Orontes II

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Orontes II
Satrap of Armenia
Reign336 BC – unknown
Coronation 336 BC
Predecessor Darius III
Successor Mithrenes?
Issue Mithrenes?
Dynasty Orontid Dynasty
Father Orontes I?
MotherRodogoune?

Orontes II (Armenian: Երուանդ , Yervand ) was a Persian noble living in the 4th century BC. [1] He is probably to be identified as the satrap of Armenia under Darius III, and may in fact have succeeded Darius in this position when Darius ascended the throne of Persia in 336 BC. [1]

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language that is the only language in the Armenian branch. It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

4th century BC Century

The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.

Satrapy of Armenia period of Yervanduni kingdom

The Satrapy of Armenia (Armenian: Սատրապական Հայաստան Satrapakan Hayastan; Old Persian: Armina or Arminiya, a region controlled by the Orontid Dynasty was one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC, which later became an independent kingdom. Its capitals were Tushpa and later Erebuni.

Arrian lists Orontes and a certain Mithraustes as two commanders of Armenian forces in the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. [2] The interpretation of this passage is controversial, with different historians interpreting it as indicating that Mithraustes commanded the infantry, [3] or that there were two different contingents of Armenian cavalry in this battle, [4] or even that Armenia was divided into two parts ruled by two satraps. [5]

Arrian Roman historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the 2nd-century

Arrian of Nicomedia was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.

Battle of Gaugamela decisive battle of Alexander the Greats invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire

The Battle of Gaugamela, also called the Battle of Arbela, was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. In 331 BC Alexander's army of the Hellenic League met the Persian army of Darius III near Gaugamela, close to the modern city of Dohuk in Iraqi Kurdistan. Though heavily outnumbered, Alexander emerged victorious due to his army's superior tactics and his deft employment of light infantry. It was a decisive victory for the Hellenic League and led to the fall of the Achaemenid Empire.

Orontes fought at the Battle of Gaugamela on the Persian right flank with 40,000 units of infantry and 7,000 of cavalry under his command, [6] where he died.[ citation needed ] His son,[ citation needed ] Mithrenes, Satrap of Lydia, had joined Alexander the Great after being defeated at Sardis in 334 BC, and fought at Gaugamela on the side of Alexander. After the battle, Mithrenes was made Satrap of Armenia by Alexander. [7] [8] [9]

Mithrenes was a Persian commander of the force that garrisoned the citadel of Sardis. According to Cyril Toumanoff, he was also a member of the Orontid dynasty, of Iranian origin. Waldemar Heckel, on the other hand, considers Mithrenes to be a Persian noble of unknown family background. After the battle of the Granicus Mithrenes surrendered voluntarily to Alexander the Great, and was treated by him with great distinction. Mithrenes was present in the Macedonian camp after the Battle of Issus, and Alexander ordered him to visit the captured family of Darius III and assure them that Darius was alive, before changing his mind and assigning the duty to Leonnatus instead. He fought for Alexander at Gaugamela, and ironically he was fighting against an army that included his father Orontes II. Afterwards, Alexander appointed him Satrap of Armenia.

Lydia Old Age kingdom of western Asia Minor

Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian. Its capital was Sardis.

The ultimate fate of Orontes is unknown. Diodorus and Polyaenus mention a man named Orontes, who was a Satrap of Armenia during the Second War of the Diadochi; [10] [11] Diodorus adds that this Orontes was a friend of Peucestas. [10] Andrew Burn, Edward Anson and Waldemar Heckel consider this satrap to be the same Orontes who fought for Darius III in the Battle of Gaugamela; [12] [1] [13] Anson and Heckel state that Mithrenes may have perished in an unsuccessful attempt to wrest Armenia from Orontes. [1] [13] Heckel stated that in all likehood Armenia, which was bypassed by the Macedonian army, was never part of Alexander's empire. [1] Anson, on the other hand, considered it likely that at some point after the Battle of Gaugamela Orontes made his submission to Alexander, who later put him in charge of the Greater Armenia. [13] N. G. L. Hammond interpreted the sources as indicating that Armenia was already in submission when Mithrenes was sent there from Babylon late in 331 BC, that Mithrenes took it over as satrap ruling on behalf of the new Macedonian regime, and that he was left as satrap in 323 BC when Perdiccas let some satrapies remain under the existing satraps; in 317 BC Mithrenes was no longer satrap but had been replaced by Orontes. [14]

Diodorus Siculus Greek historiographer

Diodorus Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily was an ancient Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BCE. It is arranged in three parts. The first covers mythic history up to the destruction of Troy, arranged geographically, describing regions around the world from Egypt, India and Arabia to Europe. The second covers the Trojan War to the death of Alexander the Great. The third covers the period to about 60 BC. Bibliotheca, meaning 'library', acknowledges that he was drawing on the work of many other authors.

Polyaenus Macedonian autor

Polyaenus or Polyenus was a 2nd-century CE Macedonian author, known best for his Stratagems in War, which has been preserved. The Suda calls him a rhetorician, and Polyaenus himself writes that he was accustomed to plead causes before the Roman emperor. Polyaenus dedicated Stratagems in War to the two emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, while they were engaged in the Roman–Parthian War of 161–166, about 163, at which time he was too old to accompany them in their campaigns.

The Second War of the Diadochi was the conflict between the coalition of Polyperchon, Olympias and Eumenes and the coalition of Cassander, Antigonus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus following the death of Cassander's father, Antipater.

One of the inscriptions from the Mount Nemrut detailing the ancestry of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene mentions an ancestor whose name was incompletely preserved, and who was a son of Aroandas. This Aroandas (Orontes) is inferred to be the second ancestor of Antiochus listed in the inscriptions from Mount Nemrut who bore that name, [15] succeeding the first Aroandas, who in turn was the son of Artasyrus and who married Rhodogune, the daughter of Artaxerxes II of Persia. [16] Friedrich Karl Dörner and John H. Young (1996) interpreted the first preserved letter of the name of the son of Aroandas II as a delta, so that the name ended with -δανης, -danes. The authors considered this reading to be important, because it settled the proposal of Ernst Honigmann's ([Mιθρ]άνην), as well as one of the suggestions presented by Salomon Reinach ([Όστ]άνην). [17] Brijder (2014) also interpreted the inscription as indicating that name of the son of Orontes II ended with -danes. [18]

Mount Nemrut Mountain in Turkey

Nemrut or Nemrud is a 2,134-metre-high (7,001 ft) mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC. It is one of the highest peaks in the east of the Taurus Mountains.

Antiochus I Theos of Commagene King of commagene

Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen was an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.

Orontes I Satrap of Sophene and Matiene

Orontes I or Yervand I was an Armenian ruler of the Orontid Dynasty who ruled as satrap of the Achaemenid Empire between 401 BC – 344 BC. The Persian version of the name is Auruand which meant "Great Warrior" in the Avestan language. It is likely this was a special title given by the Persian king, though this seems to have become a hereditary title in that family.

Aroandas II mentioned in an inscription from Mount Nemrut was identified with the Orontes who was a commander in the Battle of Gaugamela by Karl Julius Beloch [19] and Herman Brijder. [20] This Orontes was also inferred to be a descendant of Orontes I and his wife Rhodoghune, [21] possibly their son [19] or grandson. [22] [12] On the other hand, Friedrich Karl Dörner was unsure whether ancient citations of connections of the bearers of the name Aroandas/Orontes with Armenia or their status as leaders of Armenian military units are compelling reasons for assuming that they were relatives. Dörner considered it very questionable whether Aroandas II mentioned in an inscription from Mount Nemrut is identical with the Orontes of Alexander's time; the author stressed the need to consider that in the course of the 4th century BC, besides the two ancestors of Antiochus I of Commagene, other bearers of the same name may have played a part in Persian politics. [23]

Karl Julius Beloch German historian

Karl Julius Beloch was a German classical and economic historian.

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Darius III King of Kings

Darius III, originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, from 336 BC to 330 BC. Artashata adopted Darius as a dynastic name.

Artabazos II 4th-century BC Persian satrap

Artabazos II was a Persian general and satrap. He was the son of the Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, Pharnabazus II, and younger kinsman of Ariobarzanes of Phrygia who revolted against Artaxerxes II around 356 BC. His first wife was an unnamed Greek woman from Rhodes, sister of the two mercenaries Mentor of Rhodes and Memnon of Rhodes.

The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni, was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat). The Orontids established their supremacy over Armenia around the time of the Scythian and Median invasion in the 6th century BC.

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Ptolemaeus was of Armenian descent. Initially satrap of Commagene, he became the first King of Commagene in 163 BC. He was of Orontid Armenian descent, being related to the king of Sophene Arsames I. His father was King Orontes IV of Armenia, son of Arsames I.

Mazaeus Achaemenid satrap

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Orontes IV was the son of King Arsames and is recorded as ruling Armenia from inscriptions found at the historic capital of the Orontid dynasty, Armavir. He was the founder of the city of Yervandashat. In his reign the religious site of Bagaran was founded. Large bronze statues in the Hellenistic style of the gods, Zeus (Aramazd), Artemis (Anahit) and Herakles (Vahagn) were brought there and set up in temples dedicated to them. He is also said to have founded a shrine at Armavir dedicated to Apollo (Mithra), a golden statue of four horses pulling a chariot with Apollo as god of the Sun. This was later destroyed by the Sassanid Persian army in the 4th century AD.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Waldemar Heckel (2006). "Orontes". Who's who in the age of Alexander the Great: prosopography of Alexander's empire. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN   978-1-4051-1210-9.
  2. Arrian, The Anabasis of Alexander , iii. 8
  3. Waldemar Heckel (2006). "Mithraustes". Who's who in the age of Alexander the Great: prosopography of Alexander's empire. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN   978-1-4051-1210-9.
  4. Michał Marciak (2017). "Political history of Sophene". Sophene, Gordyene, and Adiabene: Three Regna Minora of Northern Mesopotamia Between East and West. Brill Publishers. p. 115. ISBN   978-90-04-35070-0.
  5. Nicholas Adontz (1970). Armenia in the period of Justinian: the political conditions based on the Naxarar system. Translated by Nina G. Garsoïan. p. 306.
  6. Lang, David Marshall. "Iran, Armenia and Georgia: Political Contacts". Cambridge History of Iran. 3.
  7. Arrian, The Anabasis of Alexander, iii. 16
  8. Curtius, Histories of Alexander the Great , v. 1.44
  9. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica , xvii. 64.6
  10. 1 2 Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica , xix. 23.3
  11. Polyaenus, Stratagems in War, iv. 8.3
  12. 1 2 A. R. Burn (2003) [1985]. "Persia and the Greeks". In Ilya Gershevitch (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 2: The Median and Achaemenian periods. Cambridge University Press. p. 384.
  13. 1 2 3 Edward Anson (2014). "The funeral games begin". Alexander's Heirs: The Age of the Successors. Wiley Blackwell. p. 50. ISBN   978-1-4443-3962-8.
  14. N. G. L. Hammond (1996). "Alexander and Armenia". Phoenix. 50 (2): 130–137. doi:10.2307/1192698. JSTOR   1192698.
  15. F.K. Dörner (1996). "Epigraphy analysis". In Donald H. Sanders (ed.). Nemrud Daği: The Hierothesion of Antiochus I of Commagene. 1: Text. Eisenbrauns. p. 365. ISBN   978-1-57506-015-6.
  16. Herman Brijder (2014). "The East Terrace". In Herman Brijder (ed.). Nemrud Daği: recent archaeological research and conservation activities in the tomb sanctuary on Mount Nemrud. De Gruyter. p. 330. ISBN   978-1-61451-713-9.
  17. F.K. Dörner; J.H. Young (1996). "Sculpture and inscription catalogue". In Donald H. Sanders (ed.). Nemrud Daği: The Hierothesion of Antiochus I of Commagene. 1: Text. Eisenbrauns. p. 297. ISBN   978-1-57506-015-6.
  18. Herman Brijder (2014). "The West Terrace". In Herman Brijder (ed.). Nemrud Daği: recent archaeological research and conservation activities in the tomb sanctuary on Mount Nemrud. De Gruyter. p. 373. ISBN   978-1-61451-713-9.
  19. 1 2 Karl Julius Beloch (1923). Griechische geschichte. Volume 3, part 2. Walter de Gruyter & co. p. 141.
  20. Herman Brijder (2014). "The East Terrace". In Herman Brijder (ed.). Nemrud Daği: recent archaeological research and conservation activities in the tomb sanctuary on Mount Nemrud. De Gruyter. p. 331. ISBN   978-1-61451-713-9.
  21. David M. Lang (2008) [1983]. "Iran, Armenia and Georgia". In Ehsan Yarshater (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanid Periods, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 506. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521200929.016. ISBN   9781139054942.
  22. Walther Judeich (1892). Kleinasiatische Studien. Untersuchungen zur Griechisch-Persischen Geschichte des IV. jahrhunderts v. Chr. N. G. Elwertsche Verlagsbuchhandlung. p. 225.
  23. F.K. Dörner (1996). "Epigraphy analysis". In Donald H. Sanders (ed.). Nemrud Daği: The Hierothesion of Antiochus I of Commagene. 1: Text. Eisenbrauns. pp. 365–366. ISBN   978-1-57506-015-6.

Bibliography