|Local date||25 January 1348|
|Areas affected||Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) |
|Max. intensity||X (Extreme)|
The 1348 Friuli earthquake, centered in the South Alpine region of Friuli, was felt across Europe on 25 January. The quake hit in the same year that the Great Plague ravaged Italy.According to contemporary sources, it caused considerable damage to structures; churches and houses collapsed, villages were destroyed and foul odors emanated from the earth.
The Friuli region is located in an area of complex geological structure where the WSW-ENE trending thrust belt of the Southern Alps overlaps with the NW-SE trending thrust belt of the Dinaric Alps as a result of the continuing convergence between the Adriatic and Eurasian Plates. It has been suggested that the 1348 event was a result of movement on part of the Periadriatic thrust.
This section needs additional citations for verification . (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The epicenter was located east of Tolmezzo, Venzone and Gemona, with a seismic intensity of eight to nine according to the European Macroseismic Scale (approximately measured 6.9 on the Richter scale). Most of the damage reported was in Northern Italy (including places as far away as Pisa and Naples), in the present-day Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, in the adjacent provinces of Belluno, Vicenza and Verona up to Lombardy and Venice, as well as in Carinthia and Carniola (in nowadays Slovenia) to the north and east. Aftershocks occurred until 5 March.
Striking in the early afternoon, the earthquake caused hundreds of casualties and destroyed numerous buildings. In Udine, the castle and the cathedral were severely damaged. In Carinthia, the town of Villach and numerous surrounding villages were largely destroyed by a major landslide followed by a flood of the Gail River.Even in Rome the earthquake allegedly took a toll: considerable damage was sustained by the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore; in the Torre delle Milizie, an upper floor crumbled, and the structure assumed the slight tilt it retains today. The sixth-century basilica of Santi Apostoli was so utterly ruined that it was left in an abandoned state for a generation.
The earthquake coincided with the beginning of the Black Death in Europe; in contemporary minds the two disasters were connected, as acts of God, but accepted as something both tremendous and unexpected, and yet which also belonged to daily life.The historian of medicine A. G. Carmichael observes, "The earthquake of 25 January 1348 is likely to have fuelled and focused specifically apocalyptical fears more than plague did." The only explicit reference to the earthquake as an omen of the end of the world comes in the chronicle of Giovanni Villani. Guglielmo Cortusi of Padua, as well as the bankers of Udine, saw it as a memento mori and a sign to repent, but not of imminent apocalypse. The earthquake figured in the diary of the German nun Christina Ebner, and was reported in numerous city and abbey chronicles, which have given modern historians opportunities of making the "Friuli event" one of the most thoroughly studied medieval earthquakes.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Friuli seismic regions .|
Villach is the seventh-largest city in Austria and the second-largest in the federal state of Carinthia. It is an important traffic junction for southern Austria and the whole Alpe-Adria region. As of January 2018, the population is 61,887.
Udine is a city and comune in north-eastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps. Its population was 100,514 in 2012, 176,000 with the urban area.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 600,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative provinces of Udine, Pordenone, and Gorizia, excluding Trieste.
Gail is the name of a river in southern Austria, the largest right tributary of the Drava.
Tarvisio is a comune in the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy.
The 2000 Baku earthquake occurred on November 25 at 22:09 local time with an epicenter just offshore Baku, Azerbaijan. It measured 6.8 on the moment magnitude scale and the maximum felt intensity was VII on the Mercalli intensity scale. It was followed three minutes later by a quake measuring 5.9. It was the strongest for almost 160 years, since 1842 in the Baku suburbs and in addition to the capital affected Sumgayit, Shamakhi and neighboring cities. According to the United States Geological Survey, the epicentre was in the Caspian Sea, 25 km to the south-southeast of Baku. The earthquake was felt as far away as e.g. Tbilisi, 600 km northwest of the epicentre, Makhachkala and the Karabudakh and Isberbas settlements in Dagestan.
Arnoldstein is a market town in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
The 2003 Colima earthquake occurred on 21 January with a moment magnitude of 7.5 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). The epicenter was located on the Pacific coast in the Mexican state of Colima. The earthquake was felt as far away as Mexico City and in southern parts of the United States.
The 1857 Basilicata earthquake occurred on December 16 in the Basilicata region of Italy southeast of the city of Naples. The epicentre was in Montemurro, on the western border of the modern province of Potenza. Several towns were destroyed, and estimated fatalities were around 10,000. At the time it was the third largest known earthquake, and has been estimated to have been of magnitude 7.0 on the moment magnitude scale.
The 1999 Chamoli earthquake occurred on 29 March in the Chamoli district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The earthquake was the strongest to hit the foothills of the Himalayas in more than ninety years. Approximately 103 people died in the earthquake.
The 2002 Denali earthquake occurred at 22:12:41 UTC November 3 with an epicenter 66 km ESE of Denali National Park, Alaska, United States. This 7.9 Mw earthquake was the largest recorded in the United States in 37 years. The shock was the strongest ever recorded in the interior of Alaska. Due to the remote location, there were no fatalities and only a few injuries.
The 1976 Friuli earthquake, also known in Italy as Terremoto del Friuli, took place on May 6 with a moment magnitude of 6.5 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock occurred in the Friuli region in northeast Italy near the town of Gemona del Friuli. 990 people were killed, up to about 3,000 were injured, and more than 157,000 were left homeless.
This list of 20th-century earthquakes is a global list of notable earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century. After 1900 most earthquakes have some degree of instrumental records and this means that the locations and magnitudes are more reliable than for earlier events. To prevent this list becoming unmanageable, only those of magnitude 6 and above are included unless they are notable for some other reason.
The Neulengbach earthquake of 1590 occurred on 15 September shortly before midnight amidst a long series of much weaker seismic activity starting on 29 June and with aftershocks reported until 12 November. It was the strongest historically documented earthquake in what today is Northeastern Austria.
The Patria del Friuli was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, the Republic of Venice acquired it, but it continued to be ruled for some time under its own laws and customs.
The 1968 Belice earthquake sequence took place in Sicily between 14 and 15 January. The largest shock measured 5.5 on the moment magnitude scale, with five others of magnitude 5+. The maximum perceived intensity was X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake sequence, centred between the towns of Gibellina, Salaparuta and Poggioreale, killed at least 231 people, possibly more than 400, with between 632 and about 1,000 injured and left 100,000 homeless. It is known in Italy as Terremoto del Belice.
The 1763 Komárom earthquake occurred in or near the town of Komárom in Komárom County in the Kingdom of Hungary on 28 June between 5 and 6 in the morning. The earthquake has been estimated at 6.2 to 6.5 on the moment magnitude scale.
The 1511 Idrija earthquake occurred on March 26 with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The epicenter was around the town of Idrija in present-day Slovenia, although some place it some 15-20 kilometers to the west, between Gemona and Pulfero in Friulian Slovenia. The earthquake affected a large territory between Carinthia, Friuli, present-day Slovenia and Croatia. An estimated twelve to fifteen thousand people were killed and damage was considered severe. The earthquake was felt as far as in Switzerland and present-day Slovakia. A number of castles and churches were razed to the ground in a large area from Northeastern Italy to western Croatia. Among the destroyed buildings were the castles of Udine and Škofja Loka, the monastery of the Teutonic Knights in Ljubljana; the Zagreb cathedral was severely damaged. Blaž Raškaj, commander of the Jajce fortess, in modern Bosnia, reported to the Hungarian Estates that the earthquake had severely damaged the fortifications.
Tarvisio–Udine railway is an Italian railway line that connects Udine and Tarvisio. It is also called the ferrovia Pontebbana in Italian after the town of Pontebba, which was located near the former border between Italy and Austria-Hungary during the first thirty years of its operation.