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Operation Pluto (Pipe-Lines Under The Ocean) was a Second World War operation by British engineers, oil companies, and the British Armed Forces; to construct undersea oil pipelines under the English Channel between England and France in support of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. According to the Official History, PLUTO originally stood for 'Pipe-Line Underwater Transportation of Oil'.
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They also promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid.
Pipeline transport is the long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of pipes—a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption. The latest data from 2014 gives a total of slightly less than 2,175,000 miles (3,500,000 km) of pipeline in 120 countries of the world. The United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, and Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline were in these three countries.
The scheme was developed by Arthur Hartley, chief engineer with the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. Allied forces on the European continent required a tremendous amount of fuel. Pipelines were considered necessary to relieve dependence on oil tankers, which could be slowed by bad weather, were susceptible to German submarines, and were also needed in the Pacific War. Geoffrey William Lloyd, the Secretary for Petroleum, in 1942 met Admiral Mountbatten, Chief of Combined Operations, whose area this was, and then the Chairman of Anglo-Iranian. Hartley's idea of using adapted submarine telephone cable was adopted.
Arthur Clifford Hartley, CBE was a British civil engineer. Graduating with a bachelor's degree from Imperial College London, Hartley worked for the North Eastern Railway and an asphalt manufacturer before joining the Royal Flying Corps during World War I. He became a qualified pilot, with the rank of major and joined the Air Board where he was involved with the development of interrupter gear. His war work was rewarded with his appointment as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE). He left the corps after the war and spent five years as a consulting engineer before he joined the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat; by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size.
The battle of Normandy was won without a drop of fuel being delivered via the Pluto cross-channel pipelines. Only eight per cent of the fuel delivered to the Allied forces in North-West Europe between D-Day and VE Day was via those pipelines; the rest being by tanker, either in bulk or in cans, or by airlift.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, was celebrated on 8 May 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. The formal surrender of the German forces occupying the Channel Islands did not occur until the following day, 9 May 1945. It thus marked the end of World War II in Europe.
Two types of pipeline were developed. The first type was the flexible HAIS pipe with a 3 inches (76 mm) diameter lead core, weighing around 55 long tons per nautical mile (30 t/km). This was essentially a development by Siemens Brothers, in conjunction with the National Physical Laboratory, of their existing undersea telegraph cables, and known as HAIS (from Hartley-Anglo-Iranian-Siemens).
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each include a major decay chain of heavier elements.
Long ton, also known as the imperial ton or displacement ton, is the name for the unit called the "ton" in the avoirdupois system of weights or Imperial system of measurements. It was standardised in the thirteenth century and is used in the United Kingdom and several other British Commonwealth of Nations countries alongside the mass-based metric tonne defined in 1799.
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement used in both air and marine navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters. Historically, it was defined as one minute of a degree of latitude. Today it is defined as exactly 1852 metres. The derived unit of speed is the knot, one nautical mile per hour.
The HAIS pipe was a good start,[ citation needed ] but it was soon apparent that the amount of lead required to produce enough pipe was going to be prohibitively expensive, and would involve stripping the lead off every church roof.[ citation needed ] As a result, it was decided that an alternative would be needed that made use of cheaper and more readily available materials such as mild steel.
The second type was a less flexible steel pipe of similar diameter, developed by engineers from the Iraq Petroleum Company and the Burmah Oil Company, known as HAMEL from the contraction of the two chief engineers, H. A. Hammick and B. J. Ellis. It was discovered in testing that the HAMEL pipe was best used with final sections of HAIS pipe at each end. Because of the rigidity of the HAMEL pipe, a special apparatus code-named The CONUN drum was developed to lay the pipe.
The Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), known prior to 1929 as the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), is an oil company which, between 1925 and 1961, had a virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq. Today, it is jointly owned by some of the world's largest oil companies and is headquartered in London, England.
HMS Conundrum was the unofficial name given to the large CONUN drums used for laying the PLUTO pipeline. They were 30 foot diameter and weighed 250 tons.
Henry Hammick explained one day to his son that the Conundrum was short for Cone-ended drum – which described the shape of the drum perfectly. He also explained how he had realised that if you can wrap cotton around a reel, you can do the same with mild-steel pipe around a large diameter drum, and still be able to unwrap it.[ citation needed ]
The first prototypes were tested in May 1942 across the River Medway, and in June in deep water across the Firth of Clyde using vertical triple ram pumps manufactured by Tangye Pumps, Cornwell Works in Birmingham, with an operating capability of 1,500 pounds per square inch (100 bar) at 3,000 rpm, before going into production with the basic steel pipe for HAMEL supplied by Stewarts & Lloyds of Corby, manufacturing of the final system was carried out by Siemens Brothers at Woolwich, Henley's at North Woolwich, Callender's at Erith, and Standard Telephones and Cables at Greenwich. Because of capacity limitations in the UK, some HAIS pipeline was also manufactured in the United States.
In June 1942, the Post Office cable ship Iris laid lengths of both Siemens' and Henleys' cable in the Clyde. Both pipelines were completely successful,[ citation needed ] and PLUTO was formally brought into the plans for the invasion of Europe. The project was deemed "strategically important, tactically adventurous, and, from the industrial point of view, strenuous".[ citation needed ] The Clyde trials showed that it was necessary to maintain an internal pressure of about 7 bars (100 psi) in the pipeline at all times, even during manufacture. Existing cable ships were not large enough, nor were their loading and laying gear sufficiently powerful and robust. Consequently, a number of merchant ships were converted to pipe laying by stripping the interiors, and building in large cylindrical steel tanks, fitting special hauling gear and suitable sheaves and guides. The Petroleum Warfare Department turned to Johnson and Phillips company for special gear to handle and lay the pipe. As the pipe could not be bent to a radius less than five feet, a new haul-off drum of ten foot diameter and fleeting ring, together with roller type bow and stern gear, were produced. The final equipment was fitted to HMS Holdfast.
Full-scale production of the two-inch pipe was started on 14 August 1942, using steel from the now near-defunct Corby steel works, and six weeks later, on 30 October, a 30 miles (50 km) length was loaded on board HMS Holdfast under the command of Commander Treby-Heale OBE, RNR, which was to be used as a full-scale rehearsal of Operation PLUTO. This trial occurred between 26 December and 30 December 1942, the 30 mile length being laid across the Bristol Channel, in rough weather, and the shore ends being connected at Swansea and Ilfracombe. Those aboard monitoring the test were Mr. Hartley (Anglo-Iranian Oil), Mr. Tombs (Anglo-Iranian Oil), Mr. Colby (Iraq Petroleum), Mr. Betson (Post Office), Commander Hardy (Admiralty), and Mr. Whitehead OBE (Johnson and Phillips), who had designed the pipe handling equipment.
The rehearsal was a success: so much so that a three-inch (76 mm) diameter pipe (rather than two) was considered. This reduced the number of pipelines needed to pump the planned volume of petrol across the channel. This decision necessitated further alterations and additions to the pipeline handling gear. Two further ships were equipped with handling gear, these being HMS Sancroft and HMS Latimer (later renamed Empire Baffin and Empire Ridley , respectively), both of which could handle 100 miles (160 km) of three-inch (76 mm) pipe weighing approximately 6,000 tons.
The pumps and pipeline across the Bristol Channel were used to supply parts of Devon and Cornwall for the next year, during which time Royal Army Service Corps and Royal Engineers army personnel were trained to use petrol pumping equipment in readiness for the invasion of Europe.
Johnson and Phillips were asked to provide storage sites in the East India and Surrey Commercial Docks. These sites were obtained and equipped with tubular steel bridges with overhead hauling gear, erected in such a position that the pipe could be taken from a ship's tanks.
After full-scale testing of an 83 kilometres (45 nautical miles) HAIS pipe across the Bristol Channel between Swansea in Wales and Watermouth in North Devon, the first line to France was laid on 12 August 1944, over the 130 kilometres (70 nmi) from Shanklin Chine on the Isle of Wight across the English Channel to Cherbourg. This, however, failed when an escorting destroyer caught the line with its anchor. A further HAIS pipe and two HAMELs followed, but one of these again failed before coming into operation. As Sir Donald Banks wrote, ‘The technique of cable laying had been mastered but we were not yet sufficiently versed in the practice of connecting the shore ends, nor in effecting repairs to the undersea leaks which were caused fairly close inshore through these faulty concluding operations.’ It was not until 18 September that a HAIS cable was finally commissioned; it came into operation on the 22nd September, approximately three months late. On 29 September a HAMEL pipe also became operational. However, on 3 October when the pressure was increased to augment the amount of fuel pumped, both failed and Operation BAMBI (pipeline route to Cherbourg) was abandoned. As the fighting moved closer to Germany, 17 other lines (11 HAIS and 6 HAMEL) were laid from Dungeness to Ambleteuse in the Pas-de-Calais. The success of these lines was, however, limited with only 8% of the fuel delivered between D-Day and VE Day being via them.
The PLUTO pipelines were linked to pump stations on the English coast, housed in various inconspicuous buildings; including cottages and garages. Though uninhabited, these were intended to cloak the real purpose of the buildings. Pluto Cottage at Dungeness, a pumping station built to look like a small house, is now a Bed and Breakfast. In England, the PLUTO pipelines were supplied by a 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) network of pipelines to transport fuel from ports including Liverpool and Bristol. In Europe, the pipelines were extended as the troops moved forward, and eventually reached as far as the Rhine.
The initial performance of the PLUTO pipeline was disappointing. During the period from June to October 1944, it carried on average only 150 barrels per day, just 0.16% of the Allies total consumption during the same period.
In January 1945, 305 tonnes (300 long tons) of fuel was pumped to France per day, which increased tenfold to 3,048 tonnes (3,000 long tons) per day in March, and eventually to 4,000 tons (almost 1,000,000 Imperial gallons) per day. In total, over 781,000 m³ (equal to a cube with 92 metre long sides, or over 172 million imperial gallons) of petrol had been pumped to the Allied forces in Europe by VE day, providing a critical supply of fuel until a more permanent arrangement was made, although the pipeline remained in operation for some time after.[ when? ] The official history states of the cross channel pipelines that 'PLUTO contributed nothing to Allied supplies at a time that would have been most valuable' and 'DUMBO was more valuable, but at a time when success was of less importance.'
Dumbo was the codename given to the pipeline that ran across Romney Marsh to Dungeness and then across the English Channel to France. The route of the pipeline can be traced in various places on Romney Marsh. Where the pipeline crossed water drainage ditches it ran above ground in a concrete case. Several of these can still be found.
Along with the Mulberry harbours that were constructed immediately after D-Day, Operation Pluto is considered [ by whom? ] one of history's greatest feats of military engineering. The pipelines are also the forerunners of all flexible pipes used in the development of offshore oil fields.
After the war, more than 90% of the pipeline was recovered as salvage, and subsequently scrapped. This was accomplished during the period September 1946 to October 1949, using the ships Empire Ridley (ex HMS Latimer), Empire Taw (ex HMS Holdfast), Empire Tigness (a German built steel-hulled 407-ton tanker), Wrangler (an ex Admiralty Mark III tank landing craft), and Redeemer (an ex Admiralty motor fishing vessel).
The value of the scrap lead and steel was well in excess of the costs of recovery.
While the pipeline itself is no longer in use, many of the buildings that were constructed or utilised to disguise it remain in operation today, especially on the Isle of Wight, where the former pumping station at Sandown is currently in use as a mini-golf facility.
In 1994, the Midland Bank (now part of HSBC) sponsored a black-and-white film which contained a remarkable amount of historical archive film showing the entire history and construction of the Pluto Project, the HAIS pipe, and the Conundrum reels. It mentions the codewords 'Bambi', 'Watson', 'Dumbo Near', 'Dumbo Far', and other terminal names. It shows how the HAIS pipe was constructed and increased in diameter from about 2" to the later 3" operational size. When the landing site for the invasion was switched from Calais to Normandy, the pipeline needed to be increased from its original length to around 70 miles (110 km), and the film tells of how the American pipeline industry became involved in producing the extra amount of HAIS pipe.
The film can be seen in a small heritage museum at Shanklin Chine on the Isle of Wight, one of the Pluto terminals, where there are also a lot of other memorabilia, books and photographs. One of the original pumps used on the Isle of Wight has now been restored to its original position in the fort at Sandown, now a part of the Isle of Wight Zoo, and visitors can get a good 'feel' for what it must have been like to work there. Entrance is inside the zoo. Another pump is preserved in the Bembridge Heritage Centre. Brenzett Museum, Romney Marsh, houses a small permanent display related to Pluto at Dungeness.
A film entitled Operation Pluto, produced by the former Ministry of Fuel and Power, is held in the British Film Institute archives. This film was part of a loop of films that was shown at the East Carlton Park steel heritage centre in Northamptonshire for many years.
A chine is a steep-sided coastal gorge where a river flows to the sea through, typically, soft eroding cliffs of sandstone or clays. The word is still in use in central Southern England—notably in East Devon, Dorset, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight—to describe such topographical features. The term 'bunny' is sometimes used to describe a chine in Hampshire. The term chine is also used in some Vancouver suburbs in Canada to describe similar features.
Sandown is a seaside resort and civil parish on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, England, with the town of Shanklin to the south and the settlement of Lake in between.
Shanklin is a popular seaside resort and civil parish on the Isle of Wight, England, located on Sandown Bay. Shanklin is the southernmost of three settlements which occupy the bay, and is close to Lake and Sandown. The sandy beach, its Old Village and a wooded ravine, Shanklin Chine, are its main attractions. The esplanade along the beach is occupied by hotels and restaurants for the most part, and is one of the most tourist-oriented parts of the town. The other is the Old Village, at the top of Shanklin Chine. Together with Lake and Sandown to the north, Shanklin forms a built up area of 21,374 inhabitants (2011).
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach. Through history the operations were conducted using ship's boats as the primary method of delivering troops to shore. Since the Gallipoli Campaign, specialised watercraft were increasingly designed for landing troops, materiel and vehicles, including by landing craft and for insertion of commandos, by fast patrol boats, zodiacs and from mini-submersibles.
The CLH Pipeline System (CLH-PS), formerly the Government Pipelines and Storage System (GPSS), is a United Kingdom pipeline system run by Compañía Logística de Hidrocarburos (CLH). The network at one time consisted of over 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) of pipeline and 46 other facilities. However, several of these facilities were closed before the GPSS was sold in 2015 and a number of the pipelines were mothballed and later 'abandoned'. Earlier the total number of facilities on the GPSS was much larger than 46. For example, in 1989 there were 40 Petroleum Storage Depots in operation plus large numbers of other facilities such as pump-stations, junctions, and ingress and egress points. It is interconnected with some other commercial pipeline systems.
British Pipeline Agency Ltd (BPA) is a joint venture, established in 1969, between BP Oil UK and Shell UK. The company operates the UK oil pipeline network of oil pipelines which transport petroleum products around the UK.
The Oil and Pipelines Agency (OPA) is a statutory corporation of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in the United Kingdom. Its current role is to operate six coastal Oil Fuel Depots on behalf of the MoD. The OPA was also previously responsible for the management of the Government Pipelines and Storage System (GPSS), until its sale in 2015. The OPA is the MoD's professional expert on bulk fuels storage and transportation by pipeline.
Yaverland is a village on the Isle of Wight, just north of Sandown on Sandown Bay. It has about 200 houses. About 1⁄3 of a mile away from the village is the Yaverland Manor and Church. Holotype fossils have been discovered here of Yaverlandia and a pterosaur, Caulkicephalus. The White Air extreme sports festival was held annually at Yaverland pay and display car park between 1997 and 2008, but moved to Brighton for 2009.
Plumley is a village and civil parish in Cheshire, England, with a population of 643 at the 2011 census.
The Big Inch and Little Big Inch, collectively known as the Inch pipelines, are petroleum pipelines extending from Texas to New Jersey, built between 1942 and 1944 as emergency war measures in the U.S. Before World War II, petroleum products were transported from the oil fields of Texas to the north-eastern states by sea by oil tankers. After the United States entered the war on 1 January 1942, this vital link was attacked by German submarines in the Operation Paukenschlag, threatening both the oil supplies to the north-east and its onward transshipment to Great Britain. The Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes, championed the pipeline project as a way of transporting petroleum by the more-secure, interior route.
The Kent Oil Refinery was an oil refinery in Kent on the Isle of Grain.
Shanklin Chine is a geological feature and tourist attraction in the town of Shanklin, on the Isle of Wight, England. A wooded coastal ravine, it contains waterfalls, trees and lush vegetation, with footpaths and walkways allowing paid access for visitors, and a heritage centre explaining its history.
Redmile railway station served the villages of Redmile and Barkestone-le-Vale, Nottinghamshire and also Belvoir Castle. It was on the Great Northern and London and North Western Joint Railway. It opened in 1879 and closed to passengers in 1951, but remained in use for oil deliveries into the 1980s.
Sandown Fort is a fort built in Sandown on the Isle of Wight in the middle of Sandown Bay. It is one of the many Palmerston Forts built on the island to protect it in response to a perceived French invasion. It was a replacement of the earlier Sandown Diamond Fort as in 1859 the Royal Commission felt it did not offer suitable protection. Construction of the fort began in April 1861 and was completed by September 1864 at a cost of £73,876. In later documents it is often referred to as Granite Fort. The fort originally had 18 9-inch R.M.L guns facing the sea behind iron shields, these guns were later upgraded and an extra 5 inches of armor was added.
SS Arthur M. Huddel, IMO: 5025706, is a Liberty ship built by St. Johns River Shipbuilding Company with keel laid 25 October 1943 and the yard workers working overtime to launch on 7 December 1943 and complete outfitting nine days later.
The Petroleum Warfare Department (PWD) was an organisation established in Britain in 1940 in response to the invasion crisis during World War II, when it appeared that Germany would invade the country. The department was initially tasked with developing the uses of petroleum as a weapon of war and it oversaw the introduction of a wide range of flame warfare weapons. Later in the war, the department was instrumental in the creation of the Fog Investigation and Dispersal Operation that cleared runways of fog allowing the landing of aircraft returning from bombing raids over Germany in poor visibility; and Operation Pluto which installed prefabricated fuel pipelines between England and France soon after the Allied Invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
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