A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, architecture, painting, pottery (ceramics), sculpture, origami, woodworking, scrapbooking, photography, graphic design, filmmaking, animation, industrial design, radio or television production broadcasting or the making of music. The term is also used for the workroom of dancers, often specified to dance studio.
The word studio is derived from the Italian : studio, from Latin : studium, from studere, meaning to study or zeal.
The French term for studio, atelier , in addition to designating an artist's studio is used to characterize the studio of a fashion designer. Atelier also has the connotation of being the home of an alchemist or wizard.
Studio is also a metonym for the group of people who work within a particular studio.
The studio of any artist, especially from the 15th to the 19th centuries, characterized all the assistants, thus the designation of paintings as "from the workshop of..." or "studio of..." An art studio is sometimes called an atelier, especially in earlier eras. In contemporary, English language use, "atelier" can also refer to the Atelier Method, a training method for artists that usually takes place in a professional artist's studio.
The above-mentioned "method" calls upon that zeal for study to play a significant role in the production which occurs in a studio space. A studio is more or less artful to the degree that the artist who occupies it is committed to the continuing education in his or her formal discipline. Academic curricula categorize studio classes in order to prepare students for the rigors of building sets of skills which require a continuity of practice in order to achieve growth and mastery of their artistic expression. A versatile and creative mind will embrace the opportunity of such practice to innovate and experiment, which develops uniquely individual qualities of each artist's expression. Thus the method raises and maintains an art studio space above the level of a mere production facility or workshop.
Safety is or may be a concern in studios, with some painting materials required to be handled, stored, or used properly to prevent poisoning, chemical burns, or fire.
Media related to atelier at Wikimedia Commons
In educational studios, students learn to develop skills related to design, ranging from architecture to product design. In specific, educational studios are studio settings where large numbers of students learn to draft and design with instructional help at a college. Educational studios are colloquially referred to as "studio" by students, who are known for staying up late hours into the night doing projects and socializing.
The studio environment is characterized by 2 types in education:
Studio pottery is made by an individual potter working on his own in his studio, rather than in a ceramics factory (although there may be a design studio within a larger manufacturing site).
Production studios are those studios which act as centres for the production in any of the arts; alternatively they can also be the financial and commercial entity behind such endeavours. In radio and television production studio is the place where programs and radio commercial and television advertising are recorded for further emission.
Animation studios, like movie studios, may be production facilities, or financial entities. In some cases, especially in anime, they continue the tradition of a studio where a master or group of talented individuals oversee the work of lesser artists and crafts persons in realising their vision. Animation studios are a fast rising entity and they include established firms such as Walt Disney and Pixar.
Artists or writers, predominantly those producing comics, still employ small studios of staff to assist in the creation of a comic strip, comic book or graphic novel. In the early days of Dan Dare, Frank Hampson employed a number of staff at his studio to help with the production of the strip. Eddie Campbell is another creator who has assembled a small studio of colleagues to help him in his art, and the comic book industry of the United States has based its production methods upon the studio system employed at its beginnings.
Many universities are creating studio settings for courses outside the artist's realm. There are several different projects along these lines, most notably the SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs) initiated at NC State.
In audio, a mastering studio is a facility specialised in audio mastering. Tasks may include but not be limited to audio restoration, corrective and tone-shaping EQ, dynamic control, stereo or 5.1 surround editing, vinyl and tape transfers, vinyl cutting, and CD compilation. Depending on the quality of the original mix, the mastering engineer's role can change from small corrections to improving the overall sound of a mix drastically. Typically studios contain a combination of high-end analogue equipment with low-noise circuitry and digital hardware and plug-ins. Some may contain tape machines and vinyl lathes. They may also contain full-range monitoring systems and be acoustically tuned to provide an accurate reproduction of the sound information contained in the original medium. The mastering engineer must prepare the file for its intended destination, which may be radio, CD, vinyl or digital distribution.
In video production, a mastering studio is a facility specialized in the post-production of video recordings. Tasks may include but not be limited to: video editing, colour grading correction, mixing, DVD authoring and audio mastering. The mastering engineer must prepare the file for its intended destination, which may be broadcast, DVD or digital distribution.
An "acting studio" is an institution or workspace (similar to a dance studio) in which actors rehearse and refine their craft. The Neighborhood Playhouse and Actors Studio are legendary acting studios in New York.
A movie studio is a company which develops, equips and maintains a controlled environment for filmmaking. This environment may be interior (sound stage), exterior (backlot) or both.
A photographic studio is both a workspace and a corporate body. As a workspace it provides space to take, develop, print and duplicate photographs.
A radio studio is a room in which a radio program or show is produced, either for live broadcast or for recording for a later broadcast. The room is soundproofed to avoid unwanted noise being mixed into the broadcast.
A recording studio is a facility for sound recording which generally consists of at least two rooms: the studio or live room, and the control room, where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. They are designed so that they have good acoustics and so that there is good isolation between the rooms.
A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, for live television, for recording video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons.
Many of the healing arts and activities such as yoga, judo, karate are "studied" in a studio. It is very common to see yoga studios and martial arts studios established in settings that might previously have been for other uses, described as studios. These are not really recreation centers, or gyms in the traditional sense, but places where students of these activities practice or study their art.
A sound effect is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media. These are normally created with foley. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music. The term often refers to a process applied to a recording, without necessarily referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue, music, and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, even though the processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects, often are called "sound effects".
The BBC Radiophonic Workshop was one of the sound effects units of the BBC, created in 1958 to produce incidental sounds and new music for radio and, later, television. The unit is known for its experimental and pioneering work in electronic music and music technology, as well as its popular scores for programs such as Doctor Who and Quatermass and the Pit during the 1950s and 1960s.
In sound recording and reproduction, and sound reinforcement systems, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining sounds of many different audio signals. Inputs to the console include microphones being used by singers and for picking up acoustic instruments, signals from electric or electronic instruments, or recorded music. Depending on the type, a mixer is able to control analog or digital signals. The modified signals are summed to produce the combined output signals, which can then be broadcast, amplified through a sound reinforcement system or recorded.
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home project studio large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties.
Mastering, a form of audio post production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device, the source from which all copies will be produced. In recent years digital masters have become usual, although analog masters—such as audio tapes—are still being used by the manufacturing industry, particularly by a few engineers who specialize in analog mastering.
Reel-to-reel audio tape recording, also called open-reel recording, is the form of magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording medium is held on a reel that is not permanently mounted in an enclosed cassette. In use, the supply reel containing the tape is placed on a spindle or hub; the end of the tape is manually pulled out of the reel, threaded through mechanical guides and a tape head assembly, and attached by friction to the hub of the second, initially empty takeup reel.
Five Towns College is a private college in Dix Hills, New York, in Long Island's Suffolk County. The College's degree programs focus on music, media and the performing arts.
Remaster refers to changing the quality of the sound or of the image, or both, of previously created recordings, either audiophonic, cinematic, or videographic.
An acetate disc is a type of gramophone record generally used from the 1930s to the late 1950s for recording and broadcast purposes and still in limited use today.
Below is a glossary of terms used in broadcasting.
The Krannert Center for the Performing Arts is an educational and performing arts complex located at 500 S. Goodwin Street in Urbana, Illinois, on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Herman C. Krannert, an industrialist who was the founder of Inland Container Corp. and an alumnus of the University, and his wife, Ellnora Krannert, made a gift of $16 million that made creation of the Krannert Center possible. Max Abramovitz, the architect who designed the facility, was also an Illinois alumnus.
The history of sound recording - which has progressed in waves, driven by the invention and commercial introduction of new technologies — can be roughly divided into four main periods:
An atelier is the private workshop or studio of a professional artist in the fine or decorative arts where a principal master and a number of assistants, students, and apprentices can work together producing fine art or visual art released under the master's name or supervision.
Associated Independent Recording (AIR) is an independent recording company founded in London in 1965 by record producer Sir George Martin and his business partner John Burgess, after their departure from Parlophone. The first album produced by George Martin by his new company was the Beatles' Rubber Soul, recorded at Abbey Road Studios.
In filmmaking, Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to films, videos, and other media in post-production to enhance audio quality. These reproduced sounds, named after sound-effects artist Jack Foley, can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps to squeaky doors and breaking glass. Foley sounds are used to enhance the auditory experience of the movie. Foley can also be used to cover up unwanted sounds captured on the set of a movie during filming, such as overflying airplanes or passing traffic.
The Vidal M. Treviño School of Communications and Fine Arts is a fine arts and communications high school in Laredo, Texas, founded in 1993 by Vidal M. Treviño, the LISD superintendent and a former member of the Texas House of Representatives. High school students from all three of the Laredo Independent School District high schools - Cigarroa High School, Martin High School and J. W. Nixon High School - meeting the acceptance requirements come to the school either in the morning or in the afternoon. They take one core academic class and one fine art or communication class. The academic classes are taught at the Pre-AP or AP level, meaning a more rigorous curriculum than regular level academic classes.
A re-recording mixer in North America, also known as a dubbing mixer in Europe, is a post-production audio engineer who mixes recorded dialogue, sound effects and music to create the final version of a soundtrack for a feature film, television program, or television advertisement. The final mix must achieve a desired sonic balance between its various elements, and must match the director's or sound designer's original vision for the project. For material intended for broadcast, the final mix must also comply with all applicable laws governing sound mixing.
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance, balancing and adjusting sound sources using equalization, dynamics processing and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer ... the nuts and bolts."
The John Lennon Educational Tour Bus was founded in 1998 as a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization "committed to reaching youth through music and video". While corporately based in New York City, the mission of the organization is carried out through a traveling bus, an audio and video recording studio on wheels. With the very newest technology and gear, the Bus continues to be dedicated to providing young people with tours of the studios and participation in free songwriting and multimedia production workshops. With the assistance of three on-board engineers, students learn how to write, perform, and record original songs, plus produce and shoot music videos or documentaries, completing a broadcast-quality production in a single visit.
David Richardson is an English music producer, audio engineer and musician. He founded Sky Studios with rock band Jethro Tull, the studio later became leading facilities house, Sound Recording Technology (SRT).