Marthandam

Last updated

Marthandam
Town
India Tamil Nadu location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Marthandam
Coordinates: 8°18′27″N77°13′18″E / 8.3076°N 77.221785°E / 8.3076; 77.221785 Coordinates: 8°18′27″N77°13′18″E / 8.3076°N 77.221785°E / 8.3076; 77.221785
CountryIndia
State Tamil Nadu
District Kanyakumari
Government
  Type democratic
  Body municipality
Languages
  Official Tamil
  Minority Malayalam
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
629165
Telephone code04651
Vehicle registration TN-75
Nearby Cities Nagercoil & Trivandrum
Lok Sabha constituency Kanyakumari
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly constituency Vilavancode
Literacy96.3%
Website marthandam.org

Marthandam is a major trade centre in Kuzhithurai municipality across National Highway (NH 47) in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India. Formerly known as Thoduvetty (another name for the Marthandam market region), it was a portion of Kanyakumari district which was added to the state of Tamil Nadu on 1 November 1956.

Contents

Marthandam is the largest town in the district. It derived its name from the founder and ruler of Travancore, Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma. Marthandam is famous for honey, cashew nut processing, rubber and hand-embroidered motifs. The area is among the most fertile lands of Tamil Nadu with substantial vegetation, and a river adjoining. It is also a major trade center due to its location bordering Kerala.

History

Chitharal Jain Temple, Tamil Nadu Chitharal jain temple1.jpg
Chitharal Jain Temple, Tamil Nadu

The Chitharal Jain Monuments are the ruins of a Jain training centre from the 9th century CE, on a small hill. It is famous for the hillock which has a cave containing rock-cut sculptures of Thirthankaras and attendant deities carved inside and outside dating back to the 9th century. Among the rock-cut relief sculptures is a figure of the goddess Dharmadevi. Jain influence in this region was due to the King Mahendravarman I (610-640).[ citation needed ]

Southern Division, or Padmanabhapuram Division till 1921 and Trivandrum Division from 1921 to 1949, was one of the administrative divisions of the princely state of Travancore. It covered the five taluks of Agastiswaram, Eraniel, Kalkulam, Thovalay and Vilavancode and was administered by a civil servant of rank Diwan Peishkar equivalent to a District Collector in British India. The Southern division was predominantly Tamil-speaking in contrast to the other three divisions where Malayalam was spoken. In 1920, the neighbouring Trivandrum was also merged with the Southern division. In 1949, the princely state of Travancore was dissolved and the Southern Division was included in the Travancore-Cochin state of India. In 1956, the Tamil-speaking taluks of Southern Division were transferred to the neighbouring Madras State as per the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 and forms the present-day Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. The Malayalam-speaking taluks of the erstwhile Trivandrum division form the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. The headquarters of the Southern Division were at Padmanabhapuram.

Education

Colleges

Industries in Marthandam

Industrial Opportunities in Marthandam

There are rubber, coir, fruit based and wood-based industries. The influence of both Tamil and Kerala artisans produces unique designs and furniture works. Wood industries, directly and indirectly, employ a few thousand people.[ citation needed ]

Geography

It is one of the most fertile lands of Tamil Nadu and has the climatic conditions of Kerala.[ citation needed ] It has a railway line connecting the capital of Kerala, Trivandrum, with the southernmost tip of India, Kanyakumari. Marthandam is well connected to Chennai, Mumbai, Bangalore by rail service also bus service to all over Tamil Nadu. The river Thamirabarani runs through the Marthandam city and every year a festival known as Vavubali will be celebrated at the banks of river Thamirabarani.

Climate

Climate data for Kanyakumari
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)28
(82)
28
(82)
30
(86)
32
(90)
32
(90)
29
(84)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
27
(81)
29
(84)
Average low °C (°F)24
(75)
24
(75)
26
(79)
27
(81)
28
(82)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
23
(73)
22
(72)
25
(77)
[ citation needed ]

Transport

Roads

Marthandam lies in the National Highway(NH66) connecting Kanyakumari to Panvel. The main bus stand of Marthandam is located along the Market Road in Kaalaichanthai. This bus stand is the base for MTM-based TNSTC local and long-distance buses. KeralaSRTC buses and also SETC buses to Chennai, Bengaluru, Ooty, Vellore and Pondichery operate from here. Private long-distance buses departing from Marthandam operate from various parts of the town. Marthandam is one of the heavy traffic area in the two-lane section of NH544. The recent steel flyover which spans more than 2 km has considerably reduced the traffic. Other major state roads from Marthandam include MTM-Pechiparai road via Kuzhithurai, MTM-Kulasekaram road and MTM-Colachal road.

Air

The nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport, which is 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Marthandam.

Railways

It has a railway line connecting the capital of Kerala, Trivandrum, with the southernmost tip of India, Kanyakumari. Kuzhithurai station serves the town of Marthandam and is found to be centered between Trivandrum — Kanyakumari railway line. This railway station collection is more than seven crore per annum and a daily passenger patronage of more than 50,000 people. The station has two platforms and falls on the Kanyakumari—Trivandrum line in the Trivandrum Division of the Southern Railway zone. Marthandam is well connected to Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Howrah and all over India by the rail service. Kuzhithurai West is the secondary station where only local trains halt.

Religion

Vedisasthan Kovil Ayyappa1.jpg
Vedisasthan Kovil

The Lord Ayyappa temple in Marthandam is at the banks of Kuzhithurai River. This temple is known as either "Vettuvenni temple" or "Vedi Vechan Kovil". The latter one due to the fire cracker being burst at the temple as a mark of prayer to Lord Ayyappa. This temple is just by the side of National Highway NH-47 connecting Trivandrum with Nagercoil.[ citation needed ]

Sree Krishna temple at Kannacode in Marthandam. Name of the locality Kannacode is derived from the presence of this temple dedicated to Sree Krishna (Kanna) who is in Balagopala form in this temple. Historical records say that Travancore king Sri Vishakam Thirunal who ruled from 1880 AD to 1885 AD used to pray every month at this temple to ward off his BudhagrahaDosham. Renovation of the temple has been recently done by contribution from devotees. Situated in a peaceful location on the banks of Tamiravaruni river, this temple is called Guruvayoor of Kanyakumari district. On the Rohini star day of every Tamil/Malayalam month, SriSudarsana homam is conducted in this temple.[ citation needed ]

Alappancode Sree Easwarakla Boothathan Temple is just 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from Kuzhithura Jn to wards Arumana Road and adjacent to Melpuram Jn. In Tamil Nadu it is the only temple where a large number of caparisoned elephants are participating in the annual festival. Every year more than thirty-five decorated elephants join the procession. The procession will start from the Kariyathara Temple in Anducode and finish in Alappancode, and the procession will cover about seven kilometers (4 miles). Devotees from Kerala and Tamil Nadu gather here to see the festival. The festival will be held on the last Saturday of December.[ citation needed ]

The Sree Chamundesari temple is just adjacent to the Mahadevar temple. Though the temples are under the Devaswam board, the temples are maintained by a trust called Kuzhithurai Sree Mahadevar Shektra Samrakshna Samithi; with the help of devotees of this surrounding area, the committee has spent a huge amount[ clarification needed ] for the renovation of the temples. A large number[ clarification needed ] of devotees from Kanyakumari and Trivadrum District visit Sree Chamundeswari Temple for special poojas, especially unmarried girls, wishing for a good marriage life.[ citation needed ]

Anjukannu Kalungu Sree Madan Thampuram Yakshi Amman Temple Festivals are: Yearly festival for 7 days, Shivrathri (Shivalaya Ottam), Saraswathy pooja, Deepawali, Thrikkarthika, Monthly Ammavasya, yearly Kumbhabishegam, Pongal. The main festivals celebrated there are Samivaravu, Sivarathri, Vavubali, and Onam.[ citation needed ]

The Marthandam CSI Church in the Main Road at the junction was built by Rev. Robert Sinclair born in Scotland who came to India after his ordination as a minister on 3 August 1910, in Scotland. He succeeded Rev. H.I Hacker in 1919 and came to Marthandam and served from 1920 to 1939.[ citation needed ]

CSI Church in Marthandam Marthandam CSI Church.JPG
CSI Church in Marthandam
Light Decorations During Christmas Marthandam CSI Church by night.jpg
Light Decorations During Christmas

Religious festivals

Onam and Christmas celebrations are massive in Marthandam. In this district, Christmas is celebrated more than the rest of Tamil Nadu. Vishu is also celebrated well in this district due to its neighbour Kerala and presence of Malayalam-speaking people throughout the border of district. Also festivals such as Deepavali, New Year, Ramzan, and Easter are celebrated in this district.

Attractions

Tourist spots nearby

Padmanabhapuram Palace

Padmanabhapuram Palace Padmanabhapuram Palace 5.jpg
Padmanabhapuram Palace

Udayagiri Fort

Udayakiri fort Udayakiri fort.jpg
Udayakiri fort

Thirparappu waterfalls

Thriparappu falls Thriparappu falls.JPG
Thriparappu falls

Pechiparai Reservoir

Pechiparai dam Pechiparai dam.JPG
Pechiparai dam

Thengapattanam Beach

Thengapattanam beach Tpmbeach 2013-12-30 17-41.jpg
Thengapattanam beach

Mathur Aqueduct

Mathur Aqueduct - one of the largest Aqueducts in Asia Mathur Aqueduct.JPG
Mathur Aqueduct - one of the largest Aqueducts in Asia

The Mathur Aqueduct is one of the longest and highest aqueducts in South Asia and is a popular tourist spot in Kanyakumari District. The aqueduct is built across the Pahrali river, a small river that originates in the Mahendragiri Hills of the Western Ghats. Mathur Aqueduct itself carries water of the Pattanamkal canal for irrigation over the Pahrali river, from one hill to another, for a distance of close to one kilometer. This Aqueduct is necessitated due to the undulating land terrain of the area, which is also adjacent to the hills of the Western Ghats.

Mathur Aqueduct is a concrete structure held up by 28 huge pillars; the maximum height of the pillars reaching 115 feet (35 m). The trough structure is 7 ft in height, with a width of 7.5 ft (2.3 m). The trough is partly covered on top with concrete slabs, allowing people to walk on the bridge and also see the water going through the trough. Some of the pillars are set in rocks of the Pahrali river, though some of the pillars are set in hills on either side.

Road access allows one to drive in to one side of the Aqueduct (up to one end), while it is also possible to drive into the foot of the Aqueduct (the level where the Pahrali flows) on the opposite side. There is also a huge flight of stairs (made in recent times) that allows one to climb from the level of the Pahrali river to the trough.

Folk arts

There are several Folk Arts practiced in temples for Sastha, Sudalaimadan and Yakshiamman. Villupattu is especially for Sastha temples and Kaniankoothu is practiced for Sudalaimadan. Grand Tamil poet Avvaiyar temples are found along with Yakshi amman temples and worship of teachings of Avvaiyar can be observed

Many Folk arts and dances are popular in this district. They are played during the time of festivals in temples, celebrations in schools etc. Bow Song (Villu Paatu) is an ancient form of musical- storytelling art of southern Tamil Nadu. Villu Paatu has been especially popular in Thovalai and neighbouring areas of the district.

Bow, the age-old weapon of warriors - paradoxically lends itself to be used as a primary musical instrument for the Villu Pattu artists. [6] There are Udukku, Kudam, Thala, Kattai, etc. as supplementary instruments in their performances. Udukku, mentioned in the ancient Tamil literature as Thudi, is a small drum with a slender middle portion which is held in the left hand and played by the fingers of the right hand. Occasionally, the Villu Pattu team divides itself into two groups, each trying to prove opposite points-of-view of a subject. This is called Lavani Pattu. The songs used by the Villu Pattu artists are mostly traditional folk-songs.

Thiruvathira Kali occupies the pride of place among the folk dances. It resembles Kummi and is played especially during Onam festival. The players are young girls. The necessary number of girls is 8,10,12 or 16 for each dance. They move round and sing in chorus. Each girl strikes the stick (Kole) which she holds in each hand, and the striking of the sticks and the steps, which she makes are rhythmical to the tune.

Kalial is a folk dance played by group of men or boys in the country side. A group leader sings songs and keeps time with cymbals. The players stand in a circle with sticks in their hand and dance round a lighted lamp repeating the songs sung by the leader. They turn, twist, lean forward and backward, squat and move round singing to the tune. At the beginning the steps are elaborate and at times, they are also very quick. When invited to perform in a function, the players generally begin the dance with an invocation for heavenly aid and conclude the dance with a torch - dance using lighted torches. This folk dance exhibits the artistic and recreative life of the country side.

Kathakali is a unique form of drama, which has its origin in Travancore. Kathakali (story-dance) is a relatively recent (fifteenth or sixteenth century) development of earlier dances, which, like dances every where, arose out of religious expression through symbolical action. In this art-form, the characters express their ideas not by words, but by significant gestures. In Kanyakumari District, it is now played in the temples at Thiruvattar, Thirparappu, Ponmana, Kuzhithura, Neyyoor, Nattalam and Munchira during the time of festivals.

Ottam Thullal is a form of story telling. It is a popular for of amusement, staged in the temple premises and Malayalam is the language commonly used. Ottam Thullal is now played in the temples of Thiruvattar, Thirparappu, Ponmana, Nattalam and Thirunanthikara in the district during the time of festivals.

Kalari, is an ancient martial art of Kerala. A tradition believed to have been founded by Parasurama is known as Vadakkan Kalari; another is credited to Agasthiar in which the emphasis is on striking at vital points of the body and not on weapons, even through sword, knife, Urumi (rolling sword), Mankombu (horns of a deer), Kandakkodali, (a kind of axe), mazhu (a kind of axe) etc., are also used. Kanyakumari district is home to an indigenous form of martial arts called 'Adimurai' or 'naadan', which is often confused with the Kalari of Kerala, in spite of its uniqueness.

Adjacent communities

The following towns are near to Marthandam:

[7]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Travancore</span> Kingdom in southern India from 1729 to 1949

The Kingdom of Travancore (/ˈtrævənkɔːr/), also known as the Kingdom of Thiruvithamkoor, was an Indian kingdom from c. 1729 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, and later Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of the south of modern-day Kerala, and the southernmost part of modern-day Tamil Nadu with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda Koodalmanikyam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin. However Tangasseri area of Kollam city and Anchuthengu near Attingal in Thiruvananthapuram district, were British colonies and were part of the Malabar District until 30 June 1927, and Tirunelveli district from 1 July 1927 onwards. Travancore merged with the erstwhile princely state of Cochin to form Travancore-Cochin in 1950. The five Tamil-majority Taluks of Vilavancode, Kalkulam, Thovalai, Agastheeswaram, and Sengottai were transferred from Travancore-Cochin to Madras State in 1956. The Malayalam-speaking regions of Travancore-Cochin merged with the Malabar District and the Kasaragod taluk of the South Canara district in Madras State to form the modern Malayalam-state of Kerala on 1 November 1956, according to the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 passed by the Government of India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nagercoil</span> City in Tamil Nadu, India

Nagercoil is a city and the administrative headquarters of Kanyakumari District in Tamil Nadu state, India. Situated close to the tip of the Indian peninsula, it lies on an undulating terrain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. Nagercoil Corporation is the 12th biggest city of Tamil Nadu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Padmanabhapuram</span> Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Padmanabhapuram is a town and a municipality near Thuckalay in Kanyakumari district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. As of 2011, the town had a population of 21,342.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Padmanabhapuram Palace</span> Travancore era palace in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

Padmanabhapuram Palace, also known as Kalkulam Palace, is a Travancore era palace located in Padmanabhapuram in the Kanyakumari district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The palace is owned, controlled and maintained by the government of the neighbouring state of Kerala. This palace is older than Rambagh Palace in Rajasthan. It is possible that it is the one of the oldest palaces in India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adikesava Perumal Temple, Kanyakumari</span>

The Adikesava Perumal Temple is a Hindu temple located in Thiruvattar, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India and is one of the 108 Divya desams, the holy sites of Hindu Vaishnavism according to existing Tamil hymns from the seventh and eighth centuries C.E. The temple is one of the historic thirteen Divya Deshams of Malai Nadu. The temple is a picturesque setting surrounded on three sides by rivers namely, It was the Rajya Temple and Bharadevatha shrine of Erstwhile Travancore. After state reorganisation, the temple handed over to Tamilnadu H&RCE Dept. The presiding Vishnu in the form of Ananthapadmabhan/Adikeshavaperumal is believed to be older than Padmanabhaswamy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram. Since Vishnu resides here in a reclining position, and is surrounded by rivers, the temple is called as "The Srirangam of Chera Kingdom".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kanyakumari district</span> District of Tamil Nadu in India

Kanyakumari district is one of the 38 districts in Tamil Nadu state and the southernmost district in mainland India. It stands second in terms of population density among the districts of Tamil Nadu. It is also the richest district in Tamil Nadu in terms of per capita income, and also tops the state in Human Development Index (HDI), literacy, and education. The district's headquarters is Nagercoil.

Thuckalay or Thakkalai is a town in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India. Thuckalay comes under the Padmanabhapuram Municipality, and is the administrative headquarters of Kalkulam Taluk. The Revenue Divisional Office is located in Mettukadai.

Kuzhithurai is a city and a municipality in Kanyakumari District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of the Vilavancode Taluk. It is located 26 km (16 mi) north of the Nagercoil city and 42 km (26 mi) south of Kerala's capital city Trivandrum along NH66. It has a historical seaport where ancient merchants came from across the Arabian sea in ancient times. It is mentioned in ancient Indian maps. As of 2011, the town had a population of 21,307.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Colachel</span> Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Colachel is a coastal town in the far south of India, located within the administrative jurisdiction of Kanyakumari District. It is a natural harbor on the Malabar coast, located 20 km north-west of Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of India. As of 2011 the municipality had a population of 23,227 and a metropolitan population of 47,007.

Thiruvithamcode, is a small panchayat town located in the Kanyakumari district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thiruvithamcode is about 20 km from Nagercoil and 2 km from Thuckalay.

Kulasekharam is a town located in the district of Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the most important business centres in the district, after Marthandam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Villu Paatu</span>

Villu Paatu, also known as Villadichampaatu, is an ancient form of musical story-telling method performed in Southern India, where narration is interspersed with music, an art of southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, as well as North-East Sri Lanka. This art form is popular among Nadar and Ezhava castes of erstwhile Travancore kingdom. Simple tunes and verses make the story easy to follow. The villu (bow), the age-old weapon of warriors - paradoxically lends itself to be used as a primary musical instrument for the Villu Paatu artists.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mathur Aqueduct</span>

Mathoor Aqueduct is an aqueduct in Kalkulam taluk of Kanniyakumari district of Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is built over the Pahrali River and takes its name from Mathoor, a hamlet near the aqueduct, which is about 3 km from Thiruvattar town and about 60 km from Kanniyakumari.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thiruvarambu</span> Town in India

Thiruvarambu is one among the town of Thiruvattar town panchyat. The Thirparappu Falls is 3 km from Thiruvarambu. This having a canal like stream originated from some of the dams which provides more enough water to this village. Hence they plant banyan, coconut, banana, rubber, tapioca and other pulses such as pepper.

Madichel is a village in Vilavancode taluk, Kanniyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India. The village is near Kuzhithurai, a historical seaport where merchants came from across the Arabian sea in ancient times.

Thengapattanam, named after dense coconut grooves, is a major trade and tourism centre in the painkulam panchayath along the coastal plains of Kanyakumari district. Thengapattanam, once part of Travancore and later Kerala, was bequeathed upon to Tamil Nadu on 1 November 1956 along with some parts of today's Kanniyakumari District.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aruvikkarai</span>

Aruvikkarai is a village in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It lies at the southern tip of mainland India. Cape Comorin is the southern part of the Cardamom Hills, an extension of the Western Ghats range along the west coast of India. The nearest major city are Nagercoil, Marthandam and Thiruvattar. Ponmanai is situated in the east, Thirparappu in the north-east and Arumanai in the north-west. It lies near Thiruvattar, which is about 50 km from Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Hanging Bridge at Mathur is the prime attraction. Padmanabhapuram Palace, Thengapattinam, and Thriparappu Waterfalls are nearby tourist spots. Accommodation facilities are available at Nagercoil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern Division (Travancore)</span>

The Southern Division, or Padmanabhapuram Division till 1921 and Trivandrum Division from 1921 to 1949, was one of the administrative subdivisions of the princely state of Travancore. It covered the five taluks of Agastiswaram, Eraniel, Kalkulam, Thovalay and Vilavancode and was administered by a civil servant of rank Diwan Peishkar equivalent to a District Collector in British India. The Southern division was predominantly Tamil-speaking in contrast to the other three divisions where Malayalam was spoken. In 1920, the neighbouring Trivandrum was also merged with the Southern division. In 1949, the princely state of Travancore was dissolved and the Southern Division was included in the Travancore-Cochin state of India.

Karavilai is a place in Marthandam in Kanniyakumari district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Karavilai comes under town panchayat of Nallur (Nalloor), Kanyakumari District. The area is full of greenery and there is passage of shallow of water in the region. Soil found around Marthandam is one of the most fertile lands of Tamil Nadu and the region has the climatic conditions of Kerala.

References

  1. "BWDA POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, Kanyakumari, TamilNAdu | Engineering Polytechnic Diploma Colleges India". Institutes.angineer.com. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  2. "Kanyakumari District". C.S.I. It. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  3. "Malankara Catholic College". Malankara.edu.in. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  4. [macet.edu.in]
  5. "Nesamony Memorial Christian College". Nmcc.ac.in. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  6. "Arts - Villu Paatu". Tamilnadu.com. 26 February 2013.
  7. Kumar, P. S. Suresh (11 January 2008). "Bursting at its seams". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 July 2018.