in 2005 and more comprehensively in 2006. The description is based on a skull lacking the lower jaws.
Konzhukovia is an amphibian genus that belongs to an extinct group of temnospondyls, the largest clade of basal tetrapods including about 198 genera, 292 species, and more than half of which were alive during the early Mesozoic period. The animal was a predator that lived about 260 million years ago, and could get up to about three meters in length. Specifically, Konzukovia lived during the Permian, between 252 and 270 million years ago according to the type of rock the fossil was found in. There are three species within this genus, K. vetusta, K. tarda, and K. sangabrielensis, the first two originating from Russia while the latest originating from Southern Brazil. The discovery of this specimen in Southern Brazil provided more evidence to support the idea that during this animals existence, there was a “biological corridor” because of the supercontinent Pangea, allowing these species to be found so far apart from each other. Konzhukovia belongs to the family Archegosauridae, a family consisted of large temnospondyls that most likely compare to modern day crocodiles. Since the discovery of the latest species, K. sangabrielensis, Pacheco proposes that there must be the creation of a new family, Konzhokoviidae, a monophyletic group in a sister-group relationship with Stereospondlyi in order to accommodate the three species. Konzhukovia skulls usually exhibit typical rhinesuchid features including an overall parabolic shape, small orbits located more posteriorly, and the pterygoids do not reach the vomer. These animals were long-snouted amphibians that had clear adaptations made for fish catching, as well as exemplifying aquatic features.
Benthosuchus is an extinct genus of temnospondyl amphibian from the Early Triassic of Russia. It was primarily aquatic, living in rivers and lakes. Multiple species are known, with the largest reaching about 2.5 meters in length.
Nigerpeton is a genus of temnospondyl amphibian which lived during the late Permian (Changhsingian) some 250 million years ago in Niger, in what was then central Pangaea. Specimens of Nigerpeton were first collected during field work in the Moradi Formation in 2000 and 2003. It is the youngest member of Cochleosauridae, a family of temnospondyls otherwise known from the late Carboniferous and early Permian of Europe and North America.
Trimerorhachidae is a family of dvinosaurian temnospondyls, including Trimerorhachis and Neldasaurus.
Rhineceps is an extinct genus of temnospondyl amphibian in the family Rhinesuchidae. Rhineceps was found in Northern Malawi in Southern Africa known only from its type species R. nyasaensis. Rhineceps was a late Permian semi-aquatic carnivore that lived in streams, rivers, lakes or lagoons. Rhineceps is an early divergent Stereopondyl within the family Rhinesuchidae, which only existed in the late Permian (Lopingian) and failed to survive the Permian-Triassic extinction unlike other stereospondyl families.
Tersomius is an extinct genus of dissorophoid temnospondyl within the family Micropholidae. It is known from the early Permian of North America.
The Amphibamidae are an extinct family of dissorophoid temnospondyls known from Late Carboniferous-Early Permian strata in the United States.
Olsoniformes is a clade of dissorophoid temnospondyls. It includes the families Dissorophidae and Trematopidae. Most members of the clade were highly adapted to a terrestrial lifestyle. The clade was named in 2008 and is defined as the least inclusive clade containing Dissorophus multicinctus and Acheloma cumminsi but not Amphibamus grandiceps, Micromelerpeton credneri, and Apateon pedestris. Olsoniforms share various features such as a stout and low ilium and a thin cultriform process.
Anakamacops is a genus of dissorophid temnospondyl from the early Middle Permian of China. It is known from the right side of a snout that was described in 1999 from the Dashankou locality of the Xidagou Formation, which is within the city of Yumen. The type species was named A. petrolicus because Yumen is an oil-producing city (petrol). More substantial material, including a partial skull and partial mandibles, was described by Liu (2018).
Arachana is an extinct genus of rhinesuchid-like temnospondyl known from the Early Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay. Arachana was first named by Graciela Piñeiro, Alejandro Ramos and Claudia Marsicano in 2012 and the type species is A. nigra. It shares characteristics with both rhinesuchids and lydekkerinids, making it a transitional form between basal and more advanced stereospondyls.
Edopoidea is a clade of primitive temnospondyl amphibians including the genus Edops and the family Cochleosauridae. Edopoids are known from the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian of North America and Europe, and the Late Permian of Africa. They are among the most basal temnospondyls, and possess a number of primitive features that were lost in later members of the group.
Bunostegos is an extinct genus of pareiasaur parareptile from the Late Permian of the Agadez Region in Niger. The type species, Bunostegos akokanensis, was named from the Moradi Formation in 2003. It was a cow-sized animal with a distinctive skull that had large bony knobs, similar in form to those of other pareiasaurs but far larger. The species appears to have lived in a desert in the centre of the supercontinent of Pangaea.
Procuhy is an extinct genus of dvinosaurian temnospondyl amphibian in the family Trimerorhachidae represented by the type species Procuhy nazariensis from the Early Permian of Brazil.