|Accolade, Inc. (1984–1999)|
|Industry||Video game industry|
|Fate||Merged out, "Accolade" brand name now owned by Billionsoft|
|Founded||November 12, 1984 in Cupertino, California, U.S.|
|Defunct||September 11, 2000|
|Jim Barnett (CEO)|
Infogrames North America, Inc. (formerly Accolade, Inc.) was an American video game developer and publisher based in San Jose, California. The company was founded as Accolade in November 1984 by Alan Miller and Bob Whitehead, who had previously co-founded Activision in October 1979.
A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming, design, art, testing, etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make indie games.
A video game publisher is a company that publishes video games that have been developed either internally by the publisher or externally by a video game developer. As with book publishers or publishers of DVD movies, video game publishers are responsible for their product's manufacturing and marketing, including market research and all aspects of advertising.
San Jose, officially the City of San José, is the economic, cultural and political center of Silicon Valley, and the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles (466.1 km2). San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the main component of the San Jose–Sunnyvale–Santa Clara Metropolitan Statistical Area, with an estimated population of around 2 million residents in 2018. It is also the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively.
In April 1999, Accolade was acquired by French video game company Infogrames Entertainment for a combined sum of US$60 million, of which US$50 million in cash and US$10 million in growth capital, and was renamed Infogrames North America, Inc. The company chief executive officer, Jim Barnett, was named head of Infogrames Entertainment's American distribution subsidiary. In December 1999, Infogrames additionally acquired a controlling stake in GT Interactive for a total investment of US$135 million, and renamed it Infogrames, Inc.
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars.
Growth capital is a type of private equity investment, usually a minority investment, in relatively mature companies that are looking for capital to expand or restructure operations, enter new markets or finance a significant acquisition without a change of control of the business.
The chief executive officer (CEO) or just chief executive (CE), is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations. The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc.
On September 11, 2000, Infogrames North America was acquired by Infogrames, Inc. for 28 million market shares transitioned to Infogrames Entertainment, effectively merging Infogrames North America into a newly founded, wholly owned subsidiary of Infogrames, Inc.
In June 2017, Hong Kongese holding company Billionsoft announced that they had acquired the "Accolade" label, and announced Bubsy: The Woolies Strike Back , in cooperation with developer Black Forest Games and publisher Tommo, to be the first game released under it.
Bubsy: The Woolies Strike Back is a platform video game developed by Black Forest Games. The game was released for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 4 on October 31, 2017. The game is the fifth entry in the Bubsy series, and the first new entry in 21 years.
Black Forest Games is a German video game developer based in Offenburg. The company was founded in July 2012 by a team of 40 staff members, including chief executive officer Andreas Speer, previously employed by Spellbound Entertainment, which filed for insolvency earlier that year. As of August 2017, it is a subsidiary of THQ Nordic GmbH. As of July 2018, the company employs 60 people.
Tommo Inc. is an American video game publisher based in City of Industry, California. Founded in 1990, Tommo started out as a small independent distributor of imported video games. Since 2006, Tommo also operates a publishing subsidiary, UFO Interactive Games, which is best known for publishing original games, such as several titles in the Raiden series. In July 2013, Tommo acquired Humongous Entertainment and over 100 classic games from the Atari, Inc. bankruptcy proceedings. In October 2014, in conjunction with Night Dive Studios, Tommo launched its Retroism publishing label, which specializes in the re-release of classic video game titles into digital distribution channels. In 2017, it began working with a company known as Billionsoft to revive the long-defunct label Accolade and its brands, starting with the Bubsy series.
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Accolade's revenues grew from $1.5 million in 1985 to $5 million in 1986. It developed for most 1980s-era home computers, including the Commodore 64, Atari 400 & 800, the Amiga, Apple II and the PC. Some of their first titles include Law of the West , Psi-5 Trading Company , The Dam Busters , Mean 18 Golf , Test Drive , and HardBall! . Test Drive and HardBall! went on to become two of Accolade's longest-running franchises.
Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977, that started with what Byte Magazine called the "trinity of 1977", and which became common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC, and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their most common uses were playing video games, but they were also regularly used for word processing, doing homework, and programming.
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. It has been listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes(65,536 bytes) of RAM. With support for multicolor sprites and a custom chip for waveform generation, the C64 could create superior visuals and audio compared to systems without such custom hardware.
The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992. All of the machines in the family are technically similar and differ primarily in packaging. They are based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU running at 1.79 MHz, and were the first home computers designed with custom co-processor chips. This architecture enabled graphics and sound capabilities that were more advanced than contemporary machines at the time of release, and gaming on the platform was a major draw. Star Raiders is considered the platform's killer app.
As the popularity of other systems waned, Accolade focused on PC and console development, including the Nintendo Entertainment System, Sega Genesis, Super NES and PlayStation.
A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
The Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) is an 8-bit third-generation home video game console produced, released and marketed by Nintendo. It is a remodeled export version of the company's Family Computer (FC) platform in Japan, commonly known as the Famicom, which was launched on July 15, 1983. The NES was launched in the test markets of New York City and Los Angeles in 1985, with a full launch in the rest of North America and parts of Europe in 1986, followed by Australia and other European countries in 1987. Brazil saw only unlicensed clones until the official local release in 1993. In South Korea, it was packaged as the Hyundai Comboy and distributed by Hyundai Electronics which is now SK Hynix; the Comboy was released in 1989.
The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis is Sega's third console and the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, followed by North America as the Genesis in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, and Tectoy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and later the Super Aladdin Boy.
All of Accolade's initial titles were developed in-house. But being a publisher as well as a developer, Accolade began to publish titles produced by other developers as well. By the mid-1990s, most of Accolade's game development was done by third-party developers.
In October 1991, Accolade was served with a lawsuit regarding copyright infringement, that eventually led to the concept of reverse engineering for interoperability purposes. Sega wanted to keep a hold on their consoles, and wanted all its games exclusive to Sega. Unwilling to conform to single platform games, Accolade engineers reverse engineered the Genesis console and created their own development systems; until then, game developers had to obtain the systems from Sega in order to develop games for the platform. Sega sued Accolade over the practice and won an initial injunction, forcing Accolade to remove all Genesis product from store shelves. Accolade, however, won on appeal and reached an out of court settlement with Sega that allowed Accolade to continue building their own Genesis cartridges, but as an official licensee.
The company had marginal successes during the early 1990s. Bubsy for the Genesis and Super NES sold well and was the company's best-selling game until Test Drive 4 came out in 1997. Star Control 2 for the PC (1992, MS-DOS) is still very well regarded and was one of the highest rated games of its time.
During a conference of management and producers, Accolade decided to focus only on sports and action games. Accolade already had several franchises based in these categories. Franchises in the sports genre included HardBall!, Unnecessary Roughness and Jack Nicklaus . In the broad "action" category they had the long-running franchise Test Drive.
Bob Whitehead left Accolade shortly after its founding; Alan Miller left in 1995. Before Miller left, the position of CEO was taken over by Peter Harris, who was placed there by Prudential Investments (Prudential had made a US$10 million investment in the company). Harris was on the board of directors and was formerly the CEO of FAO Schwarz and after Accolade, became the president of the San Francisco 49ers. Harris left the fate of the company in the hands of game industry neophyte, Jim Barnett. Under Barnett's direction, Accolade was rebuilt around action games and published Test Drive 4, 5 and 6 as well as Test Drive Offroad, all of which sold millions of units and become part of Sony's greatest hits program.
In 1997 Electronic Arts took over the distribution of all of Accolade's games.Accolade was purchased by French publisher Infogrames in 1999, right after publishing their last game Redline . Accolade was the entry point for Infogrames' North America expansion and was merged with Infogrames' other operations and moved to Los Angeles. In 2013 Accolade's assets were purchased by Tommo except for the Test Drive franchise, which is currently owned by Bigben Interactive.
In June 2017, Hong Kong-based holding company Billionsoft announced that they had acquired the "Accolade" branding, and, together with developer Black Forest Games and publisher Tommo, announced the upcoming release of a fifth installment in the Bubsy franchise, Bubsy: The Woolies Strike Back .
|SunDog: Frozen Legacy||1984 (Apple II)||FTL Games||Accolade|
|HardBall!||1985 (Apple II, Atari 8-bit, C64)|
1986 (Amstrad CPC, MacOS, ZX Spectrum)
1987 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, Atari ST, DOS, MSX)
|Fight Night||1985 (Apple II)|
1986 (Atari 8-bit, C64)
1987 (Atari XEGS)
1988 (Atari 7800)
|Sydney Development Corporation||Accolade|
|Law of the West||1985 (Apple II, C64)|
1987 (NES, PC-88, PC-98)
|The Dam Busters||1985 (Apple II, DOS)||Sydney Development Corporation||Accolade|
|Psi-5 Trading Company||1986 (C64, DOS)|
1987 (Amstrad CPC, Amstrad PCW, ZX Spectrum)
|Mean 18||1986 (Amiga, Atari ST, DOS)|
1987 (Apple IIGS)
1989 (Atari 7800)
|Killed Until Dead||1986 (C64)|
1987 (Apple II)
|Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Ace of Aces||1986 (C64)|
1988 (Atari 7800, Atari 8-bit)
|Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Accolade Comics||1987 (Apple II, C64)||Distinctive Software||Accolade|
|The Train: Escape to Normandy||1987 (Apple II, C64)|
1988 (Amstrad CPC, DOS, ZX Spectrum)
|Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|4th & Inches||1987 (C64, Apple II)|
1988 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, DOS, MacOS)
|Pinball Wizard||1987 (DOS)|
1988 (Atari ST)
|Mini-Putt||1987 (C64, DOS)|
1988 (Apple IIGS)
|Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Apollo 18: Mission to the Moon||1987 (C64)|
|Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Power at Sea||1988 (C64)||Distinctive Software||Accolade|
|Test Drive||1987 (Amiga, Atari ST, C64, DOS)|
1988 (Apple II)
|Rack 'Em||1988 (DOS)||Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Serve & Volley||1988 (Apple II, Apple IIGS, C64, DOS)||Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Fast Break||1988 (C64, DOS)|
1989 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, MacOS)
|Grand Prix Circuit||1988 (C64, DOS)|
1989 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, MacOS)
1990 (Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum)
|Card Sharks||1988 (C64)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Bubble Ghost||1988 (Amiga, Apple II, Apple IIGS, C64, DOS)||ERE Informatique||Accolade|
|Jack Nicklaus' Greatest 18 Holes of Major Championship Golf||1988 (C64, DOS)|
1989 (Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Apple IIGS, Atari ST)
1990 (MacOS, TG-16)
|Steel Thunder||1988 (C64)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Hardball II||1989 (DOS)|
1990 (Amiga, MacOS)
|Test Drive II: The Duel||1989 (Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Apple IIGS, C64, DOS, MacOS, ZX Spectrum)|
1990 (Atari ST)
1992 (Genesis, SNES)
|Blue Angels: Formation Flight Simulation||1989 (Amiga, Atari ST, DOS)|
|Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Day of the Viper||1989 (Amiga, Atari ST)|
|Test Drive II Car Disk: Musclecars||1989 (Amiga, C64, DOS)|
1990 (Atari ST)
|Test Drive II Car Disk: The Supercars||1989 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, C64, MacOS)|
1990 (Atari ST, DOS)
|Test Drive II Scenery Disk: California Challenge||1989 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, C64, DOS)|
1990 (Atari ST, MacOS)
|Test Drive II Scenery Disk: European Challenge||1989 (Amiga, C64, DOS)|
1990 (Apple IIGS, Atari ST, DOS)
|Don't Go Alone||1989 (DOS)||Sterling Silver Software||Accolade|
|The Cycles: International Grand Prix Racing||1989 (Amiga, C64, DOS)|
1990 (Amstrad CPC, Mac OS, ZX Spectrum)
|The Third Courier||1989 (DOS)|
1990 (Amiga, Apple IIGS, Atari ST)
|Manley & Associates||Accolade|
|Bar Games||1989 (DOS)|
|Strike Aces||1990 (Amiga, DOS)||Vektor Grafix||Accolade|
|Test Drive III: The Passion||1990 (DOS)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Gunboat||1990 (Amstrad CPC, DOS, ZX Spectrum)|
|Heat Wave||1990 (Amiga, Atari ST, Commodore 64, DOS)||Artech Digital Entertainment||Accolade|
|Ishido: The Way of Stones||1990 (Amiga, DOS, Genesis, MacOS)||Publishing International||Accolade|
|The Game of Harmony||1990 (Amiga, C64, DOS)|
|The Assembly Line||Accolade|
|Altered Destiny||1990 (DOS)|
|Stratego||1990 (DOS, MacOS)|
1991 (Amiga, Atari ST, C64)
|Jack Nicklaus' Unlimited Golf & Course Design||1990 (Amiga, DOS)||Sculptured Software||Accolade|
|Elvira: Mistress of the Dark||1990 (Amiga, DOS)|
1991 (Atari ST, C64)
|Les Manley in: Search for the King||1990 (DOS)|
|Test Drive II: The Collection||1990 (Amiga, C64)|
|Star Control||1990 (Amiga, Amstrad CPC, DOS)|
1991 (C64, ZX Spectrum)
|Toys for Bob||Accolade|
|The Games: Winter Challenge||1991 (DOS)||MindSpan||Accolade|
|Les Manley in: Lost in L.A.||1991 (DOS)||Accolade||Accolade|
|The Cardinal of the Kremlin||1991||Capstone Software||Accolade|
|Turrican||1991 (GB, Genesis, TG-16)||Rainbow Arts||Accolade|
|Elvira II: The Jaws of Cerberus||1991 (DOS)|
1992 (Amiga, Atari ST)
|Hoverforce||1991 (DOS)||Astral Software||Accolade|
|Mike Ditka Power Football||1991 (DOS, Genesis)||Accolade||Accolade|
|The Games: Summer Challenge||1992 (DOS)|
|Jack Nicklaus Golf & Course Design: Signature Edition||1992 (DOS)||Sculptured Software||Accolade|
|Waxworks||1992 (Amiga, DOS)|
|Snoopy's Game Club||1992 (DOS)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Universal Soldier||1992 (GB, Genesis)||The Code Monkeys||Accolade|
|Grand Prix Unlimited||1992 (DOS)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Zyconix||1992 (Amiga, DOS)||Miracle Games||Accolade|
|Hardball III||1992 (DOS)|
|Star Control II||1992 (DOS)|
|Toys for Bob||Accolade|
|Warp Speed||1992 (SNES)|
|Speed Racer in The Challenge of Racer X||1993 (DOS)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Bubsy in Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind||1993 (Genesis, SNES)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Pelé!||1993 (Genesis)||Radical Entertainment||Accolade|
|Unnecessary Roughness||1993 (DOS)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Unnecessary Roughness '95||1994 (DOS, Genesis)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Ballz||1994 (Genesis, SNES)||PF Magic||Accolade|
|Battle Isle 2200||1994 (DOS)||Blue Byte||Accolade|
|Bubsy II||1994 (GB, Genesis, SNES)||Accolade, Images Software (GB)||Accolade|
|Cyclemania||1994 (DOS)||Compro Games||Accolade|
|Barkley Shut Up and Jam!||1994 (Genesis, SNES)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Brett Hull Hockey 95||1994 (Genesis, SNES)|
|HardBall 4||1994 (DOS, Genesis)||MindSpan||Accolade|
|Pelé II: World Tournament Soccer||1994 (Genesis)||Radical Entertainment||Accolade|
|Zero Tolerance||1994 (Genesis)||Technopop||Accolade|
|Combat Cars||1994 (Genesis)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Speed Racer in My Most Dangerous Adventures||1994 (SNES)||Radical Entertainment||Accolade|
|HardBall 5||1995 (DOS, Genesis)|
|Barkley Shut Up and Jam! 2||1995 (Genesis)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Unnecessary Roughness '96||1995 (DOS)||Accolade||Accolade|
|Star Control 3||1996 (DOS)||Legend Entertainment||Accolade|
2014 (Linux, MacOS, Windows)
|Accolade||Accolade (DOS), Night Dive Studios|
|Deadlock: Planetary Conquest||1996 (Windows, Windows 3.x)|
|Accolade||Accolade, MacSoft (MacOS)|
|PO'ed||1996 (PS1)||Any Channel||Accolade|
|Pitball||1996 (PS1)||Warner Interactive Entertainment||Accolade|
|Bubsy 3D: Furbitten Planet||1996 (PS1)||Eidetic||Accolade|
|Test Drive: Off-Road||1997 (DOS, PS1)||Elite Systems (DOS), Motivetime Ltd.||Accolade|
|Jack Nicklaus 4||1997 (Windows)||Cinematronics, LLC||Accolade|
|Jack Nicklaus 5||1997 (Windows 3.x)||Eclipse Entertainment||Accolade|
|Test Drive 4||1997 (PS1, Windows)||Pitbull Syndicate Limited||Accolade|
|Deadlock II: Shrine Wars||1998 (Windows)||Cyberlore Studios||Accolade|
|Test Drive 5||1998 (PS1, Windows)||Pitbull Syndicate Limited||Accolade|
|Test Drive: Off-Road 2||1998 (PS1, Windows)||Accolade||Accolade|
|HardBall 6||1998 (Windows)||MindSpan||Accolade|
|Big Air||1998 (PS1)||Pitbull Syndicate Limited||Accolade|
|HardBall 6 - 2000 Edition||1999 (Windows)||MindSpan||Accolade|
|Redline||1999 (Windows)||Beyond Games||Accolade|
|Slave Zero||1999 (Dreamcast, Windows)||Infogrames North America||Infogrames North America|
|Test Drive: Off-Road 3||1999 (Windows)||Infogrames North America||Infogrames North America|
Hasbro Interactive was an American video game production and publishing subsidiary of Hasbro, the large game and toy company. Several of its studios were closed in early 2000 and most of its properties were sold to Infogrames which completed its studio's closures in 2001.
David Perry is a Northern Irish video game developer and programmer. He became prominent for programming platform games for 16-bit home consoles in the early to mid 1990s, including Disney's Aladdin, Cool Spot, and Earthworm Jim. He founded Shiny Entertainment, where he worked from 1993 to 2006. Perry created games for companies such as Disney, 7 Up, McDonald's, Orion Pictures, and Warner Bros. In 2008 he was presented with an honorary doctorate from Queen's University Belfast for his services to computer gaming. He was the co-founder & CEO of cloud-based games service Gaikai, which was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment. In 2017 Perry became the co-founder & CEO of a customer intelligence startup called GoVYRL, Inc. developing a new advanced brand dashboard called Carro. In his spare time, following in his father's footsteps, Perry is an avid photographer.
Krome Studios Melbourne, originally Beam Software, was an Australian video game development studio founded in 1980 by Alfred Milgrom and Naomi Besen and based in Melbourne, Australia. The studio operated independently from 1987 until 1999, when it was acquired by Infogrames, who changed the name to Infogrames Melbourne House. In 2006 the studio was sold to Krome Studios.
2000 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Deus Ex, Hitman: Codename 47, Paper Mario, Mario TennisPerfect Dark, Shogun: Total War, SSX, TimeSplitters and The Sims.
1994 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Super Metroid, Donkey Kong Country and Sonic & Knuckles.
1992 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Super Mario Land 2: 6 Golden Coins, Art of Fighting,Super Mario Kart, and Mortal Kombat.
Bandai Namco Holdings Inc. (BNHD), also known as the Bandai Namco Group, is a Japanese holding company which was formed from the merger of Bandai and Namco on September 29, 2005. It specializes in toys, video games, arcades, anime, and amusement parks. Bandai Namco also supply various arcade machines to movie theaters and arcades across the globe.
Test Drive is a series of racing video games that were originally published by Accolade until they were bought by Infogrames, the first game was released in 1987 and has since been followed by several sequels and spin-offs, the last of which was released in 2012.
Humongous Entertainment, Inc. was an American video game developer based in Bothell, Washington. Founded in 1992, the company is best known for developing multiple edutainment franchises, of which most prominently, Putt-Putt, Freddi Fish, Pajama Sam and Spy Fox, which, combined, sold over 15 million copies and earned more than 400 awards of excellence. Humongous Entertainment was acquired by GT Interactive in July 1996. By October 2000, sales of Humongous games had surpassed 16 million copies. GT sold Humongous to its parent company, Infogrames, in August 2005, as a result of which the company was shut down a few months after. Infogrames transitioned the label to a new company, Humongous, Inc., which continued publishing games under the Humongous label until 2009, when it faced bankruptcy. As part of the bankruptcy agreement of the Atari, SA subsidiary Atari, Inc., Humongous, Inc. and Atari Interactive, Tommo acquired the Humongous brand and all of its assets, and went on to re-release some of its games into digital distribution channels in conjunction with Night Dive Studios.
Bandai Namco Partners (BNP), also known as Bandai Namco Australia, is an amalgamation of several former Atari (Infogrames) offices located in PAL territories, which were acquired beginning in 2009 by Bandai Namco Holdings. The acquisitions came on the heels of Atari's financial difficulties, which had begun to snowball in 2006. Atari and Namco had long maintained a cross-publishing relationship that can be traced back to the very origins of Namco, and Atari's liquidation of regional assets was a natural opportunity for Namco Bandai to gain a PAL distribution network.
Atari, Inc. was founded in 1993 as GT Interactive Software Corp. In 1999, Infogrames Entertainment, SA acquired a controlling interest in GT Interactive, renaming it Infogrames, Inc. As part of Infogrames Entertainment's company-wide re-branding in May 2003, Infogrames, Inc. finally became known as Atari, Inc. On October 11, 2008, Infogrames completed its acquisition of Atari, Inc., making it a wholly owned subsidiary. On January 21, 2013, Atari, Inc. filed for bankruptcy, with President Jim Wilson stating plans to split off from parent Atari, SA.
Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade, Inc., 977 F.2d 1510, is a case in which the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit applied American intellectual property law to the reverse engineering of computer software. Stemming from the publishing of several Sega Genesis games by video game publisher Accolade, which had disassembled Genesis software in order to publish games without being licensed by Sega, the case involved several overlapping issues, including the scope of copyright, permissible uses for trademarks, and the scope of the fair use doctrine for computer code.
Atari, SA is a French holding company headquartered in Paris. Its subsidiaries include Atari Interactive and Atari, Inc. Because of continuing pressures upon the company, and difficulty finding investors, it sought bankruptcy protection under French law in January 2013; its subsidiaries in the United States have sought Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection as well. All three subsidiaries have since exited bankruptcy, and are all going through a vigorous turnaround campaign.
Bubsy in Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind, known as Bubsy or Bubsy 1 for short, is a platform video game released by Accolade in the early 1990s. It is the first game in the Bubsy series of video games. The game's name is a play on words in reference to the film Close Encounters of the Third Kind, with the game revolving around Bubsy defending the planet's supply of yarnballs from alien invaders. The game received a sequel, Bubsy 2, in 1994.
Bubsy 2 is a platform video game, the sequel to Bubsy in Claws Encounters of the Furred Kind, and the second game in the Bubsy series. It was originally released in 1994 for the Sega Genesis, Super NES, and Game Boy, and re-released for Microsoft Windows through Steam on December 17, 2015.