House of Neville

Last updated
House of Neville
Neville arms.svg
Arms of Neville: Gules, a saltire argent
Country Kingdom of England, United Kingdom
FoundedBefore 1129
FounderUhtred
Current head Christopher Nevill, 6th Marquess of Abergavenny
Titles

The Neville or Nevill family (originally FitzMaldred) is a noble house of early medieval origin, which was a leading force in English politics in the later Middle Ages. The family became one of the two major powers in northern England and played a central role in the Wars of the Roses along with their rival, the House of Percy.

Contents

Origins

The male-line origin of the Neville family first appears in surviving records not until decades after the Norman Conquest of England (1066) and Domesday Book (1086), which did not cover County Durham, the area of their earliest recorded landholdings. The male line of the Nevilles was of native origin, and the family may well have been part of the pre-Conquest aristocracy of Northumbria. [1] Following the Norman Conquest, most of the existing Anglo-Saxon aristocracy of England were dispossessed and replaced by a new Norman ruling elite, and although such survivals are very rare, continued landholding by native families was more common in the far north of England, including in County Durham, than in the south.

The male-line of the family can be traced back to a certain Uhtred, whose identity is unclear, although Horace Round (1895) suggests he may have been identical with the man of that name who was a son of Ligulf, a great Northumbrian thegn killed at Durham in 1080. [2] His son Dolfin, called in the records "son of Uhtred", is first attested in 1129, as holding the manor of Staindrop (formerly Stainthorp) in County Durham, from the Prior of Durham. It shared with a vast church estate some limited common land of 14,000 acres (5,700 ha). [3] This locality remained the principal seat of the family until 1569, their chief residence being at Raby in the north of the parish of Staindrop, where in the 14th century they built the present Raby Castle. [4] Dolfin was succeeded by his son Meldred. He in turn was succeeded by his son Robert FitzMeldred, who married the Anglo-Norman heiress Isabel de Neville, daughter of Geoffrey de Neville (died 1193), 2nd feudal baron of Ashby in Lincolnshire. [5] Their son Geoffrey "de Neville" (d. c. 1242) inherited the estates of his mother's family as well as his father's, and adopted his mother's surname, but retained his paternal arms of Gules, a saltire argent. [6] In Norman-ruled England, a Norman surname was more prestigious and socially advantageous than an English one. [7] Already before the Neville marriage, the FitzMeldred family was a major power in the area: "In the extent of their landed possessions this family, holding on obdurately to native names for a full hundred years after 1066, was pre-eminent among the lay proprietors within the bishopric of Durham during the twelfth century". [8]

Geoffrey de Neville married a certain Joan, as is apparent from a charter granted in 1273 by his son Robert de Neville (d.1282) to Marton Priory, Yorkshire, referring to "the souls of his parents, Geoffrey and Joan, and for the souls of both of his wives". [9]

In the 16th century the Nevilles claimed that their ancestor Uhtred was descended from Crinan of Dunkeld, ancestor of the Scottish royal House of Dunkeld. [10] As well as prestigious ancient connections with the royal families of both England and Scotland, this claim entailed a line of descent from the Bamburgh dynasty of Earls of Northumbria, attaching the Nevilles' later power in the north to a pedigree of pre-eminence in the region stretching back at least as far as the early 10th century. Modern genealogists have speculated about theories to connect Uhtred with his purported forebears, but none of these is supported by any direct evidence. [1]

Rise to power

The family's wealth and power grew steadily over the following centuries. Their regional power benefited greatly from frequent appointment to such royal offices as sheriff, castellan, justice of the forest, and justice of the peace in various parts of northern England. [11] This prominent office-holding began with Geoffrey de Neville's son Robert, in the reign of Henry III, whom Robert supported against the barons under Simon de Montfort. [12] The Nevilles also held administrative office under the prince-bishops of Durham. [13] Robert's grandson Ralph Neville was one of the founding members of the Peerage of England, being summoned to sit in the House of Lords at its establishment in 1295, and thus initiating the line of Barons Neville de Raby. [14]

Service in the wars of the late 13th and 14th centuries against Scotland, and later in the Hundred Years' War in France was of key importance in further enhancing the family's standing. [15] In 1334 Ralph Neville, Lord of Raby was appointed one of the wardens of the marches, the chief officers for frontier defence, and the Nevilles were habitually appointed to these posts thereafter. [16] Ralph commanded the force that crushed an invading Scottish army at the Battle of Neville's Cross outside Durham and captured King David II in 1346. In the mid-14th century, the Nevilles became involved in naval defence as well, holding the post of Admiral of the North. [17] During this period they also began to be appointed to high office at court and in the Church: the victor of Neville's Cross served as Steward of the Royal Household, and on his death was succeeded in the office by his eldest son John. John's brother Alexander Neville became Archbishop of York and was a close advisor of Richard II. As such, he was prosecuted, along with Richard's other leading adherents, when the disgruntled Lords Appellant seized power in 1386–9. He suffered the confiscation of his property but, as a clergyman, he escaped the death sentences imposed on his colleagues. [18]

Raby Castle in County Durham Raby Castle, County Durham.jpg
Raby Castle in County Durham

By the late 14th century, the family had acquired an extensive array of estates across northern England. Besides their original powerbase in County Durham, they possessed a large block of lands in northern and central Yorkshire and significant holdings in Cumberland and Northumberland. They also held scattered estates in Lancashire and further south in Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire and Essex. In addition to Raby, they acquired or built important castles at Brancepeth near Durham and at Middleham, Sheriff Hutton and Snape in Yorkshire. [19] Although geographically concentrated, their main estates were organised into three different administrative units (receiverships), based at Raby, Middleham and Sheriff Hutton. These were respectively responsible for the holdings in County Durham, in north-western Yorkshire, and in central Yorkshire. Towards the end of the 14th century, Middleham became a second habitual residence of the head of the family. [20]

Earls of Westmorland

The Nevilles' emergence into the highest echelon of the aristocracy received formal recognition in 1397, when the Lord of Raby Ralph Neville was created Earl of Westmorland by Richard II. By this time the Nevilles' power in the north was matched only by the Percy Earls of Northumberland, with whom they developed an acrimonious rivalry. These competing northern magnates enjoyed an exceptional degree of autonomy from royal authority, owing to the remoteness and insecurity of the region where they were established. The king, whose court was based in the south, had to rely on powerful lords from both houses to protect the border from Scottish invasion, counterbalance each other's influence, and help with general governance.

Although the family had previously been close to Richard II, Earl Ralph was quick to join Henry Bolingbroke when he landed in England to overthrow Richard in 1399. Shortly after Bolingbroke's successful usurpation, taking the throne as Henry IV, Westmorland was rewarded with marriage to the new king's half-sister Joan Beaufort. Henry extended Richard II's policy of bolstering the strength of the Nevilles as a check to the troublesome Percys. The family gained from the weakening of Percy power as a result of the Crown's suppression of a series of rebellions involving that family in the 1400s. [21]

While increasing the political standing of the Nevilles, the royal marriage led to a serious split in the family. Earl Ralph had previously been married to Margaret de Stafford, and the title of Earl of Westmorland descended through his son by this marriage. However, he favoured his sons by his second marriage, who received the bulk of the family lands on his death. This led to bitter disputes over the inheritance and lasting estrangement between the Nevilles of Raby, descended from Margaret Stafford, and the Nevilles of Middleham, descended from Joan Beaufort. [22]

In addition to his patrimonial inheritance, Ralph's eldest son by Joan, Richard Neville, acquired the earldom of Salisbury by marriage to its heiress. Salisbury's own eldest son Richard became Earl of Warwick by the same means. These marriages brought the family huge new estates. Those of the earldom of Warwick, inherited from the Beauchamp family, were concentrated chiefly in Warwickshire and Worcestershire, but with lesser holdings in County Durham, Devon, Cornwall and the Welsh Marches. The main Salisbury lands, formerly held by the Montagus, were widely distributed across the south-west, with clusters in Devon, Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire. [23] The family also acquired the barony of Latimer through the marriage of the first Earl of Westmorland's father, later passed on to one of the first earl's younger sons, and the baronies of Fauconberg and Bergavenny through the marriages of two more of those sons.

Wars of the Roses

Yorkist champions

Salisbury and Warwick became the most important supporters of Richard, Duke of York during the early stages of the Wars of the Roses. They probably hoped that a Yorkist seizure of power would bring a favourable resolution of major inheritance disputes involving Warwick, and of a sporadically violent struggle for preeminence in the north between Salisbury and the Percys. They were also connected to York by marriage, as he had married Salisbury's sister Cecily; their children included the future kings Edward IV and Richard III. In addition to their own wealth and armed following, the Nevilles' heft in this and subsequent conflicts was enhanced by Warwick's position as Constable of Calais and commissioner for the keeping of the seas. These offices gave him command of England's only significant standing armed force and control of a war-fleet. They also enabled him to develop close ties with the London corporation of the Merchants of the Staple, a major source of financial support, and to gain popularity with the discontented populace of London and the south-east, especially Kent, whom Warwick and his allies repeatedly stirred into revolt. York and Salisbury were both killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460, but Warwick helped York's son Edward, Earl of March, to depose Henry VI and gain the throne as Edward IV in 1461. [24]

Among the family's rewards for their support was the elevation of Salisbury's brother, the veteran soldier William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, as Earl of Kent. He, Warwick, and Salisbury's younger son John Neville, now ennobled as Baron Montagu, directed the suppression of lingering Lancastrian resistance in the north, where the ousted dynasty clung on for three years after their decisive defeat at the Battle of Towton in 1461. The Percys were among the principal supporters of the Lancastrian cause, and following the death at Towton of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and the final elimination of resistance in the north in 1464, the Nevilles secured their greatest triumph over their rivals, acquiring the earldom of Northumberland for John Neville in 1465. [25]

Disaffection and defection

Warwick, now the richest man in England after the king, was the power behind the throne in Edward's regime during its early years, but the two men later fell out. Their estrangement was due in large part to the king's secret marriage in 1464 to Elizabeth Woodville. This humiliated Warwick, who had negotiated an agreement with Louis XI of France for Edward to marry the French king's sister-in-law. Relations were further aggravated by the subsequent influence of the Woodvilles, who successfully opposed Warwick over foreign policy. [26]

In 1469 Warwick seized control of government, in conjunction with his brother George Neville, Archbishop of York, and Edward's own brother George, Duke of Clarence. Their alliance had been sealed by Clarence's marriage to Warwick's daughter Isabel. Warwick and Clarence imprisoned the king and sought to rule in his name, but the new regime was unable to impose its authority, and Edward was released. The king refrained from punishing the rebels, but sought to reestablish a northern counterweight to the Nevilles by restoring the earldom of Northumberland to the dispossessed heir, Henry Percy. This meant depriving John Neville, who had remained loyal to the king when his brothers rebelled, of his title, lands and offices. Edward sought to retain John's allegiance by compensating him with estates in the south-west, the new title of Marquess of Montagu, and the betrothal of his young son George Neville to the king's eldest daughter and current heir, Elizabeth of York. George was made Duke of Bedford in recognition of his future prospects. All this, however, evidently failed to mollify Montagu.

Warwick and Clarence again rebelled in 1470, apparently aiming to put Clarence on the throne. Defeated, they fled abroad, where they made common cause with the exiled Lancastrians, marrying Warwick's daughter Anne to Henry VI's only son Edward of Westminster. When Warwick and other leaders of this alliance landed in England to raise revolt once more, they were backed by leading nobles still in England, including Montagu, who turned the troops he had nominally raised for Edward IV against the king. Edward fled the country and Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne, but Edward soon counter-attacked successfully, and Warwick and Montagu were killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471. [27]

Aftermath

Warwick and Montagu were never formally attainted, which would have meant the forfeiture of their property. Nonetheless, the victorious Yorkists did not allow the process of inheritance to follow its normal legal course. Montagu's estates should have passed to his son George Neville, Duke of Bedford, along with the considerable portion of Warwick's inherited possessions which had been entailed to heirs male, giving Bedford precedence over Warwick's daughters. However, in practice Bedford was denied his inheritance, while his engagement to Elizabeth of York was cancelled. He would eventually be deprived of his title by Act of Parliament in 1478, ostensibly on the grounds that he lacked the wealth required to maintain the standing of a duke.

The legacy of the Middleham Nevilles instead became the object of dispute between King Edward's brothers: Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and Clarence, who had returned to the family fold before the Battle of Barnet. Clarence, whose claim was founded on his marriage to Isabel Neville, gained the earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury. Gloucester acquired the old Neville estates in the north, establishing his claim by marrying Anne Neville, who had been widowed by Prince Edward's death in the final Lancastrian defeat at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. The northern lands and clientage inherited from the Nevilles became Gloucester's main powerbase, and he adopted Middleham Castle as his principal residence until his usurpation of the throne as Richard III in 1483.

Reflecting the estrangement between the two branches of the family, the Nevilles of Raby, headed by Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland, had sided with the Lancastrians from the outset. Westmorland's brother John Neville, Lord of Raby was killed in the defeat at Towton. The line of the Earls of Westmorland survived the wars, but the loss of most of the ancestral estates through their inheritance by the Nevilles of Middleham and their subsequent downfall left the family a much diminished force. [28]

Junior lines of the Middleham Nevilles also survived, including the holders of the Latimer and Bergavenny baronies, based, respectively, at Snape and at Abergavenny Castle. Edward Neville, Lord Bergavenny had for many years been forcibly deprived of his inheritance by his nephew the Earl of Warwick. During the wars, each of these lines of the family had fought sometimes alongside and sometimes against the core group of Middleham Nevilles led by Salisbury and Warwick. [29]

Later history

The regional power of the northern magnates, already severely weakened by the losses suffered in the Wars of the Roses, was further diminished by the growing power of central government in the 16th century. In 1569 the Nevilles and Percys buried their traditional rivalry to undertake the Revolt of the Northern Earls, an attempt to overthrow Elizabeth I and replace her with the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots. The rebellion was a fiasco, and the Earl of Westmorland, Charles Neville, fled into exile abroad. He was attainted in his absence, losing his title and lands. When he died in 1601 he left no male heir, thus extinguishing the senior Neville line.

The Latimer branch of the family had also died out in 1577, but the Bergavenny line endured. After the death of Henry Nevill, 6th Baron Bergavenny in 1587, his daughter Mary Nevill(e) fought a legal battle to be recognised as heiress to all the remaining Neville inheritance. Ultimately, however, these lands were split between her and her first cousin Edward Nevill, who inherited the baronial title. Her son Francis Fane inherited through her the very old title of Baron le Despencer; to him, the Neville family's senior title of Earl of Westmorland was recreated, and remains with his male-line descendants.

Edward Nevill's descendants were raised to the status of Earls and then Marquesses of Abergavenny. This line continues; the present head of the family is Christopher Nevill, the 6th Marquess. His family lands have been eroded through the passage of time (whether by subdivision or inheritance tax), but the main home, at Eridge Park in Sussex, has been in the family since 1448. [30]

Titles

TitleHeldDesignation and details
Baron Neville de Raby 1295–1571Created by writ in the Peerage of England in 1295 when Ralph Neville was summoned to Parliament. Attainted in 1571.
Earl of Westmorland 1397–1571Created in the Peerage of England in 1397 for Ralph Neville, 4th Baron Neville de Raby. Attainted in 1571.
Earl of Salisbury 1428–1471 Richard Neville, the son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, married Alice Montacute, the heiress of Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury and inherited the title. Deprived in 1471
Baron Fauconberg 1429–1463 William Neville, the son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, married Joan Fauconberg, daughter of Thomas de Fauconberg, 5th Baron Fauconberg, and became Baron Fauconberg jure uxoris . Abeyant on his death in 1463.
Baron Latymer 1432–1577Created in the Peerage of England by writ in 1432 when George Nevill, the son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland was summoned to Parliament. Abeyant in 1577.
Baron Bergavenny 1447–1938Created in the Peerage of England by writ in 1447 when Edward Nevill, the 7th son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and husband of Elizabeth de Beauchamp, suo jure 3rd Baroness Bergavenny, was summoned to Parliament. Abeyant in 1938.
Earl of Warwick 1449–1471 Richard Neville, the son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, married Anne Beauchamp, the heiress of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and became Earl of Warwick jure uxoris. Deprived in 1471.
Baron Montagu 1461–1471Created in the Peerage of England by writ in 1461 when John Neville, the son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury was summoned to Parliament. Deprived in 1471.
Earl of Kent 1461–1463 William Neville, 6th Baron Fauconberg created Earl of Kent in the Peerage of England in 1461. Extinct on his death in 1463.
Earl of Northumberland 1465–1470 John Neville, 1st Baron Montagu created Earl of Northumberland in the Peerage of England in 1465, following the death and attainder of Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland. Deprived in 1470, for the title to be restored to Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland.
Marquess of Montagu 1470–1471Created in the Peerage of England in 1470 for John Neville, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Deprived in 1471.
Duke of Bedford 1470–1478 George Neville, the son of John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu, created Duke of Bedford in the Peerage of England in 1470. Deprived by Act of Parliament in 1478.
Earl of Abergavenny 1784–presentCreated in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1784 for George Neville, 17th Baron Bergavenny. Extant.
Marquess of Abergavenny 1876–presentCreated in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1876 for William Neville, 5th Earl of Abergavenny. Extant.
Earl of Lewes 1876–presentCreated in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1876 for William Neville, 5th Earl of Abergavenny. Extant.

Members in the male line

John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby

1. Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, c.1364–1425
A. John Neville, Lord Neville c.1387–1420
I. Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland c.1406–1484
II. John Neville, Baron Neville c.1410–1461
a. Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland
i. Ralph Neville, Lord Neville
1. Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland
A. Henry Neville, 5th Earl of Westmorland
I. Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland
III. Thomas Neville of Brancepeth (Disinherited branch)
a. Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth c.1439–1469 [31]
b. Charles
B. Sir Ralph Neville, d. 1458 [32] [33]
C. Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, 1400–1460
I. Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, 1428–1471 (two daughters)
II. John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu, 1431–1471
a. George Neville, 1st Duke of Bedford, 1461–1483
III. George Neville, Archbishop of York, 1432–1476
IV. Thomas Neville, 1443–1460
D. Robert Neville, d. 1457, Bishop of Durham
E. William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent, 1410–1463
I. Anthony Neville, Lord Grey
II. Thomas Neville, Viscount Fauconberg, (1429–1471)
F. John Neville (c. 1406)
G. George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer c.1407–1469
I. Sir Henry Neville (1437–1469), of Latimer
a. Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer
i. John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer
1. John Neville, 4th Baron Latimer
ii. William Neville
1. Richard Neville
A. Edmund Neville
H. Thomas Neville, c.1410
I. Cuthbert Neville, c.1411
J. Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny, 1414–1476
I. Richard Nevill, 1439–1476
II. George Nevill, 4th Baron Bergavenny, 1440–1492
a. George Nevill, 5th Baron Bergavenny, 1469–1535
i. Henry Nevill, 6th Baron Bergavenny, 1527–1587
b. Edward Neville, 1471–1538
i. Edward Nevill, 7th Baron Bergavenny, 1526–1588
1. Edward Nevill, 8th Baron Bergavenny, 1550–1622
A. Henry Nevill, 9th Baron Bergavenny, 1580–1641
I. John Nevill, 10th Baron Bergavenny, 1614–1662
II. George Nevill, 11th Baron Bergavenny, 1641–1666
a. George Nevill, 12th Baron Bergavenny, 1665–1695

Unknown connection

Simplified (male-line) genealogy to 1795

Uchtred
living in the former kingdom of Northumbria
(c. 1100)
Dolphin
(c. 1129)
lord or the manor of Staindrop, County Durham, Northumbria
Maldred FitzDolphin
(c. 1130)
Geoffrey de NevilleRenata de Bulmer
Robert FitzMaldred
(c. 1150)
Isabel de Neville
Geoffrey FitzRobert de Neville
(b. c. 1197)
Geoffrey de Neville
(b. c. 1225)
Robert de Neville
(c. 1260/1270)
Ralph
1st baron Neville de Raby
(v. 1262–1331)
Ralph
2nd baron Neville de Raby
(v. 1291–1367)
John
3rd baron Neville de Raby
(v. 1340–1388)
Alexander
archbishop of York
(v. 1340–1392)
Ralph
4e baron Neville de Raby
1st earl of Westmorland
(v. 1364–1425)
John
(v. 1387–1420)
Richard
5th earl of Salisbury
(1400–1460)
Robert
bishop
(† 1457)
William
1st earl of Kent
(v. 1401–1463)
George
1st baron Latimer
(v. 1407–1469)
Edward
3rd baron Bergavenny
(av. 1414–1476)
Cecily
ép. Richard, Duke of York
(1415–1495)
Ralph
2nd earl of Westmorland
(1406–1484)
John
(v. 1410–1461)
Richard
16th earl of Warwick
(1428–1471)
John
1st marquis Montagu
(1431–1471)
George
archbishop of York
(1432–1476)
Thomas
viscount Fauconberg
(1429–1471)
Henry
(† 1469)
George
4th baron Bergavenny
(v. 1440–1492)
Ralph
3rd earl of Westmorland
(v. 1456–1499)
Anne
ép. Richard III
(1456–1485)
George
duke of Bedford
(1461–1483)
Richard
2nd baron Latimer
(v. 1468–1530)
George
5th baron Bergavenny
(v. 1469–1535)
Edward
(1471–1538)
Ralph
(† 1498)
John
3rd baron Latimer
(1493–1543)
Henry
6th baron Bergavenny
(v. 1530–1587)
Edward
7th baron Bergavenny
(v. 1526–1588)
Ralph
4th earl of Westmorland
(1498–1549)
John
4th baron Latimer
(1520–1577)
Mary
ép. Thomas Fane
(1554–1626)
Edward
8th baron Bergavenny
(v. 1550–1622)
Henry
5th earl of Westmorland
(1525–1569)
Fane Family
earls of Westmorland
Henry
9th baron Bergavenny
(av. 1580–1641)
Christopher [35]
(d. 1649)
Charles
6th earl of Westmorland
(1542–1601)
John
10th baron Bergavenny
(v. 1614–1662)
George
11th baron Bergavenny
(† 1666)
Richard [36]
(d.1643)
George
12th baron Bergavenny
(1665–1695)
George [37]
George [38]
13th baron Bergavenny
(1657–1720/1)
Edward [39]
Captain,RN
(d. 1701)
George [40]
14th baron (A)bergavenny
(1702–1723)
Edward [41]
15th baron (A)bergavenny
(d.1724)
William [42]
16th baron(A)bergavenny
(d.1744)
George [43]
17th baron (A)bergavenny
1st Earl of Abergavenny, 1784
(1727–1785)
Edward [44]
(1729–)
later Neville Family
barons (A)Bergavenny
earls and marquesses of Abergavenny
current representative is Christopher Nevill, 6th Marquess of Abergavenny

Connections with other families

The chart below shows, in abbreviated form, the family background of Richard Neville and his family connections with the houses of York and Lancaster. Anne Neville is shown with her two husbands, in order from right to left.

John of Gaunt,
1st Duke of Lancaster

(1340–1399)
Ralph Neville,
1st Earl of Westmorland

(c. 1364–1425)
Joan Beaufort
(c. 1379–1440)
King Henry IV
(1367–1413)
Richard de Beauchamp,
13th Earl of Warwick

(1382–1439)
Alice Montacute,
5th Countess of Salisbury

(c. 1406–1462)
Richard Neville,
5th Earl of Salisbury

(1400–1460)
Cecily Neville
(1415–1495)
Richard Plantagenet,
3rd Duke of York

(1411–1460)
King Henry V
(1386–1422)
Anne Beauchamp,
16th Countess of Warwick

(1426–1492)
Richard Neville,
16th Earl of Warwick

(1428–1471)
John Neville,
1st Marquess of Montagu

(c. 1431–1471)
Archbishop
George Neville

(1432–1476)
King Henry VI
(1421–1471)
King Edward IV
(1442–1483)
Isabel Neville
(1451–1476)
George, Duke of Clarence
(1449–1478)
(2.) King Richard III
(1452–1485)
Anne Neville
(1456–1485)
(1.) Edward, Prince of Wales
(1453–1471)

Coat of arms

see Category:Neville arms

Sources

Related Research Articles

Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English noble

Joan Beaufort, was the youngest of the four legitimised children and only daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, by his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. She married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and in her widowhood became a powerful landowner in the North of England.

Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury 15th-century English noble

Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury was an English nobleman and magnate based in northern England who became a key supporter of the House of York during the early years of the Wars of the Roses. He was the father of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the "Kingmaker".

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland 14th/15th-century English nobleman

Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of WestmorlandEarl Marshal, was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

Humphrey Stafford, generally known by his courtesy title of Earl of Stafford, was the eldest son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Lady Anne Neville.

Earl of Westmorland Title in the peerage of England

Earl of Westmorland is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England. The title was first created in 1397 for Ralph Neville. It was forfeited in 1571 by Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland for leading the Rising of the North. It was revived in 1624 in favour of Sir Francis Fane, whose mother, Mary Neville, was a descendant of a younger son of the first Earl. The first Earl of the first creation had already become Baron Neville de Raby, and that was a subsidiary title for his successors. The current Earl holds the subsidiary title Baron Burghersh (1624).

Marquess of Abergavenny

Marquess of Abergavenny in the County of Monmouth, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom that was created on 14 January 1876, along with the title Earl of Lewes, in the County of Sussex, for the 5th Earl of Abergavenny, a member of the Nevill family.

Earl of Salisbury Title in the Peerage of England

Earl of Salisbury is a title that has been created several times in English and British history. It has a complex history, and is now a subsidiary title to the marquessate of Salisbury.

George Nevill, 5th Baron Bergavenny English courtier, born in Wales (1469–1535)

George Nevill, 5th Baron Abergavenny KG, PC, the family name often written Neville, was an English nobleman and courtier who held the office of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

The title Baron Bergavenny was created several times in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain, all but the first being baronies created by error. Abergavenny is a market town in South East Wales with a castle established by the Norman lord Hamelin de Balun c. 1087.

Baron Neville

Baron Neville or Nevill was a title of nobility in England, relating to and held by the Neville family, a noble house in northern England. The Nevilles had their family seat at the manor of Raby in County Durham, and so were called barons "Neville of Raby". The title was first held as a barony by tenure, and was afterwards created twice by writ of summons to parliament.

John Neville, Baron Neville was an English nobleman who fought for the House of Lancaster during the Wars of the Roses. He belonged to a senior but impoverished branch of the Neville family of northern England, which had earlier been disinherited in favour of a younger branch headed by John's half–uncle, Richard, Earl of Salisbury. John Neville and his brothers spent several years feuding with Salisbury over the contested inheritance and, when the dynastic wars broke out, John sided with the Lancastrians whilst the junior Nevilles sided with the House of York.

Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, was an English nobleman, the only holder of the title Baron Montagu under its 1514 creation, and one of the relatives whom King Henry VIII of England had executed for treason.

Baron Montagu

The titles Baron Montacute or Baron Montagu were created several times in the Peerage of England for members of the House of Montagu. The family name was Latinised to de Monte Acuto, meaning "from the sharp mountain"; the French form is an ancient spelling of mont aigu, with identical meaning.

Edward Neville, 3rd Baron Bergavenny English noble

Edward Neville, de facto 3rd Baron Bergavenny was an English nobleman.

Frances Neville, Baroness Bergavenny (also Nevill was an English noblewoman and author. Little is known of either Lady or Lord Bergavenny, except that the latter was accused of behaving in a riotous and unclean manner by some Puritan commentators. Lady Bergavenny's work appeared in The Monument of Matrones in 1582 and was a series of "Praiers". Her devotions were sixty-seven prose prayers, one metrical prayer against vice, a long acrostic prayer on her daughter's name, and an acrostic prayer containing her own name.

Elizabeth Beauchamp, Baroness (A)Bergavenny was a medieval English noblewoman and heiress. She was the only child of Richard de Beauchamp, Baron Abergavenny and Earl of Worcester, by Isabel, daughter of Thomas le Despenser, Earl of Gloucester by Constance of York, granddaughter of Edward III.

Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland 15th-century English noble

Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland was an English nobleman in northern England.

Thomas Fane (died 1589)

Thomas Fane of Badsell Manor in the parish of Tudeley in Kent, and of Mereworth Castle, Kent, was Sheriff of Kent. He is not to be confused with his younger brother, Thomas Fane, of Burston, Hunton, Kent, a Member of Parliament for Dover.

Neville–Neville feud Fifteenth-century feud within an English noble family

The Neville–Neville feud was an inheritance dispute in the north of England during the early fifteenth century between two branches of the noble Neville family. The inheritance in question was that of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, a prominent northern nobleman who had issue from two marriages. Westmorland favoured as his heirs the children of his second wife, Joan Beaufort, closely related to the royal family, over those of his first wife, Margaret Stafford.

Sir Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth was an English knight and insurgent during the Wars of the Roses. A scion of the noble House of Neville, he was a son of Thomas Neville of Brancepeth and a nephew of Ralph Neville, 2nd Earl of Westmorland, and belonged to a senior but disinherited branch of the family. Humphrey and his family supported the House of Lancaster during the Wars of the Roses, while his junior but richer Neville cousins, chiefly represented by the famous Earl of Warwick, supported the House of York. Humphrey almost single-handedly led the Lancastrian resistance during the early years of the reign of Edward IV, until he was executed in 1469, in the king's presence.

References

  1. 1 2 It has been noted, however, that "this Dolfin, when doing homage to the Prior of Durham for Staindrop, reserved his homage to the kings of England and of Scotland, as well as the Bishop of Durham" implying that he was "no doubt, a man of consequence" and "probably of high Northumbrian birth". Round, Feudal England, 370-2; Offler, 'FitzMeldred, Neville and Hansard', 2-3; Wagner, English Ancestry, 16-17; Wagner, Pedigree and Progress, 51, 210
  2. Round, Origin of the Nevilles, p.490
  3. Offler, Charters, 122 (no. 29)
  4. Samuel Lewis (publisher) (1848). "Stain - Stainton, Market". A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  5. Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, p.3
  6. Planché: The Pursuivant of Arms: "in consequence of the great possessions of his mother, assumed the name of her family, but retained the arms of his own"
  7. Round, Feudal England, 370-2
  8. Offler, 'FitzMeldred, Neville and Hansard', 3
  9. Calendar of the Charter Rolls, 1300-1326, London, 1908, p.135,quoted in Jarvis, R. (2017) Baronial women in thirteenth-century Lincolnshire. M.A. thesis, Canterbury Christ Church University, p.20
  10. Wagner, English Ancestry, 16-17
  11. Young, Charles Robert (1996). The Making of the Neville Family in England, 1166-1400. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN   978-0-85115-668-2.
  12. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 82-6
  13. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 100
  14. McNiven, Peter (2004). "Neville [de Neville] family (per. c. 1267–1426), gentry" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/54532. ISBN   978-0-19-861412-8 . Retrieved 2021-09-15.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  15. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 100-2, 112-24
  16. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 114
  17. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 119-24
  18. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 125-35
  19. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 130, 137. Middleham Castle was acquired in 1270, while those at Brancepeth and Sheriff Hutton were built by the Nevilles in the late 14th century, and Snape Castle around 1430.
  20. Given-Wilson, English Nobility, pp. xii-xiii, 105-106
  21. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 137-9
  22. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 143, 145-7
  23. Given-Wilson, English Nobility, pp. xiv-xvii, 107
  24. Hicks, Wars of the Roses, pp. 105-12, 137-63
  25. Hicks, Wars of the Roses, pp. 178-9
  26. Hicks, Wars of the Roses, pp. 186-90
  27. Hicks, Wars of the Roses, pp. 190-205
  28. Young, Making of the Neville Family, 145-7
  29. Hicks, Wars of the Roses, pp. 37, 99-100
  30. Eridge Park — a short history Archived 2012-01-08 at the Wayback Machine .
  31. Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G. (ed.). Plantagenet Ancestry. Vol. 2 (2nd ed.). p. 615. ISBN   978-1-4499-6634-8.
  32. Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G. (ed.). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Vol. II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. p. 244. ISBN   978-1-4499-6638-6.
  33. Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G. (ed.). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Vol. III (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. p. 313. ISBN   978-1-4499-6639-3.
  34. Richardson vol. III, p. 318.
  35. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1604 - dormant 1641), Creation: writ of sum. 25 May 1604 (precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-30. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  36. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1604 - dormant 1641), Creation: writ of sum. 25 May 1604 (precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-30. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  37. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1604 - dormant 1641), Creation: writ of sum. 25 May 1604 (precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-30. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  38. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1695 - abeyant 1811), Creation: writ of sum. 1 May 1695 (with precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-31. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  39. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1604 - dormant 1641), Creation: writ of sum. 25 May 1604 (precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-30. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  40. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1695 - abeyant 1811), Creation: writ of sum. 1 May 1695 (with precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-31. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  41. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1695 - abeyant 1811), Creation: writ of sum. 1 May 1695 (with precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-31. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  42. "(A)bergavenny, Baron (E, 1604 - dormant 1641), Creation: writ of sum. 25 May 1604 (precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-30. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  43. "Abergavenny, Baron (GB, 1724 - abeyant 1938) Creation: writ of sum. 12 Nov 1724 (with precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-30. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  44. "Abergavenny, Baron (GB, 1724 - abeyant 1938) Creation: writ of sum. 12 Nov 1724 (with precedency of 1392)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 2007-01-30. Retrieved 2016-11-07.