A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
The St Scholastica Day riot of 10 February 1355 is one of the more notorious events in the history of Oxford, England.Sparked off by a tavern dispute between two students and a taverner, the riot lasted two days and resulted in a large number of deaths among local citizens and students. The ensuing pacification led to a reinforcement and enlargement of the privileges and liberties of the academic institutions over the town.
The history of Oxford in England dates back to its original settlement in the Saxon period. Originally of strategic significance due to its controlling location on the upper reaches of the River Thames at its junction with the River Cherwell, the town grew in national importance during the early Norman period, and in the late 12th century became home to the fledgling University of Oxford. The city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142.
The seed of the riot was an altercation in the Swindlestock Tavern in Oxford (now the site of the Santander Bank building at Carfax, on the corner of St Aldate's and Queen Street) between two students of the University of Oxford, Walter Spryngeheuse and Roger de Chesterfield, and the taverner, John Croidon. They complained about the quality of drinks, which led to an exchange of rude words that ended with the students throwing their drinks in the taverner's face and assaulting him.Retaliation for the incident led to armed clashes between locals and students.
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of approximately 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, and it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county. The city is 51 miles (82 km) from London, 61 miles (98 km) from Bristol, 59 miles (95 km) from Southampton, 57 miles (92 km) from Birmingham and 24 miles (39 km) from Reading.
Santander UK plc is a British bank, wholly owned by the Spanish Santander Group. Santander UK plc manages its affairs autonomously, with its own local management team, responsible solely for its performance.
Carfax is at the junction of St Aldate's (south), Cornmarket Street (north), Queen Street (west) and the High Street (east) in Oxford, England. It is considered to be the centre of the city, and is at. The name "Carfax" derives from the Latin "quadrifurcus" via the French "carrefour", both of which mean "crossroads".
The mayor of Oxford, John de Bereford, asked the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Humphrey de Cherlton, to arrest the two students, to no avail. Instead, 200 students supported Spryngeheuse and Chesterfield, allegedly assaulting the mayor and others.As the situation escalated, locals from the surrounding countryside poured in, crying: "Havac! Havoc! Smyt fast, give gode knocks!"
Humphrey de Cherlton was an English medieval churchman and university chancellor.
A riot broke out and lasted two days, which left 63 students and perhaps 30 locals dead.The students were eventually routed.
The dispute was eventually settled in favour of the University, when a special charter was created. Annually thereafter, on 10 February the saint's day of St Scholastica, the mayor and councillors had to march bareheaded through the streets, attend Mass, and pay to the university a fine of one penny for every scholar killed, a total of 5s, 3d. The penance ended 470 years later in 1825, when the mayor refused to take part.
Scholastica is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. She is honored in the Episcopal Church's calendar of saints. She was born in Italy. According to a ninth century tradition, she was the twin sister of Benedict of Nursia. Her feast day is 10 February.
Mass is the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church and Anglican churches, as well as some Lutheran churches, Methodist, Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. Currently the shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Somalia. It is also the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce . The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, and from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning 'to separate, split, divide.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent.
In an act of conciliation on 10 February 1955, the Mayor was given an honorary degree and the Vice-Chancellor was made an Honorary Freeman, at a commemoration of the events of 1355.
The riot was a culmination of other riots in Oxford, which resulted in over 90 deaths. [ citation needed ]In the 1850s novel The Adventures of Mr. Verdant Green by Cuthbert Bede, students still saw St Scholastica's Day as an opportunity for a confrontation.
Year 1355 (MCCCLV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Chesterfield is a large market town and borough in Derbyshire, England. It lies 24 miles (39 km) north of Derby and 11 miles (18 km) south of Sheffield at the confluence of the rivers Rother and Hipper. Including Whittington, Brimington and Staveley it had a population of about 103,800 in 2011, making it the second largest town in the ceremonial county after Derby. Archaeologists trace it back to a Roman fort built in the 1st century AD, but soon abandoned. Later an Anglo-Saxon village developed. The name derives from the Old English ceaster and feld. It has a street market of some 250 stalls three days a week. The town sits on a coalfield, which was economically important until the 1980s. Little visual evidence of mining remains. The best-known landmark is the Church of St Mary and All Saints with its crooked spire, originally built in the 14th century.
Benedictine College is a Benedictine liberal arts college in Atchison, Kansas. It was founded in 1971 by the merger of St. Benedict's College for men and Mount St. Scholastica College for women. It is located on bluffs overlooking the Missouri River, northwest of Kansas City, Missouri. Benedictine is one of a number of U.S. Benedictine colleges and is sponsored by St. Benedict's Abbey and Mount St. Scholastica Monastery. The abbey has a current population of 53 monks, while the Mount monastery numbers 147 community members. The college has built its core values around four "pillars" — Catholic, Benedictine, Liberal Arts, Residential — which support the Benedictine College mission to educate men and women in a community of faith and scholarship.
The University of Paris strike of 1229 was caused by the deaths of a number of students in punishing a student riot. The students protested with a "dispersion", or student strike, which lasted more than two years and led to a number of reforms of the medieval university. The event demonstrates the town and gown power struggles with the Church, secular leaders and the emerging student class and a lessening of local Church authority over the University of Paris. The university was placed squarely under direct papal patronage, part of the program to centralise the Church structure, which had intensified under Innocent III.
The Orangeburg massacre refers to the shooting of protesters by South Carolina Highway Patrol officers in Orangeburg, South Carolina, on the South Carolina State University campus on the evening of February 8, 1968. The approximately 200 protesters had previously demonstrated against racial segregation at a local bowling alley. Three of the protestors, African-American males, were killed and twenty-seven other protesters were injured.
The College of Saint Scholastica (CSS) is a private college with its main campus in Duluth, Minnesota, United States. Today St. Scholastica educates more than 4,000 students annually and has graduated more than 24,000 alumni.
The May 1998 riots of Indonesia, also known as the 1998 tragedy or simply the 1998 event, were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest of a racial nature that occurred throughout Indonesia, mainly in Medan in the province of North Sumatra, the capital city of Jakarta, and Surakarta in the province of Central Java. The riots were triggered by economic problems including food shortages and mass unemployment, and eventually led to the resignation of President Suharto and the fall of the New Order government. The main targets of the violence were ethnic Chinese; however, most of the casualties occurred among the Javanese Indonesian looters due to a massive fire.
Town and gown are two distinct communities of a university town; 'town' being the non-academic population and 'gown' metonymically being the university community, especially in ancient seats of learning such as Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and St Andrews, although the term is also used to describe modern university towns as well as towns with a significant public school. The metaphor is historical in its connotation but continues to be used in the literature on urban higher education and in common parlance.
The Zip to Zap riot of May 9–11, 1969 in Zap, North Dakota, was originally intended as a spring break diversion. As a result of an article that originally appeared in the North Dakota State University's The Spectrum newspaper and was later picked up by the AP, between 2000 and 3000 people descended upon the small town of Zap, located in Mercer County in the west central part of the state, nearly 300 miles (482 km) from the NDSU campus. A few accounts have also referred to the name of the event as the "Zap-in".
The Museum of Oxford is a history museum in Oxford, England, covering the history of the City and University of Oxford. The displays include original artefacts, treasures from Oxford colleges and period room reconstructions, from prehistoric times onwards.
St. Scholastica's College, Manila is a Catholic institution for women established in 1906 and managed by the Missionary Benedictine Sisters of Tutzing. It is located in a 3.66 hectare lot in Malate in the city of Manila. It is bounded by Estrada Street on the north, P. Ocampo Street on the south, Singalong Street on the east and Leon Guinto Street on the west. The college was established initially offering elementary grades. It started admitting high school students in 1907 and opened its collegiate department in 1920. It pioneered formal music education in the Philippines, opening a Conservatory of Music in 1907. Although St. Scholastica's College is an exclusive school for women, admission of male students in the Music, Fine Arts, and Interior Design programs have been allowed.
The Bristol riots refer to a number of significant riots in the city of Bristol in England.
Events from the 1350s in England.
The Black Cat Tavern was an LGBT bar located at 3909 West Sunset Boulevard in the Sunset Junction neighborhood of the Silver Lake district in Los Angeles, California.
The Ole Miss riot of 1962, or Battle of Oxford, was fought between Southern segregationists and federal and state forces beginning the night of September 30, 1962. Segregationists were protesting the enrollment of James Meredith, a black US military veteran, at the University of Mississippi at Oxford, Mississippi. Two civilians, one a French journalist, were killed during the night, and over 300 people were injured, including one-third of the US Marshals deployed.
Adam Houghton, also known as Adam de Houghton, was Bishop of St David's from 1361 until his death and Lord Chancellor of England from 1377 to 1378.
The King assassination riots, also known as the Holy Week Uprising, was a wave of civil disturbance which swept the United States following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968. It was the greatest wave of social unrest the United States had experienced since the Civil War. Some of the biggest riots took place in Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Chicago, and Kansas City.