Adusius (Gr. Αδούσιος) was, according to the account of Xenophon in his Cyropaedeia, sent by Cyrus the Great with an army into Caria, to put an end to the feuds which existed in the country. He afterwards assisted Hystaspes in subduing Phrygia, and was made satrap of Caria, as the inhabitants had requested.
Xenophon of Athens was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates. As a soldier, Xenophon became commander of the Ten Thousand at about 30, with noted military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge saying of him, “the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior.” He established the precedent for many logistical operations and was among the first to use flanking maneuvers, feints and attacks in depth. He was among the greatest commanders of antiquity. As a historian, Xenophon is known for recording the history of his time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, which covered the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War, thus representing a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
Cyrus II of Persia, commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire eventually stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from simply "King of Anshan", a city, to "King of Persia". Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called ‘King of Anshan’, but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is ‘King of Persia’. The coup therefore took place between these two events."
Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Ionian and Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotos as being of Minoan Greek descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.
Agyrrhius was a native of Collytus in Attica, whom Andocides calls "the noble and the good" after being in prison many years for embezzlement of public money. He obtained around 395 BC the restoration of the Theorica, and also tripled the pay for attending the assembly, though he reduced the allowance previously given to the comic writers. By this expenditure of the public revenue Agyrrhius became so popular that he was appointed general (strategos) in 389.
Amadocus I was a Thracian king of the Odrysae from 410 BC until the beginning of 4th century. He was a friend of the Athenian statesman Alcibiades, and is mentioned at the time of the Battle of Aegospotami in 405. During his reign he experienced attacks from the Triballians and lost many of his territories.
Mithridates of Cius a Persian noble, succeeded his kinsman or father Ariobarzanes II in 337 BCE as ruler of the Greek town of Cius in Mysia. Diodorus assigns him a rule of thirty-five years, but it appears that his rule of Cius was interrupted during that period. What circumstances led to his expulsion or subjection are unknown; nothing is heard of him until his death in 302 BCE. However, it appears that he had submitted to the Macedonian Antigonus, who, to prevent him from joining the league of Cassander and his confederates, arranged for his assassination in Cius.
Mithridates, son of Ariobarzanes prince of Cius, is mentioned by Xenophon as having betrayed his father, and the same circumstance is alluded to by Aristotle.
Ariobarzanes, Ariobarzan or spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan, perhaps signifying "exalting the Aryans", sometimes known as Ariobarzanes I of Cius, was a Persian Satrap of Phrygia and military commander, leader of an independence revolt, and the first known of the line of rulers of the Greek town of Cius from which were eventually to stem the kings of Pontus in the 3rd century BCE. Ariobarzanes was apparently a cadet member of the Achaemenid dynasty, possibly son of Pharnabazus II, and part of the Pharnacid dynasty which had settled to hold Dascylium of Hellespont in the 470s BCE. Cius is located near Dascylium, and Cius seemingly was a share of family holdings for the branch of Ariobarzanes.
Myrmidon was an Athenian who commanded a force of ten thousand men, which formed part of the armament sent by Ptolemy I Soter, the son of Lagus, under his brother Menelaus, to effect the reduction of Cyprus, 315 BC. He was afterwards dispatched to the assistance of Asander in Caria, against the generals of Antigonus Monophthalmus.
Eupolemus was one of the generals of Cassander; he was sent by him in 314 BC to invade Caria, but was surprised and taken prisoner by Ptolemy, a general who commanded that province for Antigonus. He must have been liberated again directly, as the next year we find him commanding the forces left by Cassander in Greece, when he moved northward against Antigonus.
Asander was the son of Philotas and brother of Agathon. He was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great and satrap of Caria after Alexander's death.
Agathon was the son of the Macedonian Philotas and the brother of Parmenion and Asander. He was given as a hostage to Antigonus in 313 BC, by his brother Asander, who was satrap of Caria, but was taken back again by Asander in a few days. Agathon had a son, named Asander, who is mentioned in a Greek inscription.
Orontobates was a Persian, who married the daughter of Pixodarus, the usurping satrap of Caria, and was sent by the king of Persia to succeed him. On the approach of Alexander the Great of Macedon Orontobates and Memnon of Rhodes entrenched themselves in Halicarnassus. But at last, despairing of defending it, they set fire to the town, and under cover of the conflagration crossed over to Cos, whither they had previously removed their treasures. In addition to the island of Cos, Orontobates, retained control of the citadel at Salmacis, and the towns Myndus, Caunus, Thera and Callipolis together with Triopium.
Idrieus, or Hidrieos was a ruler of Caria under the Achaemenid Empire, nominally a Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy.
Autocles of Euonymeia, son of Strombichides, was one of the Athenian envoys empowered to negotiate peace with Sparta in 371 BC. Xenophon reports a somewhat injudicious speech of his, which was delivered on this occasion before the congress at Sparta, and which by no means confirms the character, ascribed to him in the same passage, of a skilful orator. It was perhaps this same Autocles who, in 362, was appointed to the command in Thrace, and was brought to trial for having caused, by his inactivity there, the triumph of Cotys over the rebel Miltocythes. Aristotle refers to a passage in a speech of Autocles against Mixidemides, as illustrating one of his rhetorical topoi.
Themison was a tyrant of Eretria who in 366 BC assisted the exiles of Oropus in recovering possession of their native city. They succeeded in occupying it by surprise, but the Athenians having marched against them with their whole force, Themison was unable to cope with their power, and called in the Thebans to his assistance, who received possession of the city as a deposit, but afterwards refused to give it up.
Adeimantus, son of Leucolophides, an Athenian, was one of the commanders with Alcibiades in the expedition against Andros in 407 BC. He was again appointed one of the Athenian generals after the Battle of Arginusae in 406, and continued in office until the Battle of Aegospotami in 404, where he was one of the commanders, and was taken prisoner. He was the only one of the Athenian prisoners who was not put to death, because he had opposed the decree for cutting off the right hands of the Lacedaemonians who might be taken in the battle. He was accused by many of treachery in this battle, and was afterwards impeached by Conon. Aristophanes speaks of Adeimantus in The Frogs, which was acted in the year of the battle, as one whose death was wished for; and he also calls him, apparently out of jest, the son of Leucolophus, that is, "White Crest". In Plato's Protagoras, Adeimantus is also spoken of as present on that occasion.
Agasias was a Stymphalian of Arcadia who was frequently mentioned by Xenophon as a brave and active officer in the Army of the Ten Thousand. He was an acquaintance of both Hiero I of Syracuse and Xenophon. In his youth, he achieved an Olympic victory, and hired Pindar to compose a song of celebration. He was wounded while fighting against Asidates.
Agathon is a given name.
Timasitheus or Timesitheus was a citizen of Trapezus, and a proxenus of the Mossynoeci, between whom and the Cyrean Greeks he acted as interpreter, when the latter wished to make a treaty with the barbarians, and to obtain a passage through their country.
Aribaeus, the king of the Cappadocians, was slain by the Hyrcanians, in the time of Cyrus the Great, according to Xenophon's Cyropaedia.
Aridolis was a tyrant of Alabanda in Caria, who accompanied the Achaemenid king Xerxes I in his expedition against Greece, and was taken by the Greeks off Artemisium in 480 BCE, and sent to the isthmus of Corinth in chains. His successor may have been Amyntas II.
"They took in one of these ships Aridolis, the despot of Alabanda in Caria, and in another the Paphian captain Penthylus son of Demonous; of twelve ships that he had brought from Paphos he had lost eleven in the storm off the Sepiad headland, and was in the one that remained when he was taken as he bore down on Artemisium. Having questioned these men and learnt what they desired to know of Xerxes' armament, the Greeks sent them away to the isthmus of Corinth in bonds."
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Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
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