Director-General of the World Trade Organization

Last updated
Director-General of the World Trade Organization
Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi (2008 portrait).jpg
Incumbent
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala (Elect)

since 1 March 2021
World Trade Organization
Style Madam Director-General
(informal)
Her Excellency
(diplomatic)
Status Chief Administrative Officer
Reports toGeneral Council
Seat Centre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland
AppointerGeneral Council
Term length Four years, renewable
Constituting instrumentWTO Organization Chart
Formation1 January 1995
First holder Peter Sutherland
DeputyDeputy Director-Generals
Website www.wto.org

The director-general of the World Trade Organization is the officer of the World Trade Organization (WTO) responsible for supervising and directing the organization's administrative operations. Since the World Trade Organization's decisions are made by member states, through either a Ministerial Conference or through the General Council, the director-general has little power over matters of policy – the role is primarily advisory and managerial in nature. The director-general supervises the WTO secretariat of about 700 staff and is appointed by WTO members for a term of four years. [1]

Contents

The post of Director-General has been vacant since 31 August 2020, [2] after the resignation of Roberto Azevêdo of Brazil who had held the post since 1 September 2013. [3] On February 5, 2021, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala of Nigeria secured the support of the United States for Director-General of the WTO. [4] Okonjo-Iweala will become the first woman and first African to hold this position.

Before the formation of the WTO, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) had a series of directors-general. Peter Sutherland was the last director-general of GATT and the first of the WTO.

List of Directors-General

This is a list of former holders of the office of Director-General. The post was created in 1995, although the earlier office of Executive Secretary is often seen as a direct equivalent. [5]

No.PortraitDirector-GeneralTermHome Country
StartEnd
1
Peter-Sutherland-2011.jpg
Peter Sutherland
(1946–2018)
1 July 199330 April 1995 Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland
2
Renato Ruggiero.jpg
Renato Ruggiero
(1930–2013)
1 May 199531 August 1999 Flag of Italy.svg Italy
3
Mike Moore.jpg
Mike Moore
(1949–2020)
1 September 199931 August 2002 Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
4
Supachai Panitchpakdi.jpg
Supachai Panitchpakdi
(born 1946)
1 September 200231 August 2005 Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand
5
Pascal Lamy, 2006.jpg
Pascal Lamy
(born 1947)
1 September 200531 August 2009 Flag of France.svg France
1 September 200931 August 2013
6
Roberto Azevedo cropped.jpg
Roberto Azevêdo
(born 1957)
1 September 201331 August 2017 Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
1 September 201731 August 2020 [6]
7
Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi (2008 portrait).jpg
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala [7]
(born 1954)
1 March 2021
Incumbent
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria

2020 Director-General selection

In May 2020, Director-General Azevedo announced that he would step down on 31 August 2020, a year before his mandate was due to expire. [8] On 17 August 2020, human rights organizations urged the member nations to reject the nomination of Saudi Arabia's Mohammad Al-Tuwaijri, citing the country's poor human rights records. [9]

General Council Chair David Walker initiated a process of consultation with members from 7 September 2020 onwards, through which the field of candidates was gradually reduced until an appointment was to be made. [10] Eight candidates were put forward by WTO member governments to succeed Azevedo. [11]

The final selection required a consensus of the 164 member countries and was expected to take place in November, 2020. [12] However, due to "the health situation and current events" the meeting was postponed. [13] [14]

CountryCandidateNotes
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala Former Managing Director of the World Bank, Finance Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs [15]
Withdrawn on 5 February 2021 after consultation with major countries such as the United States [16]
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea Yoo Myung-hee Minister for Trade of South Korea [17] [12]
Withdrawn on 6 October 2020 after the second round of consultations [18]
Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya Amina C. Mohamed Cabinet Secretary for Sports, Heritage and Culture in Kenya
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia Mohammad Al-Tuwaijri Minister ranked advisor at the Royal Court, ex-minister of Economy and Planning
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Liam Fox Former Secretary of State for International Trade and Secretary of State for Defence in the UK
Withdrawn on 18 September 2020 after the first round of consultations [19]
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Jesús Seade Kuri Undersecretary for North America for the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt Abdel-Hamid MamdouhNegotiator for Egypt and senior WTO official [20]
Flag of Moldova.svg Moldova Tudor Ulianovschi Former Foreign Minister of Moldova

Related Research Articles

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its purpose was the "substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis."

World Trade Organization Intergovernmental trade organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. It officially commenced operations on 1 January 1995, pursuant to the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was established in 1948. The WTO is the world's largest international economic organization, with 164 member states representing over 96% of global trade and global GDP.

NOI may refer to:

Pascal Lamy

Pascal Lamy is a French political consultant and businessman. He was the Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) from 1 September 2005 to 1 September 2013 for 8 years. In April 2009, WTO members reappointed Lamy for a second 4-year term, beginning on 1 September 2009. He was then succeeded by Roberto Azevêdo. Pascal Lamy was also European Commissioner for Trade and is an advisor for the transatlantic think-tank European Horizons, as well as currently serving as the Honorary President of the Paris-based think tank, Notre Europe.

Yushau Abdulhameed Shuaib is a Nigerian writer. He is an author, public relations practitioner and public affairs commentator on national and international issues, including subjects such as public relations practice, gender equality, national security, youth development, religious tolerance, media arts and crime prevention. He has published over 300 articles in various national dailies in Nigeria.

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala Nigerian economist

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is a Nigerian-American economist and international development expert. She sits on the boards of Standard Chartered Bank, Twitter, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, and the African Risk Capacity (ARC). On 15 February 2021, she was appointed as Director-General of the World Trade Organization. Her term will begin on 1 March 2021, when she will become the first woman and the first African to hold the office.

Nigerian Americans are an ethnic group of Americans who are of Nigerian ancestry. The 2019 American Community Survey estimates that 461,695 U.S. residents report Nigerian ancestry. The 2019 ACS estimates that 392,811 U.S. residents were born in Nigeria. Although natives of what is today modern Nigeria were transported as slaves to the Americas via the Atlantic slave trade, U.S. residents who report Nigerian ancestry are generally recent immigrants who migrated to the U.S. after Nigeria became an independent country in 1960.

Eyitayo Lambo was appointed the Nigerian Federal Minister of Health in July 2003, holding office until May 2007 during the second term of the presidency of Olusegun Obasanjo.

The original member states of theWorld Trade Organization are the parties to the GATT after ratifying the Uruguay Round Agreements, and the European Communities. They obtained this status at the entry into force on 1 January 1995 or upon their date of ratification. All other members have joined the organization as a result of negotiation, and membership consists of a balance of rights and obligations. The process of becoming a World Trade Organization (WTO) member is unique to each applicant country, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and the current trade regime.

Results for Development (R4D) is a global nonprofit strategy consulting organization. "

2012 World Bank Group presidential election

An indirect presidential election was held on 16 April 2012 to choose a new president of the World Bank Group to replace Robert Zoellick, whose term expired in June. Although the organisation has always had presidents from, and nominated by, the United States, this election featured the nomination of two non-United States candidates for the first time, originating, respectively, from Nigeria and Colombia. Though the Colombian José Antonio Ocampo withdrew his candidacy in the final stages, the Nigerian Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala remained in the race. Eventually, and amid controversy, the U.S. nominee Jim Yong Kim was announced as the new president on 16 April.

Folorunso Alakija Nigerian billionaire businesswoman

Folorunso Alakija is a Nigerian billionaire businesswoman. She is involved in the fashion, oil, real estate and printing industries. She is the group managing director of The Rose of Sharon Group which consists of The Rose of Sharon Prints & Promotions Limited, Digital Reality Prints Limited and the executive vice-chairman of Famfa Oil Limited..

Roberto Azevêdo is Director-General of the World Trade Organization

Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo is a Brazilian career diplomat who served as Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) from 2013 until 2020. Since 2020, he has been Executive Vice President and Director of Corporate Affairs at PepsiCo.

Mexico–Nigeria relations Diplomatic relations between the United Mexican States and the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Mexico-Nigeria relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the United Mexican States and the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Both nations are members of the Group of 15, Group of 24 and the United Nations.

Ogwashi Ukwu Place in Delta State, Nigeria

Ogwashi Ukwu, sometimes spelled Ogwashi Uku, is an Igbo town in Delta State, Nigeria. It is located west of the state capital, Asaba and is the headquarters for the local government area, Aniocha South. The population of Ogwashi-Ukwu is about 50,234. Its numbers have vastly increased. It is in the Anioma part of Delta State, the Igbo-speaking part and its natives are Enuani people. Nine villages make up Ogwashi-Ukwu. These are: Ikelike, Umu Dei, Azungwu, Agidiase, Agidiehe, Ogbe Akwu, Ishekpe, Ogbe Onicha and Ogbe Ani.

Constance Chiogor Ikokwu is a Nigerian journalist, political analyst and media strategist. She is the Strategy and Communications Adviser to the Nigerian Minister of Industry, Trade and Investment and was previously Media Adviser to Former Nigerian Minister of Finance Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala.

Yoo Myung-hee South Korea bureaucrat

Yoo Myung-hee is the current Minister for Trade of South Korea. She is the first woman to hold the position. Over the past 25 years, she has worked in various government agencies since she passed the Korean state civil servant exam in 1991.

The National Centre for Women Development (NCWD) is a Nigerian state-owned enterprise based in Abuja. It was established in 1997.

Mohammad Bin Mazyad Al-Tuwaijri is a Saudi Arabian politician, a minister ranked advisor at the Royal Court, ex-minister of Economy and Planning (2017–2020). His prior experience includes the role of group managing director of HSBC Holdings PLC MENA & Turkey from 2010 to 2016. He was also the managing director of J.P. Morgan from 2007 to 2010, and started his banking career in 1995 with the Saudi British Bank (SABB), where he became the head of treasury.

The following is a list of events in 2021 in Nigeria.

References

  1. See document WT/L/509, accessible from
  2. "WTO Director-General". World Trade Organization. 8 October 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  3. McClanahan, Paige (8 May 2013). "Roberto Azevêdo to be named new World Trade Organisation chief". Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  4. "After being blocked by Trump, first African and woman takes WTO helm". POLITICO. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  5. "Previous GATT and WTO Directors-General". WTO. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  6. Emma Farge, Philip Blenkinsop (31 August 2020). "Damaged WTO now leaderless as chief Azevedo steps down". Reuters. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  7. "After being blocked by Trump, first African and woman takes WTO helm". POLITICO. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  8. "WTO chief Roberto Azevêdo to step down early". The Financial Times. 14 May 2020.
  9. "World Trade Organization Urged to Reject Saudi Arabia's Nominee for WTO Director General". Freedom Forward. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  10. "WTO Director-General: Roberto Azevêdo". wto.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  11. "Candidates for DG selection process 2020". WHO. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020.
  12. 1 2 "Moon, allies intensify campaign for Yoo Myung-hee to head WTO". Joongang Daily. 12 October 2020. Archived from the original on 13 October 2020.
  13. "General Council meeting on DG selection postponed". wto.org.
  14. "APPOINTMENT OF THE NEXT DIRECTOR-GENERAL - COMMUNICATION FROM THE GENERAL COUNCIL CHAIR, H.E. DR DAVID WALKER". wto.org. 7 November 2020. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020.
  15. "Okonjo-Iweala Advances to Final Round of WTO Leadership". The African Media. 7 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  16. "WTO: South Korea's Yoo Myung-hee withdraws from director general race, clearing path for Nigeria's Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala". South China Morning Post. 5 February 2021.
  17. "S. Korea's Trade Minister Declares Bid to Run for WTO Chief". world.kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  18. "Nigerian, South Korean make last round of WTO chief race - sources". Reuters. 8 October 2020.
  19. "Dr Liam Fox through to 2nd round in WTO Director General contest". Department for International Trade. 18 September 2020.
  20. "Mr Abdel-Hamid Mamdouh Biography" (PDF). wto.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 September 2020.