In mathematics, a sequence of *n* real numbers can be understood as a location in *n*-dimensional space. When *n* = 8, the set of all such locations is called **8-dimensional space**. Often such spaces are studied as vector spaces, without any notion of distance. Eight-dimensional Euclidean space is eight-dimensional space equipped with the Euclidean metric.

More generally the term may refer to an eight-dimensional vector space over any field, such as an eight-dimensional complex vector space, which has 16 real dimensions. It may also refer to an eight-dimensional manifold such as an 8-sphere, or a variety of other geometric constructions.

A polytope in eight dimensions is called an 8-polytope. The most studied are the regular polytopes, of which there are only three in eight dimensions: the 8-simplex, 8-cube, and 8-orthoplex. A broader family are the uniform 8-polytopes, constructed from fundamental symmetry domains of reflection, each domain defined by a Coxeter group. Each uniform polytope is defined by a ringed Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. The 8-demicube is a unique polytope from the D_{8} family, and 4_{21}, 2_{41}, and 1_{42} polytopes from the E_{8} family.

A_{8} | B_{8} | D_{8} | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

8-simplex {3,3,3,3,3,3,3} | 8-cube {4,3,3,3,3,3,3} | 8-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,3,3,4} | 8-demicube h{4,3,3,3,3,3,3} | ||||||||

E_{8} | |||||||||||

4 _{21} {3,3,3,3,3 ^{2,1}} | 2 _{41} {3,3,3 ^{4,1}} | 1 _{42} {3,3 ^{4,2}} |

The 7-sphere or hypersphere in eight dimensions is the seven-dimensional surface equidistant from a point, e.g. the origin. It has symbol *S*^{7}, with formal definition for the 7-sphere with radius *r* of

The volume of the space bounded by this 7-sphere is

which is 4.05871 × *r*^{8}, or 0.01585 of the 8-cube that contains the 7-sphere.

The kissing number problem has been solved in eight dimensions, thanks to the existence of the 4_{21} polytope and its associated lattice. The kissing number in eight dimensions is 240.

The octonions are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, the largest such algebra. Mathematically they can be specified by 8-tuplets of real numbers, so form an 8-dimensional vector space over the reals, with addition of vectors being the addition in the algebra. A normed algebra is one with a product that satisfies

for all *x* and *y* in the algebra. A normed division algebra additionally must be finite-dimensional, and have the property that every non-zero vector has a unique multiplicative inverse. Hurwitz's theorem prohibits such a structure from existing in dimensions other than 1, 2, 4, or 8.

The complexified quaternions , or "biquaternions," are an eight-dimensional algebra dating to William Rowan Hamilton's work in the 1850s. This algebra is equivalent (that is, isomorphic) to the Clifford algebra and the Pauli algebra. It has also been proposed as a practical or pedagogical tool for doing calculations in special relativity, and in that context goes by the name Algebra of physical space (not to be confused with the Spacetime algebra, which is 16-dimensional.)

In elementary geometry, a **polytope** is a geometric object with flat sides (*faces*). It is a generalization in any number of dimensions of the three-dimensional polyhedron. Polytopes may exist in any general number of dimensions n as an n-dimensional polytope or **n-polytope**. In this context, "flat sides" means that the sides of a (*k* + 1)-polytope consist of k-polytopes that may have (*k* – 1)-polytopes in common. For example, a two-dimensional polygon is a 2-polytope and a three-dimensional polyhedron is a 3-polytope.

In geometry, the **tesseract** is the four-dimensional analogue of the cube; the tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square. Just as the surface of the cube consists of six square faces, the hypersurface of the tesseract consists of eight cubical cells. The tesseract is one of the six convex regular 4-polytopes.

In mathematics, the **octonions** are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, a kind of hypercomplex number system. The octonions are usually represented by the capital letter O, using boldface **O** or blackboard bold . Octonions have eight dimensions; twice the number of dimensions of the quaternions, of which they are an extension. They are noncommutative and nonassociative, but satisfy a weaker form of associativity; namely, they are alternative. They are also power associative.

In mathematics, **hypercomplex number** is a traditional term for an element of a finite-dimensional unital algebra over the field of real numbers. The study of hypercomplex numbers in the late 19th century forms the basis of modern group representation theory.

In mathematics, the **quaternion** number system extends the complex numbers. Quaternions were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in three-dimensional space. Hamilton defined a quaternion as the quotient of two *directed lines* in a three-dimensional space, or, equivalently, as the quotient of two vectors. Multiplication of quaternions is noncommutative.

In mathematics, the **Cayley–Dickson construction**, named after Arthur Cayley and Leonard Eugene Dickson, produces a sequence of algebras over the field of real numbers, each with twice the dimension of the previous one. The algebras produced by this process are known as **Cayley–Dickson algebras**, for example complex numbers, quaternions, and octonions. These examples are useful composition algebras frequently applied in mathematical physics.

In mathematics, **F _{4}** is the name of a Lie group and also its Lie algebra

In geometry, a **cross-polytope**, **hyperoctahedron**, **orthoplex**, or **cocube** is a regular, convex polytope that exists in *n*-dimensional Euclidean space. A 2-dimensional cross-polytope is a square, a 3-dimensional cross-polytope is a regular octahedron, and a 4-dimensional cross-polytope is a 16-cell. Its facets are simplexes of the previous dimension, while the cross-polytope's vertex figure is another cross-polytope from the previous dimension.

In mathematics, a **norm** is a function from a real or complex vector space to the non-negative real numbers that behaves in certain ways like the distance from the origin: it commutes with scaling, obeys a form of the triangle inequality, and is zero only at the origin. In particular, the Euclidean distance of a vector from the origin is a norm, called the Euclidean norm, or 2-norm, which may also be defined as the square root of the inner product of a vector with itself.

In mathematics, the **E _{8} lattice** is a special lattice in

In mathematics, a **versor** is a quaternion of norm one. The word is derived from Latin *versare* = "to turn" with the suffix *-or* forming a noun from the verb. It was introduced by William Rowan Hamilton in the context of his quaternion theory.

In mathematics, a **composition algebra**A over a field K is a not necessarily associative algebra over K together with a nondegenerate quadratic form N that satisfies

Many branches of mathematics study objects of a given type and prove a classification theorem. A common theme is that the classification results in a number of series of objects and a finite number of exceptions — often with desirable properties — that do not fit into any series. These are known as **exceptional objects**. In many cases, these exceptional objects play a further and important role in the subject. Furthermore, the exceptional objects in one branch of mathematics often relate to the exceptional objects in others.

In five-dimensional geometry, a **5-cube** is a name for a five-dimensional hypercube with 32 vertices, 80 edges, 80 square faces, 40 cubic cells, and 10 tesseract 4-faces.

In four-dimensional Euclidean geometry, the **24-cell honeycomb**, or **icositetrachoric honeycomb** is a regular space-filling tessellation of 4-dimensional Euclidean space by regular 24-cells. It can be represented by Schläfli symbol {3,4,3,3}.

**Six-dimensional space** is any space that has six dimensions, six degrees of freedom, and that needs six pieces of data, or coordinates, to specify a location in this space. There are an infinite number of these, but those of most interest are simpler ones that model some aspect of the environment. Of particular interest is six-dimensional Euclidean space, in which 6-polytopes and the 5-sphere are constructed. Six-dimensional elliptical space and hyperbolic spaces are also studied, with constant positive and negative curvature.

In mathematics, a sequence of *n* real numbers can be understood as a location in *n*-dimensional space. When *n* = 7, the set of all such locations is called **7-dimensional space**. Often such a space is studied as a vector space, without any notion of distance. Seven-dimensional Euclidean space is seven-dimensional space equipped with a Euclidean metric, which is defined by the dot product.

In geometry, the **simplectic honeycomb** is a dimensional infinite series of honeycombs, based on the affine Coxeter group symmetry. It is given a Schläfli symbol {3^{[n+1]}}, and is represented by a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram as a cyclic graph of *n* + 1 nodes with one node ringed. It is composed of n-simplex facets, along with all rectified n-simplices. It can be thought of as an n-dimensional hypercubic honeycomb that has been subdivided along all hyperplanes , then stretched along its main diagonal until the simplices on the ends of the hypercubes become regular. The vertex figure of an n-*simplex honeycomb* is an expanded n-simplex.

- H.S.M. Coxeter:
- H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular Polytopes*, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973

- H.S.M. Coxeter,
**Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter**, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 Wiley::Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter- (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I*, [Math. Zeit. 46 (1940) 380–407, MR 2,10] - (Paper 23) H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II*, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) 559-591] - (Paper 24) H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III*, [Math. Zeit. 200 (1988) 3-45]

- (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter,
- Table of the Highest Kissing Numbers Presently Known maintained by Gabriele Nebe and Neil Sloane (lower bounds)
- Conway, John Horton; Smith, Derek A. (2003),
*On Quaternions and Octonions: Their Geometry, Arithmetic, and Symmetry*, A. K. Peters, Ltd., ISBN 1-56881-134-9 . (Review). - Duplij, Steven; Siegel, Warren; Bagger, Jonathan, eds. (2005),
*Concise Encyclopedia of Supersymmetry And Noncommutative Structures in Mathematics and Physics*, Berlin, New York: Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-1338-6 (Second printing)

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