Studio

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Adriaen van Ostade. Selfportrait. 1663. Gemaldegalerie. Adriaen van Ostade 006.jpg
Adriaen van Ostade. Selfportrait. 1663. Gemäldegalerie.

A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, architecture, painting, pottery (ceramics), sculpture, origami, woodworking, scrapbooking, photography, graphic design, filmmaking, animation, industrial design, radio or television production broadcasting or the making of music. The term is also used for the workroom of dancers, often specified to dance studio.

Artist person who creates, practises and/or demonstrates any art

An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism.

Acting impersonation of a fictional character

Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode.

Architecture both the process and product of planning, designing and construction

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

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The word studio is derived from the Italian : studio, from Latin : studium, from studere, meaning to study or zeal.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.

The French term for studio, atelier , in addition to designating an artist's studio is used to characterize the studio of a fashion designer. Atelier also has the connotation of being the home of an alchemist or wizard.

Atelier artists workshop

An atelier is the private workshop or studio of a professional artist in the fine or decorative arts, where a principal master and a number of assistants, students, and apprentices can work together producing pieces of fine art or visual art released under the master's name or supervision.

Alchemy philosophical and protoscientific tradition

Alchemy was an ancient branch of natural philosophy, a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, originating in Hellenistic Egypt between the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It aims to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects. Common aims were chrysopoeia, the transmutation of "base metals" into "noble metals" ; the creation of an elixir of immortality; the creation of panaceas able to cure any disease; and the development of an alkahest, a universal solvent. The perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and Western mystery tradition, the achievement of gnosis. In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects.

Studio is also a metonym for the group of people who work within a particular studio.

Art studio

Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair. Jane Frank Portrait .jpg
Artist Jane Frank in her studio, 1960s or 1970s. The studio of a contemporary mixed media artist can be quite a messy affair.

The studio of any artist, especially from the 15th to the 19th centuries, characterized all the assistants, thus the designation of paintings as "from the workshop of..." or "studio of..." An art studio is sometimes called an atelier, especially in earlier eras. In contemporary, English language use, "atelier" can also refer to the Atelier Method, a training method for artists that usually takes place in a professional artist's studio.

Workshop room or building, with tools, used to repair or make goods

Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room, rooms or building which provides both the area and tools that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. Workshops were the only places of production until the advent of industrialization and the development of larger factories. In the 20th and 21st century, many Western homes contain a workshop in the garage, basement, or an external shed. Home workshops typically contain a workbench, hand tools, power tools and other hardware. Along with their practical applications for repair goods or do small manufacturing runs, workshops are used to tinker and make prototypes.

The above-mentioned "method" calls upon that zeal for study to play a significant role in the production which occurs in a studio space. A studio is more or less artful to the degree that the artist who occupies it is committed to the continuing education in his or her formal discipline. Academic curricula categorize studio classes in order to prepare students for the rigors of building sets of skills which require a continuity of practice in order to achieve growth and mastery of their artistic expression. A versatile and creative mind will embrace the opportunity of such practice to innovate and experiment, which develops uniquely individual qualities of each artist's expression. Thus the method raises and maintains an art studio space above the level of a mere production facility or workshop.

Safety is or may be a concern in studios, with some painting materials required to be handled, stored, or used properly to prevent poisoning, chemical burns, or fire. [1]

Commons-logo.svg Media related to atelier at Wikimedia Commons

Educational studio

In educational studios, students learn to develop skills related to design, ranging from architecture to product design. In specific, educational studios are studio settings where large numbers of students learn to draft and design with instructional help at a college. Educational studios are colloquially referred to as "studio" by students, who are known for staying up late hours into the night doing projects and socializing.

The studio environment is characterized by 2 types in education:

  1. The workspace where students do usually visually-centered work in an open environment. This time and space is beyond that of instructional time and faculty guidance is not available. It allows for students to engage each other, help each other, and inspire each other while working.
  2. A type of class that takes the above-mentioned workshop space, and recreates its core component of an open working environment. It differentiates itself based on a topic of instruction, isolated space, instructor led/included, and an added focus of directed criticism. A great take on this latter type of "studio classroom" is described by Carleton University. [2]

Pottery studio

Studio pottery is made by an individual potter working on his own in his studio, rather than in a ceramics factory (although there may be a design studio within a larger manufacturing site).

Pottery craft of making objects from clay

Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made by a potter is also called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products." A different definition, used within the field of ceramics, is "everything which is not porcelain". In archaeology, especially of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" often means vessels only, and figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious.

Production studios

Production studios are those studios which act as centres for the production in any of the arts; alternatively they can also be the financial and commercial entity behind such endeavours. In radio and television production studio is the place where programs and radio commercial and television advertising are recorded for further emission.

Animation studio

Animation studios, like movie studios, may be production facilities, or financial entities. In some cases, especially in anime, they continue the tradition of a studio where a master or group of talented individuals oversee the work of lesser artists and crafts persons in realising their vision. Animation studios are a fast rising entity and they include established firms such as Walt Disney and Pixar.

Comics studio

Artists or writers, predominantly those producing comics, still employ small studios of staff to assist in the creation of a comic strip, comic book or graphic novel. In the early days of Dan Dare, Frank Hampson employed a number of staff at his studio to help with the production of the strip. Eddie Campbell is another creator who has assembled a small studio of colleagues to help him in his art, and the comic book industry of the United States has based its production methods upon the studio system employed at its beginnings.

Instructional studio

Student using a laptop in an instructional studio. Student using Laptop.jpg
Student using a laptop in an instructional studio.

Many universities are creating studio settings for courses outside the artist's realm. There are several different projects along these lines, most notably the SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs) initiated at NC State.

Mastering studio

In audio, a mastering studio is a facility specialised in audio mastering. Tasks may include but not be limited to audio restoration, corrective and tone-shaping EQ, dynamic control, stereo or 5.1 surround editing, vinyl and tape transfers, vinyl cutting, and CD compilation. Depending on the quality of the original mix, the mastering engineer's role can change from small corrections to improving the overall sound of a mix drastically. Typically studios contain a combination of high-end analogue equipment with low-noise circuitry and digital hardware and plug-ins. Some may contain tape machines and vinyl lathes. They may also contain full-range monitoring systems and be acoustically tuned to provide an accurate reproduction of the sound information contained in the original medium. The mastering engineer must prepare the file for its intended destination, which may be radio, CD, vinyl or digital distribution.

In video production, a mastering studio is a facility specialized in the post-production of video recordings. Tasks may include but not be limited to: video editing, colour grading correction, mixing, DVD authoring and audio mastering. The mastering engineer must prepare the file for its intended destination, which may be broadcast, DVD or digital distribution.

Acting studio

An "acting studio" is an institution or workspace (similar to a dance studio) in which actors rehearse and refine their craft. The Neighborhood Playhouse and Actors Studio are legendary acting studios in New York.

Movie studio

A movie studio is a company which develops, equips and maintains a controlled environment for filmmaking. This environment may be interior (sound stage), exterior (backlot) or both.

Photographic studio

A photographic studio is both a workspace and a corporate body. As a workspace it provides space to take, develop, print and duplicate photographs.

Radio studio

A radio studio is a room in which a radio program or show is produced, either for live broadcast or for recording for a later broadcast. The room is soundproofed to avoid unwanted noise being mixed into the broadcast.

Recording studio

A recording studio is a facility for sound recording which generally consists of at least two rooms: the studio or live room, and the control room, where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. They are designed so that they have good acoustics and so that there is good isolation between the rooms.

Television studio

A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, for live television, for recording video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons.

Yoga and martial arts studios

Many of the healing arts and activities such as yoga, judo, karate are "studied" in a studio. It is very common to see yoga studios and martial arts studios established in settings that might previously have been for other uses, described as studios. These are not really recreation centers, or gyms in the traditional sense, but places where students of these activities practice or study their art.

See also

Sources

  1. Friel, Michael (2010). Still Life Painting Atelier: An Introduction to Oil Painting, p.20. ISBN   978-0-8230-3408-6.
  2. "What is studio teaching?" . Retrieved 22 July 2011.

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Binaural recording method of recording sound that uses two microphones

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Recording studio facility for sound recording

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Audio mastering form of audio post-production

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Monaural sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position

Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from one position. This contrasts with stereophonic sound or stereo, which uses two separate audio channels to reproduce sound from two microphones on the right and left side, which is reproduced with two separate loudspeakers to give a sense of the direction of sound sources. In mono, only one loudspeaker is necessary, but, when played through multiple loudspeakers or headphones, identical signals are fed to each speaker, resulting in the perception of one-channel sound "imaging" in one sonic space between the speakers. Monaural recordings, like stereo ones, typically use multiple microphones fed into multiple channels on a recording console, but each channel is "panned" to the center. In the final stage, the various center-panned signal paths are usually mixed down to two identical tracks, which, because they are identical, are perceived upon playback as representing a single unified signal at a single place in the soundstage. In some cases, multitrack sources are mixed to a one-track tape, thus becoming one signal. In the mastering stage, particularly in the days of mono records, the one- or two-track mono master tape was then transferred to a one-track lathe intended to be used in the pressing of a monophonic record. Today, however, monaural recordings are usually mastered to be played on stereo and multi-track formats, yet retain their center-panned mono soundstage characteristics.

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Audio engineer engineer who operates recording, mixing, sound reproduction equipment

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