Fitzroy, Victoria

Last updated

Fitzroy
Melbourne,  Victoria
The Fitzroy skyline.jpg
The Fitzroy skyline, with the Fitzroy Town Hall visible on the far left
Australia Victoria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Fitzroy
Fitzroy, Victoria
Coordinates 37°47′54″S144°58′43″E / 37.7984°S 144.9785°E / -37.7984; 144.9785 Coordinates: 37°47′54″S144°58′43″E / 37.7984°S 144.9785°E / -37.7984; 144.9785
Population10,431 (2021 census) [1]
 • Density7,450/km2 (19,300/sq mi)
Established1839
Postcode(s) 3065
Elevation35 m (115 ft)
Area1.4 km2 (0.5 sq mi)
Location3 km (2 mi) from Melbourne CBD
LGA(s) City of Yarra
State electorate(s) Richmond
Federal division(s) Melbourne
Suburbs around Fitzroy:
Carlton North Fitzroy North Clifton Hill
Carlton Fitzroy Collingwood
Melbourne East Melbourne Richmond

Fitzroy is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3 km (1.9 mi) north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Yarra local government area. Fitzroy recorded a population of 10,431 at the 2021 census. [1]

Contents

Planned as Melbourne's first suburb in 1839, [2] it later became one of the city's first areas to gain municipal status, in 1858. [3] It occupies Melbourne's smallest and most densely populated area outside the CBD, just 100 ha.

Fitzroy is known as a cultural hub, particularly for its live music scene and street art, and is the main home of the Melbourne Fringe Festival. Its commercial heart is Brunswick Street, one of Melbourne's major retail, culinary, and nightlife strips. Long associated with the working class, Fitzroy has undergone waves of urban renewal and gentrification since the 1980s and today is home to a wide variety of socio-economic groups, featuring both some of the most expensive rents in Melbourne and one of its largest public housing complexes, Atherton Gardens.

Its built environment is diverse and features some of the finest examples of Victorian era architecture in Melbourne. Much of the suburb is a historic preservation precinct, with many individual buildings and streetscapes covered by Heritage Overlays. [4] The most recent changes to Fitzroy are mandated by the Melbourne 2030 Metropolitan Strategy, in which both Brunswick Street and nearby Smith Street are designated for redevelopment as Activity centres.

While the area's first recorded name is Ngár-go, the present-day suburb was named after Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy, the Governor of New South Wales from 1846 to 1855. [5] It is bordered by Alexandra Parade (north), Victoria Parade (south), Smith Street (east) and Nicholson Street.

History

Looking south down Brunswick Street in 1906 Brunswick street fitzroy looking south in 1906.jpg
Looking south down Brunswick Street in 1906

Pre-settlement history

The area that is now known as Fitzroy and Collingwood is part of the territory of the country of the Woiwurrung people of the Kulin nation. The area that is now known as Fitzroy is the land of the Wurundjeri people. [6] The Kulin name recorded for the Fitzroy area is Ngár-go, meaning "high ground", which was recorded by anthropologist Alfred William Howitt in the 19th century. [7] In light of its significance to Aboriginal people, the name has been revived in a 2021 project called Yalinguth (meaning "yesterday"). [8]

19th century

Fitzroy was Melbourne's first suburb, created in 1839 when the area between Melbourne and Alexandra Parade (originally named Newtown) [9] was subdivided into vacant lots and offered for sale.

Newtown was later renamed Collingwood, [10] and the area now called Fitzroy (west of Smith Street) was made a ward of the Melbourne City Council. On 9 September 1858, Fitzroy became a municipality in its own right, separate from the City of Melbourne. [11] In accordance with the Municipal Act, on 28 September 1858, a meeting of ratepayers was held in 'Mr Templeton's schoolroom, George street' to prepare for a local council election, with Dr Thomas Embling, MLA for Collingwood, presiding. [11] The council election took place two days later and the first councilors were; Thomas Rae, George Symons, Edward Langton, Henry Groom, Benjamin Bell, Edwin Bennett and Thomas Hargreave. The first council meeting, held after the declaration of election, was at the Exchange Hotel, George Street, and Symons was unanimously elected chair. [11] [12]

Surrounded as it was by a large number of factories and industrial sites in the adjoining suburbs, Fitzroy was ideally suited to working men's housing, and from the 1860s to the 1880s, Fitzroy's working class population rose dramatically. The area's former mansions became boarding houses and slums, and the heightened poverty of the area prompted the establishment of several charitable, religious and philanthropic organisations in the area over the next few decades. A notable local entrepreneur was Macpherson Robertson, whose confectionery factories engulfed several blocks and stand as heritage landmarks today.[ citation needed ]

The Fitzroy Gasworks was erected on Reilly Street (now Alexander Parade) in 1861, dominating the suburb, with the Gasometer Hotel located opposite. [13]

20th century

Fitzroy Memorial Rotunda, built 1925 in honour of Fitzroy casualties of World War I Fitzroy Memorial Rotunda.jpg
Fitzroy Memorial Rotunda, built 1925 in honour of Fitzroy casualties of World War I
Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, 1935 VictoriaParade Fitzroy.jpg
Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, 1935

The population of Fitzroy in 1901 was 31,610. [14]

Before World War I, Fitzroy was a working-class neighbourhood, with a concentration of political radicals already living there. Post-war immigration into the suburb resulted in the area becoming socially diverse. Many working-class Chinese immigrants settled in Fitzroy due to its proximity to Chinatown. The establishment of the Housing Commission of Victoria in 1938 saw swathes of new residences being constructed in Melbourne's outer suburbs. With many of Fitzroy's residents moving to the new accommodation, their places were taken by post-war immigrants, mostly from Italy and Greece and the influx of Italian and Irish immigrants saw a marked shift towards Catholicism from Fitzroy's traditional Methodist and Presbyterian roots. The Housing Commission would build two public housing estates in Fitzroy in the 1960s; one in Hanover Street and one at the southern end of Brunswick Street.[ citation needed ]

From the 1960s through to the 1980s, the area became a meeting place for Aboriginal people who had left missions, Aboriginal reserves, and other government institutions and drifted to the city in a bid to trace their families. The Builders Arms Hotel was the only pub which allowed Aboriginal people to drink there. The Aboriginal Health Service opened on Gertrude Street in 1973 and provided a service largely provided by volunteers, [15] operating as a de facto community centre there until 1992. A nearby street behind a factory was a meeting and drinking place, known to the community as Charcoal Lane. [16] Archie Roach tells of his time in Fitzroy hanging out and getting drunk, and of reconnecting with his siblings there, in his autobiography, Tell Me Why: The Story of My Life and My Music. [17] His song "Charcoal Lane" mentions Gertrude Street, Brunswick Street, and other locations in Fitzroy and his time wandering the streets there. Vika and Linda Bull started their careers by singing in various venues around Fitzroy in the 1980s, including the Black Cat Cafe and the Purple Pit. [18] [19] The area is highly significant in the history of the Australian Aboriginal rights movement. [8]

The Fitzroy Magistrates' Court closed on 1 February 1985. [20]

Like other inner-city suburbs of Melbourne, Fitzroy underwent a process of gentrification from the 1980s onwards. The area's manufacturing and warehouse sites were converted into apartments, and the corresponding rising rents in Fitzroy saw many of the area's residents move to Northcote and Brunswick.[ citation needed ]

In June 1994, the City of Yarra was created by combining the Cities of Fitzroy, Collingwood and Richmond.[ citation needed ]

21st century

Gentrification continued into the 2000s, with Gertrude Street being transformed into a string of fine dining restaurants, art galleries, bookshops and fashion stores. [16]

In 2009 the Aboriginal Health Service building at 136 Gertrude Street was converted into a social enterprise restaurant called Charcoal Lane, [16] [21] run by Mission Australia, which provided training for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people and became well known for its gastronomy. [22] It closed its doors in August 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the historic building was handed back to the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service (VAHS). [23]

Geography

Fitzroy's topography is flat. It is laid out in grid plan and is characterised by a fairly tightly spaced rectangular grid of medium-sized streets, with many of its narrow streets and back lanes facilitating only one-way traffic. Its built form is a legacy of its early history when a mixture of land uses was allowed to develop close to each other, producing a great diversity of types and scales of building. [24]

The skyline of Melbourne from Brunswick Street Oval, Fitzroy. Melbourne skyline from Fitzroy.jpg
The skyline of Melbourne from Brunswick Street Oval, Fitzroy.

Demographics

In the 2021 Australian census conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the total population of Fitzroy was recorded as 10,431 people. Only 58 (0.3%) of the population identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander. Just over 60% of the population were born in Australia, but 41.4% of residents had both parents born overseas. The most common countries of birth were England 4.5%, Vietnam 3.3%, New Zealand 3.0%, China 2.1% and United States of America 1.5%. [1]

In the 2016 census, Fitzroy had a population of 10,445. The median age (33) was younger than the national average (38), while the median weekly individual income (AU$925 per week) was higher than the national average (AU$662). Only 24.9% of Fitzroy's population were married, compared to 48.1% nationwide. [25]

In 2016, 53.3% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 3.9%, Vietnam 3.3%, New Zealand 2.9%, China 2.7% and United States of America 1.2%. 61.0% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Vietnamese 4.1%, Mandarin 2.5%, Cantonese 2.1%, Arabic 2.0% and Greek 1.6%. [25]

Housing

Terraced houses on Nicholson Street Terrace housing on nicholson street fitzroy.jpg
Terraced houses on Nicholson Street

Fitzroy's housing is diverse. It has some of Melbourne's earliest surviving houses and one of Melbourne's most extensive stands of terraced housing, along with a mix of converted industrial and commercial buildings, walk-up flats, modern apartments and public housing.

Among the earliest homes are Royal Terrace (1853–1858) on Nicholson Street. Overlooking the Carlton Gardens, Royal Terrace was one of the first of its kind in Melbourne. Fitzroy's "character housing" (pre-war) is now mostly gentrified and highly sought after real estate.

As early as 1923, the City of Fitzroy was accused of 'creating slums' by allowing inappropriate development such as three houses on a 31-foot by 100-foot block. [26] By 1953, the state Housing Minister Thomas Hayes, said that Camp Pell in Royal Park, Parkville, Victoria, which had been a temporary military camp for United States forces during the Second World War, 'might become a permanent emergency housing settlement' and 'Fitzroy slum dwellers who had refused offers of alternative accommodation by the housing Commission because they would have to pay higher rents would probably' be moved there. [27] Two years later the headline was 'Outcry Rages Over Fitzroy Slums', as the state government accused the Commonwealth of bringing in immigrants that the states had nowhere to house, arguing that the 'Awful, dilapidated buildings in Fitzroy, crowded beyond description with exploited New Australians were a grave danger to the health of the community.' [28] The Atherton Gardens high-rise public housing estate, on the corner of Brunswick and Gertrude Streets, is one of Melbourne's largest, built by the Housing Commission of Victoria as part of its controversial "slum clearance" urban renewal program in the 1960s.[ citation needed ] The commission was established by the Housing Act 1937 in response to slum housing in Melbourne, and operated under the Slum Reclamation and Housing Act 1938. [29]

Due to its desirability as a place to live, Fitzroy faces increasing pressure for residential development. Recent residential projects in Fitzroy have sought to express a sense of Fitzroy's urban character in various ways and have been hotly contested in some cases. [30] [31] [32]

Governance

Former Fitzroy Town Hall, now functions as secondary offices for the City of Yarra Fitzroy Town Hall 01a.jpg
Former Fitzroy Town Hall, now functions as secondary offices for the City of Yarra

Fitzroy's traditional representation at all levels of government reflects the area's working class and bohemianism, Left-wing politics dominates. The Australian Labor Party and more recently the Australian Greens both have a very strong political presence.

At a local level, Fitzroy is part of the City of Yarra Local Government Area. The Fitzroy area falls within the wards of Langridge and Nicholls, both of these wards are currently represented by the Australian Greens.

At a state level, Fitzroy is within the Electoral district of Richmond, traditionally a safe Australian Labor Party seat.

At federal level, it is within the Division of Melbourne, which was taken from Labor by the Australian Greens in 2010.

Former City of Fitzroy and Fitzroy Town Hall

The area formerly had its own municipal status from 1858, with the City of Fitzroy meeting at Fitzroy Town Hall on Napier Street. The Town Hall is on the Victorian Heritage Register for its state historical and architectural significance. [33] The building was constructed in stages (1863, 1887 and 1890) to comprise municipal offices, meeting hall, police station, courthouse and clock tower.

Since the amalgamation of the City of Fitzroy with the City of Collingwood and the City of Richmond in 1994 to form the City of Yarra, the Town Hall has functioned as secondary offices for the City of Yarra, and other occupants including the Fitzroy Legal Service, currently at Level 4, Moor Street entrance.

Culture

Art

Various kinds of street art adorn many buildings throughout Fitzroy Fitzroy street art.jpg
Various kinds of street art adorn many buildings throughout Fitzroy

There are many small commercial art galleries, artist-run spaces and artist studios located within the suburb. Fitzroy has a thriving street art community and is also the home of Gertrude Contemporary Art Spaces and the Centre for Contemporary Photography.

Live performance

Fitzroy was the primary home of the little band scene, an experimental post-punk scene which thrived from 1978 to 1981. Initially led by local groups the Primitive Calculators and Whirlywirld, it helped foster the careers of a number of notable musicians, including members of Dead Can Dance and Hunters & Collectors. [34]

Today Fitzroy is a hub for live music in Melbourne, and plays host to several prominent venues; The Old Bar, Bar Open, the Evelyn Hotel, Gertrudes Brown Couch, and Cape Live. The well-known Punters Club was also located in the area; however, it was forced to close in 2002.

Heritage

Fitzroy is home to many Victorian era buildings. High victorian architecture brunswick street fitzroy.jpg
Fitzroy is home to many Victorian era buildings.

The Moran and Cato warehouse designed by R.A. Lawson is considered to be of high architectural merit. The Champion Hotel is notable for its fanciful Edwardian design.

A number of buildings and sites have been included on the Victorian Heritage Inventory (VHI) or classified by the National Trust (NT). These include:

  • Aqua Profonda sign, Fitzroy Swimming Pool, 160-122 Alexandra Parade.(VHI) & (NT) [35]
  • Cordial Factory, 12–16 Argyle Street. (VHI) [36]
  • Exhibition High School Residence, 17 Bell Street. (VHI) [37]
  • National School, 40–48 Bell Street. (VHI) & (NT) [38]
  • Dodgshun House, 7–9 Brunswick Street. (VHI) & (NT) [39]
  • The Terrace, 11 Brunswick Street. (VHI) & (NT) [40]
  • Shop & residence, 13 Brunswick Street. (VHI) & (NT) [41]
  • Cathedral Hall, 20 Brunswick Street. (VHI) [42]
  • Melbourne Veterinary College, 38–40 Brunswick Street. (VHI) & (NT) [43]
  • Royal Terrace, 39–49 Brunswick Street. (VHI) & (NT) [44]
  • Shops, 236–252 Brunswick Street. (VHI) [45]
  • Fitzroy Cricket Club Grandstand, Edinburgh Gardens. (NT) [46]
  • Devonshire Arms Hotel, 38 Fitzroy Street. (VHI) & (NT) [47]
  • Christian Israelite Sanctuary, 185–193 Fitzroy Street. (VHI) & (NT) [48]
  • St Mark's Church of England, 268 George Street. (VHI) & (NT) [49]
  • Glass Terrace, 64–78 Gertrude Street. (VHI) & (NT) [50]
  • Shops & Residence, 177–183 Gertrude Street. (NT) [51]
  • Shops, 181–183 Gertrude Street. (VHI) [52]
  • Holyrood Terrace, 331 Gore Street. (VHI) & (NT) [53]
  • Cobden Terrace, 209–221 Gore Street. (VHI) & (NT) [54]
  • Residence, 35 Hanover Street. (VHI) & (NT) [55]
  • All Saints Church Hall, 95 King William Street. (VHI) [56]
  • Falconer Terrace, 36–50 Napier Street. (VHI) & (NT) [57]
  • Fitzroy Town Hall, 201 Napier Street. (VHI) & (NT) [58]
  • Cable Tram Engine House, Cnr Nicholson & Gertrude Streets. (VHI) & (NT) [59]
  • Osborne House, 40 Nicholson Street. (VHI) & (NT) [60]
  • Royal Terrace, 50–68 Nicholson Street. (VHI) & (NT) [61]
  • Mercy Convent, 88 Nicholson Street. (VHI) & (NT) [62]
  • Cairo Flats, unit 1–36, 98 Nicholson Street. (VHI) & (NT) [63]
  • Denny house, 122 Nicholson Street. (VHI) & (NT) [64]
  • Avon Butter Factory, 218–222 Nicholson Street. (VHI) & (NT) [65]
  • Methodist Church, 472 Nicholson Street. (VHI) [66]
  • Post Office, 251 St Georges Road. (NT) [67]
  • Union Bank of Australia, 165–167 Smith Street. (VHI) & (NT) [68]
  • Eastern Hill Hotel, 77 Victoria Parade. (VHI) & (NT) [69]
  • McClelland house, 203 Victoria Parade. (VHI) & (NT) [70]
  • Blanche Terrace, 163–183 Victoria Parade. (VHI) & (NT) [71]

Pubs

The Devonshire Arms, built in 1843, is the oldest extant building in Fitzroy. Devonshire Arms Hotel.jpg
The Devonshire Arms, built in 1843, is the oldest extant building in Fitzroy.

Fitzroy has a large number of pubs for such a small suburb. The former Devonshire Arms hotel was located in Fitzroy Street and remains the oldest building in Fitzroy. There are many other pubs in Fitzroy.

Cafés

The tiny suburb of Fitzroy has many cafés. Only one of the original three cafés is still standing – Marios. Bakers relocated north, and closed in 2007, while The Black Cat has transformed itself into a bar, but still retains its onstreet garden. In fact Silas is the oldest café, located between King William and Moore Streets, on the west side.

With the advance of gentrification, a variety of cafés in different styles have opened up and down Brunswick Street, on Smith Street, parts of Gertrude Street and in some of the back streets, in former milk bars and warehouse sites. [72]

Sport

Heritage-listed grandstand at Brunswick Street Oval, used primarily for cricket and Australian rules football Fitzroy Cricket Ground Grandstand.jpg
Heritage-listed grandstand at Brunswick Street Oval, used primarily for cricket and Australian rules football

Formed in 1883, the Fitzroy Football Club, an Australian rules football club, went on to play in the Victorian Football League (now known as the Australian Football League). [73] From 1884 until 1966, Brunswick Street Oval was its primary home ground, even after the club stopped playing games at the venue, the Brunswick Street Oval still remained the primary training and administrative base of the Fitzroy Football Club in the VFL until 1970. [74] [75] [76]

The club had some early success before relocating its home games several times and finally running into financial difficulties in the 1980s, forcing it to merge its AFL operations with the Brisbane Bears at the end of 1996, to form the Brisbane Lions. [77] [78] [79]

They adopted a logo, song, and guernsey based on those of Fitzroy, would take eight Fitzroy players in the 1996 draft, three Fitzroy representatives would serve on the board, and the Lions would keep an office in Melbourne.

The Brisbane Lions would go onto win three premierships in a row in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and be considered one of the greatest teams of the modern era.

Brisbane Lions flag flying over Fitzroy Town Hall on Napier Street before the 2021 finals series Brisbane Lions flag flying over Fitzroy town hall.jpg
Brisbane Lions flag flying over Fitzroy Town Hall on Napier Street before the 2021 finals series

The club keeps strong ties within the Fitzroy community, keeping a social club at the Royal Derby Hotel for Victorian Lions fans, and maintaining links with the Fitzroy VAFA team by sponsoring a men’s and women’s player each season.

The strong support of Fitzroy club legends such as Kevin Murray, Garry Wilson, Mick Conlan, Paul Roos, and many more, have only added to the Brisbane Lions being considered a direct continuation of Fitzroy in the AFL.

Fitzroy's non-AFL operations came out of administration after the Brisbane merger in 1998, and the clubs shareholders voted for it to continue with the goal of resuming its playing operations. After sponsoring various local clubs, Fitzroy merged with the University Reds and finally returned the playing field after a 13-year absence, participating in the 2009 Victorian Amateur Football Association season with its home games played out of Brunswick Street Oval. [80] Since that time, Fitzroy have doubled their membership and achieved promotion twice within the VAFA. The club currently plays in the premier B division.

The Fitzroy Stars Football Club are an Indigenous club that joined the Northern Football League in 2008. They currently play their home games at Crispe Park in Reservoir with the club's off-field administration still based in Fitzroy.

Fitzroy United Alexander Football Club, now Heidelberg United, was Fitzroy's first ever sporting club to play at a national level. Founded by Melbourne's inner eastern Greek community, the club was relocated to the Brunswick Street Oval in early 1971 but later departed by late 1978. Whilst the club was based in Fitzroy, the club was initially participating in the Victorian State League where it was crowned state champions in the 1975 season. [81] With the club's on and off-field strength, Fitzroy was invited to be an inaugural participant of the National Soccer League, the former highest level of soccer in Australia, where the club became the suburb's first national sporting team. Although administration and club training was based at Fitzroy, the club used various venues in Melbourne for its home matches. The suburb's first domestic first tier sporting match of any code was played at the Brunswick Street Oval on 2 May 1977, with Fitzroy United defeating Brisbane Lions 4–1 in front of over 4000 attendees. [82] The club participated in the 1977 and 1978 seasons as 'Fitzroy' finishing third and fifth respectively. [83] In late 1978, the club and its administration was relocated to Olympic Village Stadium in Heidelberg West prior to the 1979, with name being changed to Heidelberg United FC as a result of a better stadium deal and there being a larger Greek community in Heidelberg West than Fitzroy.

Fitzroy City Serbia Soccer Club, a soccer club formed in 1953 by Serbian migrants, is based in Fitzroy. The club is currently playing in the Victorian State League Division 3 South-East and play their home games at Fairfield Park, with the club's off-field administration still based in Fitzroy.

The Fitzroy Baseball Club, known as the Fitzroy Lions, is a baseball club founded in 1889 to represent Fitzroy. [84] The club has five senior teams competing in the Baseball Victoria Summer League, as well as junior sides representing the club at every age level.

The Melbourne Chess Club, the oldest chess club in the southern hemisphere (est. 1866). [85] [86]

Social and community services

The health needs of Fitzroy residents and other Melburnians is served by St Vincent's Hospital.

There are two primary schools in Fitzroy: Fitzroy Primary School (government school) and Sacred Heart Primary School (Catholic school). Fitzroy High School is located in Fitzroy North. At the 2021 ARIA Music Awards, Sacred Heart School's Zoë Barry won Music Teacher of the Year. [87]

A long tradition of community activism and civil society with many social and community service organisations having been based in Fitzroy. Organisations currently operating in the suburb include; the Fitzroy Legal Service, Yarra Community Housing Limited, Society of Saint Vincent de Paul, Brotherhood of St Laurence and the Tenants Union of Victoria, a free legal service for residential tenants.

Transport

Brunswick Street Fitzroy Melbourne.jpg
Brunswick Street
St Vincents Plaza tram interchange A1 245 at St Vincents Plaza on route 112 (tram).jpg
St Vincents Plaza tram interchange

Fitzroy's major road arterials are Brunswick Street (north-south) and Johnston Street (east-west). Other main roads include Victoria Parade, Nicholson Street, Smith Street and Alexandra Parade, which circumnavigate the suburb. It is characterised by a fairly tightly spaced rectangular grid of medium-sized streets, with many of its narrow streets and back lanes facilitating only one-way traffic. Traffic and parking congestion is a problem [88] and Fitzroy and local councils have implemented strategies to keep this traffic off residential side streets. It has been the site of several controversial inner city freeway proposals, particularly in the 1950s, however none of which have proceeded.

There are no railway stations located in Fitzroy itself, with the nearest train stations being Rushall in Fitzroy North, and Collingwood and Parliament Stations. An underground railway line running between the City Loop and Clifton Hill, with stations located beneath Brunswick Street and Smith Street, has been proposed.

Three tram lines pass through Fitzroy or its boundaries:

The St Vincents Plaza tram interchange, in adjacent East Melbourne, is at the junction of Victoria Parade and Brunswick Street and handles tram routes 24, 30, 86, 109 and 11.

Critical Mass Melbourne at Brunswick Street Critical Mass Melbourne - Brunswick St.JPG
Critical Mass Melbourne at Brunswick Street

Cycling is a very popular form of transport in Fitzroy, as with much of the City of Yarra. A station for the Melbourne Bicycle Share scheme is located near the St Vincents Plaza tram interchange.

The City of Yarra also supports a car sharing service, which has several locations in Fitzroy.

The heritage-listed "Aqua Profonda" sign made famous in Helen Garner's 1977 novel Monkey Grip. Fitzroy Pool.jpg
The heritage-listed "Aqua Profonda" sign made famous in Helen Garner's 1977 novel Monkey Grip .

The 1977 cult classic novel Monkey Grip by Helen Garner took place mostly in Fitzroy and Carlton. Many of the central characters frequent the Fitzroy local swimming pool in the summer, referred to as the "Fitzroy baths", and the heritage-listed "Aqua Profonda" sign at the deep end of the pool is the title of the novel's first chapter, used as a metaphor for the central character's deeply troubled romantic relationship with a man. The inclusion of the sign and the pool itself gave it some degree of iconic statusits use in the novel was even mentioned in the statement of significance for the sign's heritage listing in 2004. [89]

The 2010 Australian television show Offspring was set almost entirely in Fitzroy. [90] The main characters of the show were often seen at the Black Cat, a Brunswick Street bar. [91] Fitzroy has also featured in episodes of a number of Australian TV shows, including City Homicide [92] and Rush (notably in Season 3, where the team shot at Fitzroy Town Hall to commemorate the death of a former colleague).[ citation needed ]

The movie series and television series, Jack Irish, is filmed in Fitzroy. Based on the Peter Temple novels, it features many Fitzroy cultural icons.[ citation needed ]

Australian and American musicians have made mention of Fitzroy in their lyrics, including:

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parkville, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Parkville is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3 km (1.9 mi) north of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the Cities of Melbourne and Merri-bek local government areas. Parkville recorded a population of 7,074 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">City of Yarra</span> Local government area in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

The City of Yarra is a local government area (LGA) in Victoria, Australia in the inner eastern and northern suburbs of Melbourne. It is the second smallest LGA in the state with an area of 19.5 square kilometres (7.5 sq mi), and in June 2018 it had a population of 98,521, making it the second most densely populated LGA, with around 5,040 people per square kilometre. The City of Yarra was formed in 1994 as a result of the amalgamation of the former Cities of Richmond, Collingwood, Fitzroy, and parts of Carlton North and parts of Alphington and Fairfield.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St Kilda West, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

St Kilda West is an inner suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 5 km south of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Port Phillip local government area. St Kilda West recorded a population of 2,951 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abbotsford, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Abbotsford is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2 km (1.2 mi) north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Yarra local government area. Abbotsford recorded a population of 9,088 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clifton Hill, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Clifton Hill is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 4 km (2.5 mi) north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Yarra local government area. Clifton Hill recorded a population of 6,606 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Collingwood, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Collingwood is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Yarra local government area. Collingwood recorded a population of 9,179 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fairfield, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Fairfield is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 6 km (3.7 mi) north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the Cities of Darebin and Yarra local government areas. Fairfield recorded a population of 6,535 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fitzroy North, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Fitzroy North is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 4 km (2.5 mi) north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the Cites of Merri-bek and Yarra local government areas. Fitzroy North recorded a population of 12,781 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Heidelberg, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Heidelberg is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 11 kilometres (7 mi) northeast of Melbourne's central business district, located within the City of Banyule local government area. Heidelberg recorded a population of 7,360 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northcote, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Northcote is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 7 km (4.3 mi) north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Darebin local government area. Northcote recorded a population of 25,276 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Yarra, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

South Yarra is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 4 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the Cities of Melbourne and Stonnington local government areas. South Yarra recorded a population of 25,028 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carlton, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Carlton is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3 km north of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Melbourne local government area. Carlton recorded a population of 16,055 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nicholson Street</span> Street in Melbourne, Victoria

Nicholson Street is a street in inner Melbourne. It is named after William Nicholson, then member of the Legislative Council, and later Premier of Victoria from 1859 to 1860.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carlton North, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Carlton North is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 4 km (2.5 mi) north of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the Cities of Melbourne and Yarra local government areas. Carlton North recorded a population of 6,177 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brunswick East, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Brunswick East is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 5 km (3.1 mi) north of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Merri-bek local government area. Brunswick East recorded a population of 13,279 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Melbourne, Victoria</span> Suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

East Melbourne is an inner-city suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 2 km (1.2 mi) east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Melbourne local government area. East Melbourne recorded a population of 4,896 at the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Melbourne cable tramway system</span> Cable car public transport system in Melbourne, Australia

The Melbourne cable tramway system was a cable car public transport system, which operated between 1885 and 1940 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Housing Commission of Victoria</span>

The Housing Commission of Victoria was a Victorian State Government body responsible for public housing in Victoria, Australia. It was established in 1938, and was abolished in 1984.

Gertrude Street is a street in the inner northern suburb of Fitzroy, Melbourne, Australia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terraced houses in Australia</span>

Terraced houses in Australia refers almost exclusively to Victorian and Edwardian era terraced houses or replicas almost always found in the older, inner city areas of the major cities, mainly Sydney and Melbourne. Terraced housing was introduced to Australia in the 19th century. Their architectural work was based on those in London and Paris, which had the style a century earlier.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Australian Bureau of Statistics (28 June 2022). "Fitzroy (Vic.) (Suburbs and Localities)". 2021 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 18 July 2022. OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  2. "Fitzroy, Victoria". 2 July 2004. Archived from the original on 2 July 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  3. "Municipal Government". eMelbourne – The Encyclopedia of Melbourne Online. School of Historical Studies, Department of History, The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  4. DELWP (22 May 2017). "DELWP". DELWP. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  5. First, Jamie (7 January 2014). "The A–Z story of our suburbs". Herald Sun. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  6. "Snapshots of Aboriginal Fitzroy" (PDF). Aboriginal History of Yarra. 2002.
  7. "The forgotten Aboriginal names for 10 of Melbourne's suburbs". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 9 July 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  8. 1 2 "Yalinguth". Yalinguth. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  9. "VICTORIAN HISTORY". The Argus . Melbourne. 15 October 1909. p. 9. Retrieved 26 September 2013 via National Library of Australia.
  10. Barnard, Jill (25 February 2010). "Collingwood". e-Melbourne. School of Historical Studies Department of History, The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  11. 1 2 3 "FIRST HALF-YEARLY REPORT OF THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF FITZROY, FROM 30TH SEPTEMBER, 1858, TO 31ST MARCH, 1859". Fitzroy City Press. Victoria. 20 July 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 25 September 2013 via National Library of Australia.
  12. Cooksley, Jean. Langton, Edward (1828–1905). Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  13. R Proudley. Circle of Influence: A History of the Gas Industry in Victoria , Hargreen/Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria, Melbourne, 1987. p. 40-49.
  14. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fitzroy"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 448.
  15. Dunstan, Joseph (31 July 2022). "Melbourne's Fitzroy hides a past as a hub for the Aboriginal civil rights movement". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation . Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  16. 1 2 3 Schaik, Johan van (1 March 2010). "Charcoal Lane". ArchitectureAU. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  17. Roach, A. (November 2019). Tell Me Why: The Story of My Life and My Music. Simon & Schuster Australia. ISBN   978-1-76085-016-6 . Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  18. 1 2 "Vika and Linda on the magic of Fitzroy and Archie Roach". Double J . 13 November 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  19. O'Brien, Mary (2 November 2013). "My secret Melbourne ... Vika Bull". The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  20. "Special Report No. 4 – Court Closures in Victoria" (PDF). Auditor-General of Victoria. 1986. p. 79. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  21. Topsfield, Jewel (5 June 2009). "Laneway leads to Aboriginal careers in food". The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  22. "Charcoal Lane". Gastrology. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  23. "Mission Australia announces closure of Fitzroy social enterprise restaurant Charcoal Lane". Mission Australia. 16 September 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  24. "Fitzroy : Melbourne's first suburb / Cutten History Committee of the Fitzroy History Society. Published South Yarra, Vic. : Hyland House, 198 ISBN   0-947062-52-1"
  25. 1 2 Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Fitzroy (Vic.) (State Suburbs)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 14 August 2017. OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  26. "CREATING SLUMS". The Argus . Melbourne. 23 May 1923. p. 5. Retrieved 26 September 2013 via National Library of Australia.
  27. "Camp may be "for keeps"". The Argus . Melbourne. 10 January 1953. p. 5. Retrieved 26 September 2013 via National Library of Australia.
  28. "OUTCRY RAGES OVER THE FITZROY SLUMS". The Argus . Melbourne. 12 October 1955. p. 1. Retrieved 26 September 2013 via National Library of Australia.
  29. "Burt, Walter Oswald (Ossie) (1893–1969) Biographical Entry". Adb.online.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
  30. theage.com.au: "There goes the neighbourhood?"
  31. theage.com.au: "Fitzroy gets set for new development battle"
  32. pandora.nla.gov.au : "'Urban Joke' campaign against 'Urban Jazz' "
  33. "Fitzroy Town Hall". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Council of Victoria. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  34. Do That Dance! Australian Post Punk 1977–1983, abc.net.au. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  35. "Aqua Profonda sign, Fitzroy Swimming Pool". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  36. "Cordial Factory". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  37. "Former Exhibition High School Residence". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  38. "Former National School". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  39. "Dodgshun House". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  40. "The Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  41. "Shop & residence". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  42. "Cathedral Hall". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  43. "Melbourne Veterinary College". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  44. "Royal Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  45. "Shops". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  46. "Fitzroy Cricket Club Grandstand". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  47. "Devonshire Arms Hotel". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  48. "Christian Israelite Sanctuary". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  49. "St Mark's Church of England". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  50. "Glass Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  51. "Shops & Residence". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  52. "Shops". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  53. "Holyrood Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  54. "Cobden Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  55. "Residence". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  56. "All Saints Church Hall". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  57. "Falconer Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  58. "Fitzroy Town Hall". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  59. "Cable Tram Engine House". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  60. "Osborne House". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  61. "Royal Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  62. "Mercy Convent". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  63. "Cairo Flats". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  64. "Denny house". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  65. "Avon Butter Factory". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  66. "Methodist Church". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  67. "Post Office". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  68. "Union Bank of Australia". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  69. "Eastern Hill Hotel". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  70. "McClelland house". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  71. "Blanche Terrace". Victorian Heritage Database. Heritage Victoria.
  72. The 15 Coolest Neighborhoods in the World in 2016 , retrieved 17 November 2016
  73. The Argus, 28 September 1883
  74. "Brunswick Street Oval" . Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  75. "What becomes of the broken hearted: the footy stalwarts who kept Fitzroy alive". TheGuardian.com . 24 August 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  76. "The moment that began Fitzroy's long, slow death". 24 June 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  77. "Fitzroy disappeared from the AFL in 1996, but it left behind a rich history as a VFL founder". 27 February 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  78. "The Merger: Where Are They Now?". 5 July 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  79. "The Day That Changed Everything". 1 September 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  80. Barrett, Damian (9 December 2008). "The old Lion roars again as Fitzroy is reborn". Herald Sun.
  81. "Heidelberg United – Divisional History". Ozfootball.net. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  82. "1977 National Soccer League results". Ozfootball.net. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  83. Syson, Ian (5 July 2013). "Neos Osmos: Soccer at the Fitzroy Cricket Ground". Neososmos.blogspot.com.au. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  84. "120 Year celebration photos - Fitzroy Baseball Club - Picasa Web Albums". picasaweb.google.com. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
  85. "Melbourne Chess Club". Melbournechessclub.org. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  86. Hatch, Patrick (2 January 2016). "Battle of the titans kicks off the Melbourne Chess Club's 150th year". The Age. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  87. Moran, Robert (24 November 2021). "ARIA Awards 2021 winners: Genesis Owusu and the Kid Laroi break the hip-hop ceiling at Australia's top music awards" . The Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  88. Millar, Royce "There goes the neighbourhood?" The Age 10 March 2003
  89. ""Aqua Profonda" sign, Fitzroy Pool". Victorian Heritage Database. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  90. "au.news.yahoo.com". Au.news.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  91. Ten, Network. "tenplay". TenPlay – tenplay. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  92. "Murder at Savanah Design – Design in the mind". Savanahdesign.com.au. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  93. "Clare Bowditch and the Feeding Set – Divorcee by 23 Lyrics – SongMeanings". SongMeanings. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  94. "Northcote (So Hungover) lyrics. – The Bedroom Philosopher". Bedroomphilosopher.com. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  95. "Tyler, The Creator (Ft. Frank Ocean) – Slater". Genius.com. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  96. Metropolitan Groove Merchants (30 August 2010). "Dan Sultan – Old Fitzroy". YouTube. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  97. White, Anthony D. (1983). Horsfall, Alfred Herbert (1871-1944). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 30 March 2015.