1988 Pacific typhoon season

Last updated
1988 Pacific typhoon season
1988 Pacific typhoon season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 7, 1988
Last system dissipatedDecember 27, 1988
Strongest storm
NameNelson
  Maximum winds185 km/h (115 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure915 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions52 official, 1 unofficial
Total storms31 official, 1 unofficial
Typhoons11
Super typhoons1 (unofficial)
Total fatalities>786
Total damage≥ $503.9 million (1988 USD)
Related articles
Pacific typhoon seasons
1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990

The 1988 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1988, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. [1] These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Tropical Storms formed in the entire west Pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Contents

A total of 26 tropical cyclones formed this year in the Western Pacific, of which all became tropical storms. Of the 26, 10 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 1 reached supertyphoon strength. Nine tropical cyclones moved through the Philippines this season, making this season the most active for the archipelago so far this decade.

Seasonal summary

Typhoon SkipTropical Storm Tess (1998)Typhoon Ruby (1998)Hurricane UlekiTyphoon WarrenTyphoon Roy1988 Pacific typhoon season

A total of 26 tropical cyclones formed this year in the Western Pacific, of which all became tropical storms. Of the 26, 10 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 1 reached supertyphoon strength. Nine tropical cyclones moved through the Philippines this season.

Systems

Typhoon Roy (Asiang)

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Roy Jan 12 1988 0600Z.png   Roy 1988 track.png
DurationJanuary 7 – January 19
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  940  hPa  (mbar)

Typhoon Roy, which crossed the open Western Pacific as a Category 4 typhoon in January, caused moderate to extensive damage across the Federated States of Micronesia and the Philippines, causing $23.5 million (1988 USD) but only one death. [nb 1]

Typhoon Susan (Biring)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Susan Jun 1 1988 0810Z.png   Susan 1988 track.png
DurationMay 28 – June 3
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970  hPa  (mbar)

Typhoon Susan formed at the end of May just to the north of Luzon Island in the Philippines. As a depression Susan dropped heavy rains in and around the Manila area the resulting landslides killed 6 people. As Susan moved away from the Philippines the storm strengthened into a typhoon shortly before cross in the southern tip of Taiwan and turning extratropical just after passing Okinawa. [2]

Tropical Storm 03W (Konsing)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Konsing Jun-5-1988 0727Z.png   Konsing 1988 track.png
DurationJune 3 – June 6
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1000  hPa  (mbar)

3W was a short lived tropical storm.

Typhoon Thad (Ditang)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Thad Jun 23 1988 0732Z.png   Thad 1988 track.png
DurationJune 17 – June 25
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  970  hPa  (mbar)

A tropical depression was designated by the JMA early on June 18. At the time, the depression was located south of the Caroline Islands. [3] Further development was slow to occur due to strong winds aloft caused by a TUTT. Nevertheless, the system's cloud structure and outflow pattern slowly improved, and based on Dvorak estimates of T2.5/40 mph (65 km/h), the JTWC upgraded the disturbance into Tropical Storm Thad at 00:00 UTC on June 20, [4] with the JMA following suit six hours later. [3] After initially moving west, Thad tracked northwest due to the subtropical ridge to its north. Thad slowly deepened, [4] with the JMA upgrading Thad to a severe tropical storm at 06:00 UTC on June 21 and a typhoon the next day. [3] At 06:00 UTC on June 22, the JTWC upped Thad into a typhoon, based on satellite intensity estimates of 130 km/h (80 mph). [4] Shortly thereafter, the JMA reported that Thad reached its highest intensity, with winds of 130 km/h (80 mph). [3] Additional strengthening did not occur, however, as the system developed a central cold over – a large irregular shaped area of deep convection. By June 23, Thad reached the western periphery of a subtropical ridge, and began to recurve in response to a mid-latitude trough over eastern China. Rapid weakening began at 00:00 UTC on June 24 due to increased winds aloft. Both the JTWC [4] and JMA downgraded Thad into a tropical storm that day as the storm passed 150 km (95 mi) southeast of Okinawa. [3] The JTWC reported that Thad dissipated at 00:00 UTC on June 25, [4] although the JMA continued to track it as a tropical depression for 12 more hours. [3]

Severe Tropical Storm Vanessa (Edeng)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Vanessa Jun 28 1988 0817Z.png   Vanessa 1988 track.png
DurationJune 25 – June 29
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  990  hPa  (mbar)

A tropical disturbance was first spotted at noon on June 24 over 200 km (125 mi) east of the Caroline Islands. Thunderstorm activity increased almost immediately thereafter, and the storm's outflow subsequently expanded, aided by a retreating Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT). [4] The JMA upgraded the system into a tropical depression on the morning of June 26. [3] Six hours later, the JTWC followed suit, and at 00:00 UTc on June 27, both the JTWC and JMA upgraded the depression into a tropical storm. [4] Several hours later, Vanessa made landfall over the central Philippines; at the time of landfall, both the JMA and JTWC estimated winds of 80 km/h (50 mph). [4] [3] Accelerating, Vanessa entered the South China Sea at 02:00 UTC on June 28. [4] Around this time, the JMA estimated that Vanessa reached its maximum intensity, with winds of 105 km/h (65 mph), making it a severe tropical storm. [3] Strong wind shear then increased over the system, but Vanessa did not begin weakening until 00:00 UTC on June 29. Six hours later, after Vanessa became devoid of deep convection near the center, the JTWC issued their last warning on the system. [4] However, the JMA continued to track it until noon that day. [3]

Typhoon Warren (Huaning)

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Warren Jul 17 1988 0300Z.png   Warren 1988 track.png
DurationJuly 11 – July 20
Peak intensity165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  940  hPa  (mbar)

A tropical depression formed to the east of Guam shortly before passing north of the island. Shortly after passing the island the storm strengthened into Tropical Storm Warren. Warren kept gathering strength and reached peak intensity of 130 mph while 300 miles east of Luzon Island. Typhoon Warren moved westward and brushed the extreme northern tip of Luzon Island in the Philippines causing $10 million in damage. Warren then made landfall near Shantou, China, 13,000 homes were destroyed and 17 people were killed in Guangdong Province. [2]

Severe Tropical Storm Agnes

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Agnes Jul 30 1988 0551Z.png   Agnes 1988 track.png
DurationJuly 27 – August 1
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  975  hPa  (mbar)

Following the demise of Typhoon Warren, an area of disturbed weather formed southeast of Japan, and by July 27, this area had developed a closed surface circulation. [4] At noon the same day, the JMA upgraded it into a tropical depression. [3] Initially resembling a monsoon depression, the storm's upper-level outflow and organization increased on June 28 in response to decreased winds aloft. [4] On June 29, both the JTWC and JMA upgraded the system into Tropical Storm Agnes. [4] [3] Contrary to forecasts, Agnes accelerated northeast in response to a trough northeast of Japan. [4] At 00:00 UTC on June 30, the JTWC estimated a peak intensity of 80 km/h (50 mph) and the JMA estimated a peak intensity of 95 km/h (60 mph), making Agnes a severe tropical storm. [4] [3] Twelve hours later, the system lost all its deep convection, and the JTWC issued its last warning on it at 18:00 UTC. [4] Despite this, the JMA continued to follow Agnes through August 4, three days after the agency declared Agnes extratropical. [3]

JMA Tropical Storm Eight

Tropical storm (JMA)
JMA TS 08 Aug 2 1988 0600Z.png   JMA TS 08 1988 track.png
DurationJuly 30 – August 3
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  998  hPa  (mbar)

This was not tracked by the JTWC.

Tropical Storm Bill

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Bill Aug 7 1988 0747Z.png   Bill 1988 track.png
DurationAugust 4 – August 9
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985  hPa  (mbar)

On August 1, the monsoon trough stretched from the Gulf of Tonkin to Japan, but four days later, abruptly re-aligned. This created favorable conditions aloft for tropical cyclone formation, and an area of convection in the Philippine Sea began to rapidly develop. [4] On the evening of August 4, the JMA upgraded the disturbance into a tropical depression, [3] and the next day, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA). However, its development rate slowed as the system separated from the monsoon trough. Tracking northeast, the low passed just southwest of the southern tip of Okinawa at 15:00 UTC on August 6. [4] That day, the JMA upgraded the depression into a tropical storm, though the JTWC did not do the same until 24 hours later. [3] Shortly thereafter, both agencies indicated that Bill attained its peak velocity of 80 km/h (50 mph), [4] an intensity it would maintain until making landfall 220 km (135 mi) south of Shanghai. Although the JTWC issued its final advisory at 00:00 UTC on August 8, [4] with the JMA doing the same 36 hours later, its remains could still be identified through August 10. [3]

Tropical Storm Bill, which formed on August 5 east of Taiwan, moved northwest to hit eastern China as a 45 mph tropical storm. Torrential rains and heavy flooding resulted in 110 casualties and widespread damage to roads and dams. [5]

Tropical Storm Clara

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Clara 1988-08-11 0520Z.jpg   Clara 1988 track.png
DurationAugust 5 – August 16
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  994  hPa  (mbar)

An area of disorganized convection about 1,000 km (620 mi) north of Wake Island in early August. [4] The disturbance was classified on August 5 by the JMA. [3] The depression tracked westward under the influence of a subtropical ridge. Two days later, the system began to organize, although shower activity remained exposed from the center. Strong wind shear prevented further development, but by August 10, thunderstorm activity had increased in coverage. At 19:15 UTC the same day, the JTWC upgraded it to Tropical Storm Clara, [4] with the JMA following suit around the same time. [3] Due to a strengthening ridge, Kevin performed a counterclockwise loop, only to turn northeast on August 11. [4] Around this time, the JTWC and JMA estimated that Clara attained peak winds of 80 km/h (50 mph) and 70 km/h (45 mph). [4] [3] Shortly afterwards, shower activity quickly became displaced from the deep convection, prompting a weakening trend. The JTWC issued its final warning on August 12, [4] though the JMA did not following suit until four days later. [3]

JMA Tropical Storm Eleven

Tropical storm (JMA)
JMA TS 11 Aug 15 1988 0620Z.png   JMA TS 11 1988 track.png
DurationAugust 13 – August 18
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1000  hPa  (mbar)

This was not tracked by the JTWC.

Typhoon Doyle

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Doyle 1988-08-17 0413Z.jpg   Doyle 1988 track.png
DurationAugust 13 – August 24
Peak intensity165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  930  hPa  (mbar)

On August 12, an westward-moving area of disturbed weather developed within the monsoon trough. [4] Deep convection developed near the low-level center on the next day, and the JMA classified the disturbance as a tropical depression. [3] Overnight August 13 into August 14, the depression began to organize, and after performing a counterclockwise loop, it began moving to the west-northwest. [4] At 18:00 UTC the same day, the JMA upgraded the depression into a tropical storm, [3] though the JTWC did not follow suit until 18 hours later. Doyle then entered a period of rapid deepening, [4] with the JMA upgrading Doyle into a typhoon on the morning of August 16. [3] At 18:00 UTC, the JTWC estimated that Doyle attained peak winds of 210 km/h (130 mph), [4] although according to the JMA, Doyle did not reach its peak intensity of 170 km/h (105 mph). [3] The typhoon then curved north as it rounded a subtropical ridge, although unlike most recurving tropical cyclones, a TUTT cell prevented. This change in forward motion led to a gradual weakening trend over cold water. [4] On August 20, the JMA estimated that Doyle lost typhoon intensity, and two days later, downgraded it into a tropical depression. [3] At this time, the system became devoid of deep convection prompted the JTWC to issue its final warning. [4] The JMA estimated that Doyle became extratropical on August 25. The agency stopped following the extratropical remnants the next day. [3]

Although the typhoon passed close to Wake Island near peak intensity, wind gusts only reached 45 mph (70 km/h) and according to the JTWC, damage was insignificant. [4]

JMA Tropical Storm Thirteen

Tropical storm (JMA)
JMA TS 13 Aug 16 1988 0610Z.png   JMA TS 13 1988 track.png
DurationAugust 13 – August 16
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1000  hPa  (mbar)

This was not tracked by the JTWC.

Tropical Storm Elsie

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Elsie 1988-08-31 0505Z.jpg   Elsie 1988 track.png
DurationAugust 26 – September 1
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  992  hPa  (mbar)

On August 24, a persistent area of convection embedded in the monsoon trough was first detected. Despite favorable conditions aloft, the disturbance initially remained poorly organized. [4] The JMA declared the system a tropical depression at 00:00 UTC on August 24, [3] although the depression only started to organize on August 28. Dvorak classifications prompted the JTWC to upgrade the system into a tropical storm at midday, [4] with the JMA following suit early on August 29. [3] After tracking southeast, Elsie turned northeast. Interaction from newly formed Tropical Storm Fabian initially halted further intensification and the JTWC estimated that the storm was briefly no longer a classifiable tropical cyclone on August 30. [4] At 00:00 UTC on August 31, the JMA estimated that Elsie reached its highest velocity of 80 km/h (50 mph). [3] The storm then accelerated to the northeast while becoming extratropical and at 18:00 the same day, the JTWC classified Elsie as extratropical, [4] with the JMA doing the same on September 1. [3]

Severe Tropical Storm Fabian

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Fabian 1988-09-01 2211Z.jpg   Fabian 1988 track.png
DurationAugust 26 – September 3
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  970  hPa  (mbar)

Also on August 24, another area of disturbed weather was spotted within the monsoon trough, which was displaced from its normal position. Thunderstorm activity gradually improved in organization, [4] and at 06:00 UTC on August 26, the JMA designated the system a tropical depression. The depression was upgraded into a tropical storm three days later by the JMA. [3] Interaction with Elsie – the storms at one point were within 460 mi (740 km) of each other – caused the cyclone to track eastward. Dvorak estimates of T3.0/80 km/h (50 mph) prompted the JTWC to upgrade it to a tropical storm on August 30, [4] with the JMA upgrading it to a severe tropical storm that evening. [3] Interaction with Elsie failed to stop Fabian from intensifying, and at 06:00 UTC on September 1, the JTWC upgraded Fabian into a typhoon, only for the storm to veer north shortly thereafter. [4] On September 2, the JMA and the JTWC estimated that Fabian attained peak intensities of 115 km/h (70 mph) and 135 km/h (85 mph) respectively. [4] [3] Accelerating, Fabian began to encounter stronger westerly wind shear, which led to weakening. The JTWC declared Fabian an extratropical cyclone at 06:00 UTC on September 32, [4] with the JMA doing the same on the next day. [3]

Tropical Storm Gay

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Gay 1988-09-03 0613Z.jpg   Gay 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 2 – September 7
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  996  hPa  (mbar)

An area of disturbed weather formed in the monsoon trough around 780 km (485 mi) east of Okinawa. [4] The JMA upgraded the area into a tropical depression at 00:00 UTC on September 2. [3] Surface observations of 25 to 35 mph (40 to 56 km/h) along with Dvorak estimate of T2.5/65 km/h (40 mph) prompted a TCFA at 10:40 UTC, with the JTWC designating the system as Tropical Storm Gay the same evening. [4] At 0:00 UTC on September 3 the JMA followed suit and upgraded Gay into a tropical storm. [3] Moving northeastward, Gay quickly intensified, [4] and on September 3, the JTWC and JMA estimated peak intensity of 80 km/h (50 mph) and 70 km/h (45 mph) respectively. [4] [3] Gay quickly weakened, however, due to strong wind shear. On September 4, the JTWC reported that Gay dissipated, [4] although the JMA continued to track it as a weak tropical depression until September 7. [3]

Typhoon Uleki

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Uleki Sep 9 1988 0334Z.png   Uleki 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 8 (entered basin) – September 16
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  945  hPa  (mbar)

Uleki had developed on August 28 well to the southeast of Hawai'i and become a hurricane in the north-central Pacific before crossing the International Date Line. At 00:00 UTC on September 8, the CPHC transferred warning responsibility of Uleki to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the storm was subsequently referred to as a typhoon. Three hours later Uleki made its closest approach to Midway Atoll, passing 200 mi (320 km) to the south. Shortly thereafter the system crossed the International Date Line and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) also began advising on the system. [6] [7] The JMA estimated Uleki to have had a pressure of 945 mb (hPa; 27.91 inHg) at this time; however, this value was derived from satellite estimates rather than direct measurements. [7] Uleki maintained this strength through September 10 as it continued on its west-northwest course. On that day, the typhoon again entered a region of weak steering currents between two anticyclones within the subtropical ridge. A trough approaching from the west was forecast to prompt Uleki to turn east; however, the typhoon maintained a general northwest motion in a stair-stepped fashion. Increasing wind shear and cooler air soon imparted weakening, [8] and Uleki degraded to a tropical storm by September 12. [7]

Continued effects from shear stripped the cyclone of all deep convection and by September 14 only a band of cirrus clouds remained in association with Uleki. The JTWC issued their final warning on the system at 00:00 UTC that day accordingly. [8] The JMA maintained the system as a tropical depression as the former typhoon began turning to the east. Uleki later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 16 as it accelerated to the east. The system dissipated the following day near the International Date Line, far from any major landmasses. [7]

Typhoon Hal

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
Hal 1988-09-13 0602Z.jpg   Hal 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 8 – September 17
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  945  hPa  (mbar)

An area of disturbed weather developed to the west of Wake Island. Over the next two days, Hal slowly organized as it tracked westward, [4] with both the JTWC and JMA declaring the disturbance a tropical depression on September 8 [4] [3] well to the southeast of Japan. Moving to the northwest, [9] Hal intensified into a tropical storm on September 9, according to both the JTWC and JMA, [4] [3] and then turned to the southeast on September 10. [9] The JTWC declared Hal a typhoon that day, [4] with the JMA following suit the following day. [3] Midday on September 11, Hal attained peak intensity. There was significant difference between the two agencies, however, as the JTWC reported winds of 195 km/h (120 mph) [4] and the JMA estimated winds of 130 km/h (80 mph). [3] Early on September 12, Hal sharply recurved, first turning to the north-northwest and eventually northeast on September 15. Accelerating northeastward, Hal became an extratropical cyclone on September 17, [9] and the JMA stopped tracking it the next day. As an extratropical cyclone, Hal restrengthened before moving through the eastern Bering Sea on September 19 and into Alaska on September 20. The weakening low moved on an anticyclonic path through southern Alaska before emerging into the Gulf of Alaska on September 23. The cyclone drifted erratically southward, dissipating in the Gulf of Alaska on September 25. [9]

During its formative stages, Hal brought winds of up to 70 km/h (45 mph) to Guam, which caused minor property damage and scattered power outages. [4]

Severe Tropical Storm Irma

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Irma 1988-09-13 2111Z.jpg   Irma 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 11 – September 17
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  990  hPa  (mbar)

Part of a mid-September tropical cyclone outbreak, Tropical Storm Irma originated from an area of disturbed weather developed on September 11. The same day, an increase in convection prompted the JTWC to issue a TCFA [4] while the JMA upgraded it to a tropical depression. [3] Based on objective intensity estimates of 70 km/h (45 mph), the system was classified as a tropical storm by the JTWC and JMA at 00:00 UTC on September 12. [4] [3] Aided by outflow from Typhoon Hal, Irma steadily deepened. [4] Midday on September 13, the JTWC and JMA estimated winds of 105 km/h (65 mph) and 80 km/h (50 mph). [4] [3] Although data from the JTWC suggested that this was Irma's highest intensity, [4] the JMA increased the intensity of Irma to 105 km/h (65 mph) on September 15. [3] Following Hal northward along a subtropical ridge, Irma slowly weakened, and later on September 15, the JTWC issued its last warning. [4] A little over 24 hours later, the JMA ceased keeping an eye on Irma. [3]

Tropical Storm Jeff (Lusing)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Jeff 1988-09-14 2232Z.jpg   Jeff 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 11 – September 17
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  994  hPa  (mbar)

A TUTT developed south of a subtropical ridge, which triggered inflow that later resulted in the development in an area of disturbed weather at 00:00 UTC on September 11. [4] Six hours later, the JMA classified the disturbance as a tropical depression, and on September 13, the agency upgraded the depression into a tropical storm. [3] Dvorak estimates of T2.5/40 mph (65 km/h) prompted the JTWC to follow suit the following morning. However, further organization was slow to occur due to strong wind shear caused by Jeff's proximity to Typhoon Hal; all deep convection was restricted to the southern semicircle. [4] On September 14, both the JTWC and JMA agree that Jeff reached its peak intensity of 80 km/h (50 mph). [4] [3] Late on September 15, the JTWC dropped warnings on Jeff. Just over 24 hours later, the JMA stopped tracking it as well. [4]

Severe Tropical Storm Kit (Maring)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kit 1988-09-21 0757Z.jpg   Kit 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 19 – September 22
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980  hPa  (mbar)

An eastward extension of the monsoon trough resulted in an area of disturbed weather around 560 km (350 mi) east of Manila on September 18. A combination of increased convection, enhanced outflow aloft, and a Dvorak estimate of T2.0/55 km/h (35 mph) resulted in the JTWc upgraded the disturbance into a tropical depression; [4] the JMA followed suit around this time. [3] Even though the depression tracked westward over Luzon, the depression gradually intensified, and at 18:00 UTC on September 19, the JTWC upgraded Kit into a tropical storm. [4] Eighteen hours later, the JMA did the same, making Kit the sixth out of eight tropical storm that month. [3] Tracking over the open waters of the South China Sea, an expansion of the storm's southwesterly outflow channel promoted further intensification. [4] On the morning of September 21, both the JTWC and JMA reported that Kit attained peak intensity of 115 km/h (70 mph) and 105 km/h (65 mph) respectively. [4] [3] On September 22, the storm made landfall along the 250 km (155 mi) northeast of Hong Kong; at the time of landfall, the JMA estimated winds of 80 km/h (50 mph). [4] Several hours later, the JMA ceased following the cyclone. [3]

According to press reports, torrential rain occurred near Shantou, where Kit moved ashore. Eight people were killed and over one hundred were injured. About 182,860 acres (74,000 ha) of farmland were inundated. More than 24,000 houses were damaged and 759 houses collapsed. Forty boats, one bridge, and several river embankments were also damaged. The total damage in the area was estimated at a little over US$35.1 million. [nb 2] In Fujian Province, heavy rain due to the remnants of Kit and Mamie resulted in nine lives lost, with an addition 51,000 losing their homes. About 26,000 ha (64,245 acres) of farmland were inundated and over 1,200 houses were destroyed. [10]

Severe Tropical Storm Lee (Ningning)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Lee 1988-09-23 0735Z.jpg   Lee 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 19 – September 25
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  990  hPa  (mbar)

On September 16, an area of disturbed weather spawned by a TUTT cell developed near the dateline. The disturbance traced westward over the next four days without organized appreciably, although the JMA did classify it as a tropical depression. Improved organization prompted the JTWC to issue a TCFA on September 20, [4] and satellite intensity estimated led to the JTWC and JMA classifying the system as Tropical Storm Lee. [4] [3] The tropical storm headed west-northwest south of the subtropical ridge, and later that day, the JTWC and JMA reported that Lee attained its peak intensity of 105 km/h (65 mph) and 80 km/h (50 mph). [4] [3] On September 23, satellite images showed a partially exposed low-level center, which resulted in weakening. Although initially forecast by the JTWC to follow Kit into southern China. Instead, Lee recurved to the east of Okinawa. Lee transitioned to an extratropical cyclone on September 24 as it continued tracking northeastward. [4]

Tropical Storm Mamie

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Mamie 1988-09-22 0600Z.jpg   Mamie 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 19 – September 24
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  990  hPa  (mbar)

The second tropical cyclone of 1988 to develop in the South China Sea, Tropical Storm Mamie formed from the same extension of the monsoon trough that spawned Tropical Storm Kit. An area of disturbed weather developed on September 19. [4] On the same day, the system was upgraded into a tropical depression by the JMA [3] and due to a binary interaction with Kit, tracked southwestward. After veering east, the disturbance turned northeastward due to a trough. [4] Late on September 21, the JMA upgraded the depression into a tropical storm, with the JMA also estimated that Kit attained its peak intensity of 80 km/h (50 mph) at the same time. [3] Based on a pressure report of 991 mbar (29.3 inHg) from a vessel, the JTWC reported that Tropical Storm Mamie developed on the morning of September 22. Increased wind shear took its toll, however, and September 23, the JTWC discontinued warnings on Mamie. [4] However, the JMA did not downgrade Mamie into a tropical depression until 18:00 UTC that day, and did not stop tracking it altogether until September 25. [3] The remnants of the storm later dissipated near Hong Kong. [4] The remnants of the storm, combined with Tropical Storm Kit, later brought flooding to southern China. A total of nine people were killed by the floods. [10]

Typhoon Nelson (Paring)

Very strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Nelson Oct 4 1988 2336Z.png   Nelson 1988 track.png
DurationSeptember 30 – October 8
Peak intensity185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  915  hPa  (mbar)

Following a series of tropical cyclone outbreaks, there was a lull in tropical cyclone activity due to the presence of cold, dry air, which caused the monsoon trough to recede south to its climatological position. Within the trough, an area of disturbed weather formed around 380 km (235 mi). The disturbance slowly organized, [4] and on September 30, the JMA upgraded the disturbance into a tropical depression. [3] A dramatic increased in convection resulted in the issuance of a TCFA at 09:00 UTC on October 1. [4] Later that day, both the JTWC and JMA upgraded the system into Tropical Storm Nelson. [4] [3] The newly named storm tracked westward towards the Philippine Islands, and then west-northwestward as it tracked along the periphery of the subtropical ridge. On October 2, the JTWC classified Nelson as a typhoon, and nine hours later, the typhoon began to clear out an eye. [4] On October 3, the JMA upgraded Nelson to a typhoon. [3] The storm subsequently entered a period of rapid deepening, and on October 4, the JTWC declared Nelson a super typhoon. Shortly thereafter, the JTWC estimated peak intensity of 255 km/h (160 mph) [4] while the JMA reported a peak intensity of 185 km/h (115 mph). [3] Not long after its peak, Nelson rounded the western edge of a subtropical ridge and slowly weakened as it accelerated northeast, passing about approximately 155 km (95 mi) southeast of Okinawa, where 212 mm (8.35 in) of rain fell. The typhoon quickly lost deep convection, and on October 8, the JTWC issued its last warning on the system. [4] The next day, the JMA declared Nelson extratropical, although its remnants were still identifiable for a couple more days. [3]

JMA Tropical Storm Twenty-five

Tropical storm (JMA)
JMA TS 25 Oct 9 1988 0900Z.png   JMA TS 25 1988 track.png
DurationOctober 7 – October 10
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  992  hPa  (mbar)

Made landfall in Vietnam and was not monitored by the JTWC,

Typhoon Odessa (Seniang)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Odessa Oct 15 1988 0419Z.png   Odessa 1988 track.png
DurationOctober 8 – October 16
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  965  hPa  (mbar)

As the previous storm was weakening at high latitudes, a new area of convection formed around 850 km (530 mi) south-southeast of Minami-Tori-shima. Tracking west-northwest, [4] the JMA upgraded the system into a tropical depression on October 9. [3] The next day, the JTWC issued a TCFA. [4] On October 11, the JMA upgraded the depression into a tropical storm, [3] and twelve hours later, satellite intensity estimates prompted the JTWC to follow suit. Cool air aloft aided in intensification as Odessa tracked northwest, and midday on October 12, Odessa was upgraded into a typhoon by the JTWC. [4] Despite forecasts of weakening, the JMA did the same and classified Odessa as a typhoon. [3] A midget typhoon, Odessa continued to intensify, [4] with the JTWC and JMA reporting a peak velocity of 170 km/h (105 mph) and 130 km/h (80 mph) respectively. [4] [3] Loss of organization followed a transition into an extratropical cyclone, and after the low-level circulation diverged from the deep convection, the JTWC issued the final warning on October 16. [4] The JMA ceased watching the typhoon on October 19. [3]

Severe Tropical Storm Pat (Toyang)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Pat Oct 20 1988 0740Z.png   Pat 1988 track.png
DurationOctober 16 – October 22
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  980  hPa  (mbar)

Unlike most systems in 1988, Pat formed from an area of disturbed weather near 10th parallel north that was first noticed by the JTWC on October 16. At 03:00 UTC on October 18, a TCFA was issued. Initially, the system remained poorly organized, with almost all the convection located along the eastern semicircle. [4] Thunderstorm activity associated with the system became more organized, and 15 hours later, the JMA declared it a tropical depression [3] while the JTWC classified the disturbance as Tropical Storm Pat. [4] The storm tracked westward due to a ridge to its north while gradually intensifying, [4] and on October 19, Pat was upgraded into a tropical storm by the JMA. [3] Following an improvement in Pat's substructure, the JTWC upgraded Pat to a typhoon on October 20. Shortly before making landfall on the island of Luzon, the JTWC estimated that the typhoon attained its peak intensity of 135 km/h (85 mph). According to the JTWC, Pat crossed central Luzon while remaining a typhoon. After Pat entered the South China Sea, [4] the JMA estimated that it attained its maximum intensity of 115 km/h (70 mph) on October 22. [3] Shortly thereafter, Pat began to weaken as it interacted with Hainan. [10] The JTWC estimated that Pat weakened into a tropical storm over the Gulf of Tonkin, and later that day, dissipated slightly onshore Vietnam. [4]

Across Hainan, transport and telephone services were disrupted. About 33,000 ha (81,545 acres) of paddy fields were flooded and 16,000 ha (39,535 acres) of sugar cane were damaged or destroyed. Overall, damage was estimated at US$16 million. In Hong Kong, the storm dropped heavy rainfall for four days. There, a man was killed when one of the containers crushed onto a truck. In another incident, a woman was killed after being hit by a falling flower pot. Elsewhere, a man was injured by a falling tree. Scaffoldings at a construction site collapsed, damaging two automobiles. Press reports also indicated that Pat and rainstorms associated with a low-pressure area in mid-October left at least 90 people killed and left 500.000 homeless in Vietnam. [10]

Typhoon Ruby (Unsang)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Ruby Oct 24 1988 1200Z.png   Ruby 1988 track.png
DurationOctober 20 – October 28
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  950  hPa  (mbar)

Typhoon Ruby, which developed east of the Philippines on October 20, rapidly intensified to a 145 mph typhoon while approaching central Luzon. It hit on the 24th, and rapidly weakened to a minimal typhoon over the island. Ruby, with its disrupted circulation, remained weak over the South China Sea, and land interaction with Vietnam caused it to dissipate on the 28th. Ruby caused over 300 fatalities, with widespread flooding and damage over its track. Ruby brought heavy rains and a 12-foot storm surge to Guam and the Marianas Islands. On Luzon, the storm's 140 mph (220 km/h) winds caused tremendous damage to the town of Siniloan. In the Polillo Islands, east of Manila, Ruby spawned rare tornadoes that leveled homes. In the northern part of the Philippines, many fishing boats were wrecked by 30–40 foot waves, and 32 more people drowned. [11] Damage in the Philippines totaled 5.64 billion Philippine Pesos (1989 pesos). [12]

The passenger ferry the MV Doña Marilyn was in the Visayan Sea when the storm struck the vessel. The storm caused the ferry to list to the starboard until one of the decks was below the water, causing the ship to fill up rapidly. The passengers and crew tried to save the ship, but to no avail. The Doña Marilyn sank stern first taking 389 people with it. Only 147 people survived by clinging to life rafts.

Typhoon Skip (Yoning)

Strong typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Skip Nov 6 1988 0753Z.png   Skip 1988 track.png
DurationNovember 3 – November 12
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950  hPa  (mbar)

Just 2 weeks after Ruby hit Luzon, Skip, which formed on November 3, hit the central Philippines as a 145 mph typhoon. Ruby reached the South China Sea on the 7th, and steadily weakened until dissipation on the 12th. Skip was responsible for killing 104 people (with 95 missing) and extensive damage to the coconut, rice, and sugar crops. [13]

Severe Tropical Storm Tess (Welpring)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Tess Nov 5 1988 2044Z.png   Tess 1988 track.png
DurationNovember 1 – November 6
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  975  hPa  (mbar)

After passing through the Philippines, a tropical disturbance organized in the South China Sea into a tropical depression late on the morning of November 4. Turning westward and strengthening, the cyclone became a tropical storm later that day, and then a typhoon by late November 5. It moved into Vietnam on November 6 and quickly weakened, becoming the only tropical cyclone that season to make landfall in the country. Its remains later moved across the Mekong River delta. [14]

Tropical Storm Val (Apiang)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Val 1988-12-22 2310Z.jpg   Val 1988 track.png
DurationDecember 21 – December 25
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  992  hPa  (mbar)

The final tropical cyclone to develop in 1988 and the only in December, the origins of Tropical Storm Val. Tropical Storm Val was first spawned by an outbreak of Arctic air pushed southeastward across Asia on December 18. Within five days, this cold air mass extended from the southern Philippine Islands to the northern Marianas. The cold air quickly diminished, which spawned convection and multiple surface circulations across the monsoon trough. Thunderstorm activity consolidated on December 21, and an increase in organization prompted the issuance of a TCFA the next day. [4] Later on December 22, both the JTWC and JMA upgraded the disturbance into a tropical depression. [4] [3] On December 24, the JMA upgraded the depression into Tropical Storm Val. [3] Around the time, JTWC and JMA reported that Lee attained its peak intensity of 105 km/h (65 mph) and 80 km/h (50 mph). [4] [3] Also on December 24, Val, which was moving westward at around 40 km/h (25 mph), grounded to a halt. The storm's center became less defined, which resulted in a weakening trend. After tracing northward, Val was downgraded to a tropical depression on December 27. The JTWC ceased tracking Val on December 26, [4] with the JMA doing the same the next day. [3]

Storm names

During the season 26 named tropical cyclones developed in the Western Pacific and were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, when it was determined that they had become tropical storms. These names were contributed to a revised list which started in 1979.

RoySusanThadVanessaWarrenAgnesBillClaraDoyleElsieFabianGayHal
IrmaJeffKitLeeMamieNelsonOdessaPatRubySkipTessVal

Philippines

AsiangBiringKonsingDitangEdeng
GloringHuaningIsangLusingMaring
NingningOsangParingRemingSeniang
ToyangUnsangWelpringYoning
Auxiliary list
Apiang
Basiang (unused)Kayang (unused)Dorang (unused)Enang (unused)Grasing (unused)

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones in their area of responsibility. PAGASA assigns names to tropical depressions that form within their area of responsibility and any tropical cyclone that might move into their area of responsibility. Should the list of names for a given year prove to be insufficient, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first 6 of which are published each year before the season starts. Names not retired from this list will be used again in the 1992 season. This is the same list used for the 1984 season. PAGASA uses its own naming scheme that starts in the Filipino alphabet, with names of Filipino female names ending with "ng" (A, B, K, D, etc.). Names that were not assigned/going to use are marked in gray.

Retirement

Because Typhoons Unsang and Yoning made extensive damage within the Philippines, the PAGASA later retired the names Unsang and Yoning and was replaced by Ulpiang and Yerling for the 1992 season.

Season effects

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed in the 1987 Pacific typhoon season. It includes their duration, names, affected areas, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 1986 USD. Names listed in parentheses were assigned by PAGASA.

NameDatesPeak intensityAreas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Category Wind speedPressure
Roy (Asiang)January 7–19Typhoon155 km/h (100 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, Philippines$28.5 million2
Susan (Biring)May 28 – June 3Typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu IslandsNone6
03W (Konsing)June 3–6Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan NoneNone
Thad (Ditang)June 17–25Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)PhilippinesNoneNone
TDJune 22–26Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)NoneNoneNone
Vanessa (Edeng)June 26–29Severe tropical storm100 km/h (90 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Philippines, South China NoneNone
GloringJuly 6–9Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)TaiwanNoneNone
Warren (Huaning)July 12–20Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands, Philippines, Taiwan, China$10 million17
TDJuly 25–28Tropical depressionNot specified998 hPa (29.47 inHg)NoneNoneNone
AgnesJuly 27 – August 1Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)None NoneNone
TDJuly 29–30Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)NoneNoneNone
EightAugust 1–3Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)998 hPa (29.47 inHg)Japan NoneNone
IsangAugust 1–3Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)South ChinaNoneNone
TDAugust 4–6Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Ryukyu IslandsNoneNone
Bill (Isang)August 4–9Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Ryukyu Islands, East China None110
ClaraAugust 5–16Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)994 hPa (29.35 inHg)None NoneNone
TDAugust 6–16Tropical depressionNot specified1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)JapanNoneNone
TDAugust 9Tropical depressionNot specified1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)NoneNoneNone
TDAugust 10–13Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)South ChinaNoneNone
TDAugust 12–13Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)JapanNoneNone
TDAugust 12–14Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)JapanNoneNone
ElevenAugust 13–18Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Japan NoneNone
DoyleAugust 13–24Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)NoneNoneNone
TDAugust 13Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)JapanNoneNone
ThirteenAugust 13–16Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Japan NoneNone
TDAugust 15–16Tropical depressionNot specified1,010 hPa (29.83 inHg)NoneNoneNone
TDAugust 18Tropical depressionNot specified1,006 hPa (29.71 inHg)NoneNoneNone
FabianAugust 24 – September 3Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Japan NoneNone
ElsieAugust 26 – September 1Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)None NoneNone
GaySeptember 2–4Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)996 hPa (29.41 inHg)None NoneNone
TDSeptember 3–6Tropical depressionNot specified1,010 hPa (29.83 inHg)NoneNoneNone
UlekiSeptember 8–16Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)Wake IslandNoneNone
HalSeptember 8–17Typhoon155 km/h (105 mph)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)JapanNoneNone
TDSeptember 9–10Tropical depressionNot specified1,008 hPa (29.77 inHg)JapanNoneNone
IrmaSeptember 11–17Severe tropical storm100 km/h (65 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)None NoneNone
Jeff (Lusing)September 11–17Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)994 hPa (29.35 inHg)None NoneNone
Kit (Maring)September 19–22Severe tropical storm100 km/h (65 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Philippines, South China None3
Lee (Ningning)September 19–25Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Mariana Islands, Ryukyu Islands NoneNone
MamieSeptember 19–24Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)South China, Vietnam NoneNone
TDSeptember 23–24Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)NoneNoneNone
TDSeptember 28 – October 3Tropical depression45 km/h (30 mph)1,000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, South ChinaNoneNone
Nelson (Paring)September 30 – October 9Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Philippines, JapanNoneNone
OsangOctober 1–2Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)PhilippinesNoneNone
TDOctober 6–7Tropical depressionNot specified1,002 hPa (29.59 inHg)NoneNoneNone
Twenty-fiveOctober 7–10Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Vietnam NoneNone
RemingOctober 8Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)1,006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Philippines NoneNone
Odessa (Seniang)October 8–19Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Mariana IslandsNoneNone
TDOctober 15–17Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)Vietnam, Cambodia, ThailandNoneNone
Pat (Toyang)October 17–23Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)980 hPa (28.94 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam NoneNone
Ruby (Unsang)October 20–29Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Philippines, South China$311 million288
Tess (Welpring)November 1–7Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)975 hPa (28.79 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam$22.4 million123
Skip (Yoning)November 3–12Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam$132 million237
TDDecember 11–12Tropical depressionNot specified1,004 hPa (29.65 inHg)NoneNoneNone
Val (Apiang)December 22–27Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Philippines NoneNone
Season aggregates
52 systemsJanuary 7 – December 27, 1988185 km/h (115 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)>$504 million>786

See also

Notes

  1. All damage totals are in 1988 values of their respective currencies.
  2. Some currencies are converted to Chinese Yuan to United States Dollars using this with an exchange rate of the year 1988.

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Typhoon Faye (1982) Category 2 Pacific typhoon in 1982

Typhoon Faye also known in the Philippines as Typhoon Norming was a long-lived typhoon that struck the Philippines in August 1982. On August 16, a weak tropical disturbance was moving towards the southern Philippines. Initially, land interaction with the Philippines with prevented significant development. After crossing the Philippines, the disturbance emerged into the South China Sea and increased in organization. It was upgraded into a tropical storm by midday on August 22. Thereafter, Faye began to steadily strengthen, and attained typhoon intensity later that day. On August 23, Typhoon Faye reached its peak intensity, which the storm would maintain for approximately 12 hours. A small cyclone, Faye moved northward on August 24 due to the weakening of a ridge over China. Thereafter, its center was disrupted by land interaction with the Philippines. As such, the storm weakened slightly before striking Luzon on the morning of August 25. Severe flooding and strong winds were recorded. More than 5,000 houses were damaged while 220,000 were homeless. Furthermore, around 7,000 people sought shelter. There were 18 injuries and 41 deaths in the Philippines. Overall, damage amounted to $9.6 million (1982 USD). Across Japan, two people perished.

Typhoon Lingling (2001) Pacific typhoon

Typhoon Lingling, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Nanang, was a deadly typhoon that struck the Philippines and China in 2001 and caused 379 deaths. The name "Lingling" was given by Hong Kong. The 39th tropical depression, 22nd named storm, and 13th typhoon of the 2001 Pacific typhoon season, Lingling developed into a tropical depression on November 6 and given the local name Nanang by the PAGASA. The next day, it was upgraded into a tropical storm and given the name Lingling by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Lingling's intensity briefly stagnated as it moved over Visayas before resuming intensification and intensifying into a severe tropical storm on November 8. One day later, both the JMA and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) upgraded Lingling to a typhoon as it exited the Philippine archipelago and moved into the South China Sea. After intensifying into a typhoon, Lingling began to quickly intensify, peaking with 10-min sustained winds of 155 km/h (100 mph) and 1-min sustained winds of 215 km/h (130 mph), with a minimum central pressure of 940 mbar (27.76 inHg). Lingling began to weaken as it approached the Vietnamese coast, before making landfall on November 11 at 18:00 UTC. Lingling rapidly weakened afterward, dissipating on November 12.

Typhoon Kelly (1987) Category 2 Pacific typhoon in 1987

Typhoon Kelly, known as Typhoon Oniang in the Philippines, struck Japan during the middle of October 1987. An area of disturbed weather formed along the monsoon trough near Yap on October 6. Although thunderstorm activity was initially displaced from the center, gradual development occurred nevertheless. The disturbance became a tropical depression on October 9, and a tropical storm the next day. While moving generally north-northwest towards Japan, Kelly attained typhoon intensity on October 12. Continuing to intensify, Typhoon Kelly reached its maximum intensity on October 15, but a weakening trend began thereafter. The next day, the typhoon passed over the islands of Shikoku and Honshu. By October 17, Kelly completed its transition into an extratropical cyclone.

Typhoon Abby (1986) Pacific typhoon in 1986

Typhoon Abby, known as Typhoon Norming in the Philippines, was the second typhoon to affect Taiwan in a month during September 1986. A tropical depression developed on September 13 and the next day attained tropical storm status, upon which it was named Abby. Continuing to intensify, Abby moved west-northwest and became a typhoon on September 16. Two days later, the typhoon attained maximum intensity. On September 19, the typhoon made landfall in Taiwan as it turned towards the northwest. Rapid weakening occurred due to land interaction, and on September 20, Typhoon Abby transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. Its extratropical remnants were last noted on September 24 as they raced off to the northeast.

Typhoon Hattie (1990) Pacific typhoon in 1990

Typhoon Hattie, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Pasing, was the fifth tropical cyclone of a record-six to hit Japan during the 1990 Pacific typhoon season. Hattie originated from an area of disturbed weather that developed within the Western Pacific monsoon trough towards the end of September. Tracking westward, the disturbance initially was slow to develop, although on September 30, the system was classified as a tropical depression. Following an improvement of its convective structure and an increase in associated convection, the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Hattie on October 1. Following the development of an eye, Hattie attained typhoon intensity on October 2. The typhoon continued to slowly deepen as its forward speed slowed. Despite a decrease in cloud top temperatures around the eye, Hattie was estimated to have attained peak intensity on October 5. After recurving to the north and then northeast, Hattie began to slowly weaken due to increased wind shear. On October 7, Hattie lost typhoon intensity, and after tracking directly over Tokyo, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on the next day.

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