A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, architecture, painting, pottery (ceramics), sculpture, origami, woodworking, scrapbooking, photography, graphic design, filmmaking, animation, industrial design, radio or television production broadcasting or the making of music. The term is also used for the workroom of dancers, often specified to dance studio.
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism.
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
The word studio is derived from the Italian : studio, from Latin : studium, from studere, meaning to study or zeal.
Italian is a Romance language. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.
The French term for studio, atelier , in addition to designating an artist's studio is used to characterize the studio of a fashion designer. Atelier also has the connotation of being the home of an alchemist or wizard.
An atelier is the private workshop or studio of a professional artist in the fine or decorative arts, where a principal master and a number of assistants, students, and apprentices can work together producing pieces of fine art or visual art released under the master's name or supervision.
Alchemy was an ancient branch of natural philosophy, a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, originating in Hellenistic Egypt between the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It aims to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects. Common aims were chrysopoeia, the transmutation of "base metals" into "noble metals" ; the creation of an elixir of immortality; the creation of panaceas able to cure any disease; and the development of an alkahest, a universal solvent. The perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and Western mystery tradition, the achievement of gnosis. In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects.
Studio is also a metonym for the group of people who work within a particular studio.
The studio of any artist, especially from the 15th to the 19th centuries, characterized all the assistants, thus the designation of paintings as "from the workshop of..." or "studio of..." An art studio is sometimes called an atelier, especially in earlier eras. In contemporary, English language use, "atelier" can also refer to the Atelier Method, a training method for artists that usually takes place in a professional artist's studio.
Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room, rooms or building which provides both the area and tools that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. Workshops were the only places of production until the advent of industrialization and the development of larger factories. In the 20th and 21st century, many Western homes contain a workshop in the garage, basement, or an external shed. Home workshops typically contain a workbench, hand tools, power tools and other hardware. Along with their practical applications for repair goods or do small manufacturing runs, workshops are used to tinker and make prototypes.
The above-mentioned "method" calls upon that zeal for study to play a significant role in the production which occurs in a studio space. A studio is more or less artful to the degree that the artist who occupies it is committed to the continuing education in his or her formal discipline. Academic curricula categorize studio classes in order to prepare students for the rigors of building sets of skills which require a continuity of practice in order to achieve growth and mastery of their artistic expression. A versatile and creative mind will embrace the opportunity of such practice to innovate and experiment, which develops uniquely individual qualities of each artist's expression. Thus the method raises and maintains an art studio space above the level of a mere production facility or workshop.
Safety is or may be a concern in studios, with some painting materials required to be handled, stored, or used properly to prevent poisoning, chemical burns, or fire.
In educational studios, students learn to develop skills related to design, ranging from architecture to product design. In specific, educational studios are studio settings where large numbers of students learn to draft and design with instructional help at a college. Educational studios are colloquially referred to as "studio" by students, who are known for staying up late hours into the night doing projects and socializing.
The studio environment is characterized by 2 types in education:
Studio pottery is made by an individual potter working on his own in his studio, rather than in a ceramics factory (although there may be a design studio within a larger manufacturing site).
Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made by a potter is also called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products." A different definition, used within the field of ceramics, is "everything which is not porcelain". In archaeology, especially of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" often means vessels only, and figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious.
Production studios are those studios which act as centres for the production in any of the arts; alternatively they can also be the financial and commercial entity behind such endeavours. In radio and television production studio is the place where programs and radio commercial and television advertising are recorded for further emission.
Animation studios, like movie studios, may be production facilities, or financial entities. In some cases, especially in anime, they continue the tradition of a studio where a master or group of talented individuals oversee the work of lesser artists and crafts persons in realising their vision. Animation studios are a fast rising entity and they include established firms such as Walt Disney and Pixar.
Artists or writers, predominantly those producing comics, still employ small studios of staff to assist in the creation of a comic strip, comic book or graphic novel. In the early days of Dan Dare, Frank Hampson employed a number of staff at his studio to help with the production of the strip. Eddie Campbell is another creator who has assembled a small studio of colleagues to help him in his art, and the comic book industry of the United States has based its production methods upon the studio system employed at its beginnings.
Many universities are creating studio settings for courses outside the artist's realm. There are several different projects along these lines, most notably the SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs) initiated at NC State.
In audio, a mastering studio is a facility specialised in audio mastering. Tasks may include but not be limited to audio restoration, corrective and tone-shaping EQ, dynamic control, stereo or 5.1 surround editing, vinyl and tape transfers, vinyl cutting, and CD compilation. Depending on the quality of the original mix, the mastering engineer's role can change from small corrections to improving the overall sound of a mix drastically. Typically studios contain a combination of high-end analogue equipment with low-noise circuitry and digital hardware and plug-ins. Some may contain tape machines and vinyl lathes. They may also contain full-range monitoring systems and be acoustically tuned to provide an accurate reproduction of the sound information contained in the original medium. The mastering engineer must prepare the file for its intended destination, which may be radio, CD, vinyl or digital distribution.
In video production, a mastering studio is a facility specialized in the post-production of video recordings. Tasks may include but not be limited to: video editing, colour grading correction, mixing, DVD authoring and audio mastering. The mastering engineer must prepare the file for its intended destination, which may be broadcast, DVD or digital distribution.
An "acting studio" is an institution or workspace (similar to a dance studio) in which actors rehearse and refine their craft. The Neighborhood Playhouse and Actors Studio are legendary acting studios in New York.
A movie studio is a company which develops, equips and maintains a controlled environment for filmmaking. This environment may be interior (sound stage), exterior (backlot) or both.
A photographic studio is both a workspace and a corporate body. As a workspace it provides space to take, develop, print and duplicate photographs.
A radio studio is a room in which a radio program or show is produced, either for live broadcast or for recording for a later broadcast. The room is soundproofed to avoid unwanted noise being mixed into the broadcast.
A recording studio is a facility for sound recording which generally consists of at least two rooms: the studio or live room, and the control room, where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. They are designed so that they have good acoustics and so that there is good isolation between the rooms.
A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, for live television, for recording video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons.
Many of the healing arts and activities such as yoga, judo, karate are "studied" in a studio. It is very common to see yoga studios and martial arts studios established in settings that might previously have been for other uses, described as studios. These are not really recreation centers, or gyms in the traditional sense, but places where students of these activities practice or study their art.
The BBC Radiophonic Workshop was one of the sound effects units of the BBC, created in 1958 to produce incidental sounds and new music for radio and, later, television. The unit is known for its experimental and pioneering work in electronic music and music technology, as well as its popular scores for programs such as Doctor Who and Quatermass and the Pit during the 1950s and 1960s.
Binaural recording is a method of recording sound that uses two microphones, arranged with the intent to create a 3-D stereo sound sensation for the listener of actually being in the room with the performers or instruments. This effect is often created using a technique known as "dummy head recording", wherein a mannequin head is outfitted with a microphone in each ear. Binaural recording is intended for replay using headphones and will not translate properly over stereo speakers. This idea of a three dimensional or "internal" form of sound has also translated into useful advancement of technology in many things such as stethoscopes creating "in-head" acoustics and IMAX movies being able to create a three dimensional acoustic experience.
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home project studio large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties.
Mastering, a form of audio post production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device, the source from which all copies will be produced. In recent years digital masters have become usual, although analog masters, such as audio tapes, are still being used by the manufacturing industry, notably by a few engineers who have chosen to specialize in analog mastering.
Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position. This contrasts with stereophonic sound or stereo, which uses two separate audio channels to reproduce sound from two microphones on the right and left side, which is reproduced with two separate loudspeakers to give a sense of the direction of sound sources. In mono, only one loudspeaker is necessary, but, when played through multiple loudspeakers or headphones, identical signals are fed to each speaker, resulting in the perception of one-channel sound "imaging" in one sonic space between the speakers. Monaural recordings, like stereo ones, typically use multiple microphones fed into multiple channels on a recording console, but each channel is "panned" to the center. In the final stage, the various center-panned signal paths are usually mixed down to two identical tracks, which, because they are identical, are perceived upon playback as representing a single unified signal at a single place in the soundstage. In some cases, multitrack sources are mixed to a one-track tape, thus becoming one signal. In the mastering stage, particularly in the days of mono records, the one- or two-track mono master tape was then transferred to a one-track lathe intended to be used in the pressing of a monophonic record. Today, however, monaural recordings are usually mastered to be played on stereo and multi-track formats, yet retain their center-panned mono soundstage characteristics.
Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent computer engineering and information technology, which deals with radio and television broadcasting. Audio engineering and RF engineering are also essential parts of broadcast engineering, being their own subsets of electrical engineering.
Below is a glossary of terms used in broadcasting.
The history of sound recording - which has progressed in waves, driven by the invention and commercial introduction of new technologies — can be roughly divided into four main periods:
The Australian Film, Television and Radio School (AFTRS) is Australia's national screen arts and broadcast school. The school is an Australian Commonwealth government statutory authority. It is a member of the "Australian Roundtable for Arts Training Excellence".
Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to film, video, and other media in post-production to enhance audio quality. These reproduced sounds can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps to squeaky doors and breaking glass. The best Foley art is so well integrated into a film that it goes unnoticed by the audience. It helps to create a sense of reality within a scene. Without these crucial background noises, movies feel unnaturally quiet and uncomfortable.
Classical Realism refers to an artistic movement in late-20th and early 21st century in which drawing and painting place a high value upon skill and beauty, combining elements of 19th-century neoclassicism and realism.
Little Mountain Sound Studios is a music recording facility located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. During the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, it was the most successful recording studio in Western Canada and was the home for many years to producers Bruce Fairbairn and Bob Rock. Little Mountain recorded albums by Aerosmith, Bon Jovi, AC/DC, Metallica, Bryan Adams, Mötley Crüe, David Lee Roth, Loverboy, and the Cult among many others. In the mid 1990s Little Mountain would become part of Vancouver Studios, the facility would eventually evolve into Greenhouse Studios and would record albums by Nickelback, k.d. lang, Default, and Queensrÿche.
The Vidal M. Treviño School of Communications and Fine Arts is a fine arts and communications high school in Laredo, Texas, founded in 1993 by Vidal M. Treviño, the LISD superintendent and a former member of the Texas House of Representatives. High school students from all three of the Laredo Independent School District high schools - Cigarroa High School, Martin High School and J. W. Nixon High School - meeting the acceptance requirements come to the school either in the morning or in the afternoon. They take one core academic class and one fine art or communication class. The academic classes are taught at the Pre-AP or AP level, meaning a more rigorous curriculum than regular level academic classes.
KOHL is a radio station broadcasting a Contemporary Hit Radio format.
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance, balancing and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer ... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, radio, television, music, and video games. Audio engineers also set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, theatre, sports games and corporate events.
A networked music performance or network musical performance is a real-time interaction over a computer network that enables musicians in different locations to perform as if they were in the same room. These interactions can include performances, rehearsals, improvisation or jamming sessions, and situations for learning such as master classes. Participants may be connected by "high fidelity multichannel audio and video links" as well as MIDI data connections and specialized collaborative software tools. While not intended to be a replacement for traditional live stage performance, networked music performance supports musical interaction when co-presence is not possible and allows for novel forms of music expression. Remote audience members and possibly a conductor may also participate.
Flashpoint Chicago is a campus of Columbia College Hollywood, which is a private, non-profit, liberal arts college with a focus on communication, media arts and contemporary storytelling. Flashpoint Chicago is located in downtown Chicago, Illinois.
David Richardson is an English music producer, audio engineer and musician. In 1968 he founded Sky Studios with rock band Jethro Tull, the studio later became leading facilities house, Sound Recording Technology (SRT).
Blue Heaven Studios is a recording studio located in a gothic-style church in Salina, Kansas. The studio is a division of Acoustic Sounds, Inc., founded by music entrepreneur Chad Kassem, and is the home of a yearly Blues music festival — Blues Masters at the Crossroads.