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A polyhedron is a 3-dimensional polytope
A polygon is a 2-dimensional polytope. Polygons can be characterised according to various criteria. Some examples are: open (excluding its boundary), bounding circuit only (ignoring its interior), closed (including both its boundary and its interior), and self-intersecting with varying densities of different regions. Assorted polygons.svg
A polygon is a 2-dimensional polytope. Polygons can be characterised according to various criteria. Some examples are: open (excluding its boundary), bounding circuit only (ignoring its interior), closed (including both its boundary and its interior), and self-intersecting with varying densities of different regions.

In elementary geometry, a polytope is a geometric object with flat sides ( faces ). It is a generalization in any number of dimensions of the three-dimensional polyhedron. Polytopes may exist in any general number of dimensions n as an n-dimensional polytope or n-polytope. In this context, "flat sides" means that the sides of a (k + 1)-polytope consist of k-polytopes that may have (k – 1)-polytopes in common. For example, a two-dimensional polygon is a 2-polytope and a three-dimensional polyhedron is a 3-polytope.


Some theories further generalize the idea to include such objects as unbounded apeirotopes and tessellations, decompositions or tilings of curved manifolds including spherical polyhedra, and set-theoretic abstract polytopes.

Polytopes of more than three dimensions were first discovered by Ludwig Schläfli before 1853, who called such a figure a polyschem. [1] The German term polytop was coined by the mathematician Reinhold Hoppe, and was introduced to English mathematicians as polytope by Alicia Boole Stott.

Approaches to definition

Nowadays, the term polytope is a broad term that covers a wide class of objects, and various definitions appear in the mathematical literature. Many of these definitions are not equivalent to each other, resulting in different overlapping sets of objects being called polytopes. They represent different approaches to generalizing the convex polytopes to include other objects with similar properties.

The original approach broadly followed by Ludwig Schläfli, Thorold Gosset and others begins with the extension by analogy into four or more dimensions, of the idea of a polygon and polyhedron respectively in two and three dimensions. [2]

Attempts to generalise the Euler characteristic of polyhedra to higher-dimensional polytopes led to the development of topology and the treatment of a decomposition or CW-complex as analogous to a polytope. [3] In this approach, a polytope may be regarded as a tessellation or decomposition of some given manifold. An example of this approach defines a polytope as a set of points that admits a simplicial decomposition. In this definition, a polytope is the union of finitely many simplices, with the additional property that, for any two simplices that have a nonempty intersection, their intersection is a vertex, edge, or higher dimensional face of the two. [4] However this definition does not allow star polytopes with interior structures, and so is restricted to certain areas of mathematics.

The discovery of star polyhedra and other unusual constructions led to the idea of a polyhedron as a bounding surface, ignoring its interior. [5] In this light convex polytopes in p-space are equivalent to tilings of the (p−1)-sphere, while others may be tilings of other elliptic, flat or toroidal (p−1)-surfaces – see elliptic tiling and toroidal polyhedron. A polyhedron is understood as a surface whose faces are polygons, a 4-polytope as a hypersurface whose facets (cells) are polyhedra, and so forth.

The idea of constructing a higher polytope from those of lower dimension is also sometimes extended downwards in dimension, with an (edge) seen as a 1-polytope bounded by a point pair, and a point or vertex as a 0-polytope. This approach is used for example in the theory of abstract polytopes.

In certain fields of mathematics, the terms "polytope" and "polyhedron" are used in a different sense: a polyhedron is the generic object in any dimension (referred to as polytope in this article) and polytope means a bounded polyhedron. [6] This terminology is typically confined to polytopes and polyhedra that are convex. With this terminology, a convex polyhedron is the intersection of a finite number of halfspaces and is defined by its sides while a convex polytope is the convex hull of a finite number of points and is defined by its vertices.

Polytopes in lower numbers of dimensions have standard names:

of polytope
Description [7]
−1 Nullitope
0 Monon
2 Polygon
3 Polyhedron
4 Polychoron


A polytope comprises elements of different dimensionality such as vertices, edges, faces, cells and so on. Terminology for these is not fully consistent across different authors. For example, some authors use face to refer to an (n  1)-dimensional element while others use face to denote a 2-face specifically. Authors may use j-face or j-facet to indicate an element of j dimensions. Some use edge to refer to a ridge, while H. S. M. Coxeter uses cell to denote an (n  1)-dimensional element. [8] [ citation needed ]

The terms adopted in this article are given in the table below:

of element
(in an n-polytope)
−1Nullity (necessary in abstract theory) [7]
0 Vertex
1 Edge
2 Face
3 Cell
jj-face – element of rank j = −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., n
n − 3 Peak – (n − 3)-face
n − 2 Ridge or subfacet – (n − 2)-face
n − 1 Facet – (n − 1)-face
nThe polytope itself

An n-dimensional polytope is bounded by a number of (n  1)-dimensional facets . These facets are themselves polytopes, whose facets are (n  2)-dimensional ridges of the original polytope. Every ridge arises as the intersection of two facets (but the intersection of two facets need not be a ridge). Ridges are once again polytopes whose facets give rise to (n  3)-dimensional boundaries of the original polytope, and so on. These bounding sub-polytopes may be referred to as faces, or specifically j-dimensional faces or j-faces. A 0-dimensional face is called a vertex, and consists of a single point. A 1-dimensional face is called an edge, and consists of a line segment. A 2-dimensional face consists of a polygon, and a 3-dimensional face, sometimes called a cell , consists of a polyhedron.

Important classes of polytopes

Convex polytopes

A polytope may be convex. The convex polytopes are the simplest kind of polytopes, and form the basis for several different generalizations of the concept of polytopes. A convex polytope is sometimes defined as the intersection of a set of half-spaces. This definition allows a polytope to be neither bounded nor finite. Polytopes are defined in this way, e.g., in linear programming. A polytope is bounded if there is a ball of finite radius that contains it. A polytope is said to be pointed if it contains at least one vertex. Every bounded nonempty polytope is pointed. An example of a non-pointed polytope is the set . A polytope is finite if it is defined in terms of a finite number of objects, e.g., as an intersection of a finite number of half-planes. It is an integral polytope if all of its vertices have integer coordinates.

A certain class of convex polytopes are reflexive polytopes. An integral -polytope is reflexive if for some integral matrix , , where denotes a vector of all ones, and the inequality is component-wise. It follows from this definition that is reflexive if and only if for all . In other words, a -dilate of differs, in terms of integer lattice points, from a -dilate of only by lattice points gained on the boundary. Equivalently, is reflexive if and only if its dual polytope is an integral polytope. [9]

Regular polytopes

Regular polytopes have the highest degree of symmetry of all polytopes. The symmetry group of a regular polytope acts transitively on its flags; hence, the dual polytope of a regular polytope is also regular.

There are three main classes of regular polytope which occur in any number of dimensions:

Dimensions two, three and four include regular figures which have fivefold symmetries and some of which are non-convex stars, and in two dimensions there are infinitely many regular polygons of n-fold symmetry, both convex and (for n ≥ 5) star. But in higher dimensions there are no other regular polytopes. [2]

In three dimensions the convex Platonic solids include the fivefold-symmetric dodecahedron and icosahedron, and there are also four star Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra with fivefold symmetry, bringing the total to nine regular polyhedra.

In four dimensions the regular 4-polytopes include one additional convex solid with fourfold symmetry and two with fivefold symmetry. There are ten star Schläfli-Hess 4-polytopes, all with fivefold symmetry, giving in all sixteen regular 4-polytopes.

Star polytopes

A non-convex polytope may be self-intersecting; this class of polytopes include the star polytopes. Some regular polytopes are stars. [2]


Euler characteristic

Since a (filled) convex polytope P in dimensions is contractible to a point, the Euler characteristic of its boundary ∂P is given by the alternating sum:

, where is the number of -dimensional faces.

This generalizes Euler's formula for polyhedra. [10]

Internal angles

The Gram–Euler theorem similarly generalizes the alternating sum of internal angles for convex polyhedra to higher-dimensional polytopes: [10]

Generalisations of a polytope

Infinite polytopes

Not all manifolds are finite. Where a polytope is understood as a tiling or decomposition of a manifold, this idea may be extended to infinite manifolds. plane tilings, space-filling (honeycombs) and hyperbolic tilings are in this sense polytopes, and are sometimes called apeirotopes because they have infinitely many cells.

Among these, there are regular forms including the regular skew polyhedra and the infinite series of tilings represented by the regular apeirogon, square tiling, cubic honeycomb, and so on.

Abstract polytopes

The theory of abstract polytopes attempts to detach polytopes from the space containing them, considering their purely combinatorial properties. This allows the definition of the term to be extended to include objects for which it is difficult to define an intuitive underlying space, such as the 11-cell.

An abstract polytope is a partially ordered set of elements or members, which obeys certain rules. It is a purely algebraic structure, and the theory was developed in order to avoid some of the issues which make it difficult to reconcile the various geometric classes within a consistent mathematical framework. A geometric polytope is said to be a realization in some real space of the associated abstract polytope. [11]

Complex polytopes

Structures analogous to polytopes exist in complex Hilbert spaces where n real dimensions are accompanied by n imaginary ones. Regular complex polytopes are more appropriately treated as configurations. [12]


Every n-polytope has a dual structure, obtained by interchanging its vertices for facets, edges for ridges, and so on generally interchanging its (j  1)-dimensional elements for (n  j)-dimensional elements (for j = 1 to n  1), while retaining the connectivity or incidence between elements.

For an abstract polytope, this simply reverses the ordering of the set. This reversal is seen in the Schläfli symbols for regular polytopes, where the symbol for the dual polytope is simply the reverse of the original. For example, {4, 3, 3} is dual to {3, 3, 4}.

In the case of a geometric polytope, some geometric rule for dualising is necessary, see for example the rules described for dual polyhedra. Depending on circumstance, the dual figure may or may not be another geometric polytope. [13]

If the dual is reversed, then the original polytope is recovered. Thus, polytopes exist in dual pairs.

Self-dual polytopes

The 5-cell (4-simplex) is self-dual with 5 vertices and 5 tetrahedral cells. Schlegel wireframe 5-cell.png
The 5-cell (4-simplex) is self-dual with 5 vertices and 5 tetrahedral cells.

If a polytope has the same number of vertices as facets, of edges as ridges, and so forth, and the same connectivities, then the dual figure will be similar to the original and the polytope is self-dual.

Some common self-dual polytopes include:


Polygons and polyhedra have been known since ancient times.

An early hint of higher dimensions came in 1827 when August Ferdinand Möbius discovered that two mirror-image solids can be superimposed by rotating one of them through a fourth mathematical dimension. By the 1850s, a handful of other mathematicians such as Arthur Cayley and Hermann Grassmann had also considered higher dimensions.

Ludwig Schläfli was the first to consider analogues of polygons and polyhedra in these higher spaces. He described the six convex regular 4-polytopes in 1852 but his work was not published until 1901, six years after his death. By 1854, Bernhard Riemann's Habilitationsschrift had firmly established the geometry of higher dimensions, and thus the concept of n-dimensional polytopes was made acceptable. Schläfli's polytopes were rediscovered many times in the following decades, even during his lifetime.

In 1882 Reinhold Hoppe, writing in German, coined the word polytop to refer to this more general concept of polygons and polyhedra. In due course Alicia Boole Stott, daughter of logician George Boole, introduced the anglicised polytope into the English language. [2] :vi

In 1895, Thorold Gosset not only rediscovered Schläfli's regular polytopes but also investigated the ideas of semiregular polytopes and space-filling tessellations in higher dimensions. Polytopes also began to be studied in non-Euclidean spaces such as hyperbolic space.

An important milestone was reached in 1948 with H. S. M. Coxeter's book Regular Polytopes , summarizing work to date and adding new findings of his own.

Meanwhile, the French mathematician Henri Poincaré had developed the topological idea of a polytope as the piecewise decomposition (e.g. CW-complex) of a manifold. Branko Grünbaum published his influential work on Convex Polytopes in 1967.

In 1952 Geoffrey Colin Shephard generalised the idea as complex polytopes in complex space, where each real dimension has an imaginary one associated with it. Coxeter developed the theory further.

The conceptual issues raised by complex polytopes, non-convexity, duality and other phenomena led Grünbaum and others to the more general study of abstract combinatorial properties relating vertices, edges, faces and so on. A related idea was that of incidence complexes, which studied the incidence or connection of the various elements with one another. These developments led eventually to the theory of abstract polytopes as partially ordered sets, or posets, of such elements. Peter McMullen and Egon Schulte published their book Abstract Regular Polytopes in 2002.

Enumerating the uniform polytopes, convex and nonconvex, in four or more dimensions remains an outstanding problem.

In modern times, polytopes and related concepts have found many important applications in fields as diverse as computer graphics, optimization, search engines, cosmology, quantum mechanics and numerous other fields. In 2013 the amplituhedron was discovered as a simplifying construct in certain calculations of theoretical physics.


In the field of optimization, linear programming studies the maxima and minima of linear functions; these maxima and minima occur on the boundary of an n-dimensional polytope. In linear programming, polytopes occur in the use of generalized barycentric coordinates and slack variables.

In twistor theory, a branch of theoretical physics, a polytope called the amplituhedron is used in to calculate the scattering amplitudes of subatomic particles when they collide. The construct is purely theoretical with no known physical manifestation, but is said to greatly simplify certain calculations. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

Dual polyhedron Polyhedron associated with another by swapping vertices for faces

In geometry, every polyhedron is associated with a second dual figure, where the vertices of one correspond to the faces of the other, and the edges between pairs of vertices of one correspond to the edges between pairs of faces of the other. Such dual figures remain combinatorial or abstract polyhedra, but not all are also geometric polyhedra. Starting with any given polyhedron, the dual of its dual is the original polyhedron.

In geometry, a polyhedral compound is a figure that is composed of several polyhedra sharing a common centre. They are the three-dimensional analogs of polygonal compounds such as the hexagram.

4-polytope Four-dimensional geometric object with flat sides

In geometry, a 4-polytope is a four-dimensional polytope. It is a connected and closed figure, composed of lower-dimensional polytopal elements: vertices, edges, faces (polygons), and cells (polyhedra). Each face is shared by exactly two cells. The 4-polytopes were discovered by the Swiss mathematician Ludwig Schläfli before 1853.

In solid geometry, a face is a flat surface that forms part of the boundary of a solid object; a three-dimensional solid bounded exclusively by faces is a polyhedron.

A regular polyhedron is a polyhedron whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags. A regular polyhedron is highly symmetrical, being all of edge-transitive, vertex-transitive and face-transitive. In classical contexts, many different equivalent definitions are used; a common one is that the faces are congruent regular polygons which are assembled in the same way around each vertex.

Schläfli symbol Notation that defines regular polytopes and tessellations

In geometry, the Schläfli symbol is a notation of the form that defines regular polytopes and tessellations.

Regular polytope Polytope with highest degree of symmetry

In mathematics, a regular polytope is a polytope whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags, thus giving it the highest degree of symmetry. All its elements or j-faces — cells, faces and so on — are also transitive on the symmetries of the polytope, and are regular polytopes of dimension n.

Vertex figure Shape made by slicing off a corner of a polytope

In geometry, a vertex figure, broadly speaking, is the figure exposed when a corner of a polyhedron or polytope is sliced off.

Uniform 4-polytope Class of 4-dimensional polytopes

In geometry, a uniform 4-polytope is a 4-dimensional polytope which is vertex-transitive and whose cells are uniform polyhedra, and faces are regular polygons.

Rectification (geometry) Operation in Euclidean geometry

In Euclidean geometry, rectification, also known as critical truncation or complete-truncation is the process of truncating a polytope by marking the midpoints of all its edges, and cutting off its vertices at those points. The resulting polytope will be bounded by vertex figure facets and the rectified facets of the original polytope.

Hexagonal prism Prism with a 6-sided base

In geometry, the hexagonal prism is a prism with hexagonal base. This polyhedron has 8 faces, 18 edges, and 12 vertices.

Truncation (geometry) Operation that cuts polytope vertices, creating a new facet in place of each vertex

In geometry, a truncation is an operation in any dimension that cuts polytope vertices, creating a new facet in place of each vertex. The term originates from Kepler's names for the Archimedean solids.

Uniform polytope Isogonal polytope with uniform facets

In geometry, a uniform polytope of dimension three or higher is a vertex-transitive polytope bounded by uniform facets. The uniform polytopes in two dimensions are the regular polygons.

In geometry, a complex polytope is a generalization of a polytope in real space to an analogous structure in a complex Hilbert space, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one.

In geometry, a quasiregular polyhedron is a uniform polyhedron that has exactly two kinds of regular faces, which alternate around each vertex. They are vertex-transitive and edge-transitive, hence a step closer to regular polyhedra than the semiregular, which are merely vertex-transitive.

Snub (geometry) Geometric operation applied to a polyhedron

In geometry, a snub is an operation applied to a polyhedron. The term originates from Kepler's names of two Archimedean solids, for the snub cube and snub dodecahedron. In general, snubs have chiral symmetry with two forms: with clockwise or counterclockwise orientation. By Kepler's names, a snub can be seen as an expansion of a regular polyhedron: moving the faces apart, twisting them about their centers, adding new polygons centered on the original vertices, and adding pairs of triangles fitting between the original edges.

Regular 4-polytope Four-dimensional analogues of the regular polyhedra in three dimensions

In mathematics, a regular 4-polytope is a regular four-dimensional polytope. They are the four-dimensional analogues of the regular polyhedra in three dimensions and the regular polygons in two dimensions.

In geometry, the regular skew polyhedra are generalizations to the set of regular polyhedra which include the possibility of nonplanar faces or vertex figures. Coxeter looked at skew vertex figures which created new 4-dimensional regular polyhedra, and much later Branko Grünbaum looked at regular skew faces.


In six-dimensional geometry, a six-dimensional polytope or 6-polytope is a polytope, bounded by 5-polytope facets.



  1. Coxeter 1973, pp. 141–144, §7-x. Historical remarks.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Coxeter (1973)
  3. Richeson, D. (2008). Euler's Gem: The Polyhedron Formula and the Birth of Topology. Princeton University Press.
  4. Grünbaum (2003)
  5. Cromwell, P.; Polyhedra, CUP (ppbk 1999) pp 205 ff.
  6. Nemhauser and Wolsey, "Integer and Combinatorial Optimization," 1999, ISBN   978-0471359432, Definition 2.2.
  7. 1 2 Johnson, Norman W.; Geometries and Transformations, Cambridge University Press, 2018, p.224.
  8. Regular polytopes, p. 127 The part of the polytope that lies in one of the hyperplanes is called a cell
  9. Beck, Matthias; Robins, Sinai (2007), Computing the Continuous Discretely: Integer-point enumeration in polyhedra , Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN   978-0-387-29139-0, MR 2271992
  10. 1 2 M. A. Perles and G. C. Shephard. 1967. "Angle sums of convex polytopes". Math. Scandinavica, Vol 21, No 2. March 1967. pp. 199–218.
  11. McMullen, Peter; Schulte, Egon (December 2002), Abstract Regular Polytopes (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN   0-521-81496-0
  12. Coxeter, H.S.M.; Regular Complex Polytopes, 1974
  13. Wenninger, M.; Dual Models, CUP (1983).
  14. Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Trnka, Jaroslav (2013). "The Amplituhedron". Journal of High Energy Physics. 2014. arXiv: 1312.2007 . Bibcode:2014JHEP...10..030A. doi:10.1007/JHEP10(2014)030.


See also

Schläfli Orthoscheme

Family An Bn I2(p) / Dn E6 / E7 / E8 / F4 / G2 Hn
Regular polygon Triangle Square p-gon Hexagon Pentagon
Uniform polyhedron Tetrahedron OctahedronCube Demicube DodecahedronIcosahedron
Uniform polychoron Pentachoron 16-cellTesseract Demitesseract 24-cell 120-cell600-cell
Uniform 5-polytope 5-simplex 5-orthoplex5-cube 5-demicube
Uniform 6-polytope 6-simplex 6-orthoplex6-cube 6-demicube 122221
Uniform 7-polytope 7-simplex 7-orthoplex7-cube 7-demicube 132231321
Uniform 8-polytope 8-simplex 8-orthoplex8-cube 8-demicube 142241421
Uniform 9-polytope 9-simplex 9-orthoplex9-cube 9-demicube
Uniform 10-polytope 10-simplex 10-orthoplex10-cube 10-demicube
Uniform n-polytope n-simplex n-orthoplexn-cube n-demicube 1k22k1k21 n-pentagonal polytope
Topics: Polytope familiesRegular polytopeList of regular polytopes and compounds