St Scholastica Day riot

Last updated

The Carfax Tower, dated from the 13th century, "witnessed" the described events Carfaxtower fromcornmarket.jpg
The Carfax Tower, dated from the 13th century, "witnessed" the described events

The St Scholastica Day riot of 10 February 1355 is one of the more notorious events in the history of Oxford, England. [1] Sparked off by a tavern dispute between two students and a taverner, the riot lasted two days and resulted in a large number of deaths among local citizens and students. The ensuing pacification led to a reinforcement and enlargement of the privileges and liberties of the academic institutions over the town.

History of Oxford history of the Oxford city in Oxfordshire, England

The history of Oxford in England dates back to its original settlement in the Saxon period. Originally of strategic significance due to its controlling location on the upper reaches of the River Thames at its junction with the River Cherwell, the town grew in national importance during the early Norman period, and in the late 12th century became home to the fledgling University of Oxford. The city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142.

Contents

Background and dispute

Site of the Swindlestock Tavern Site of the swindlestock tavern.jpeg
Site of the Swindlestock Tavern

The seed of the riot was an altercation in the Swindlestock Tavern in Oxford (now the site of the Santander Bank building at Carfax, on the corner of St Aldate's and Queen Street) between two students of the University of Oxford, Walter Spryngeheuse and Roger de Chesterfield, and the taverner, John Croidon. They complained about the quality of drinks, which led to an exchange of rude words that ended with the students throwing their drinks in the taverner's face and assaulting him. [2] Retaliation for the incident led to armed clashes between locals and students.

Oxford City and non-metropolitan district in England

Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of approximately 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, and it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county. The city is 51 miles (82 km) from London, 61 miles (98 km) from Bristol, 59 miles (95 km) from Southampton, 57 miles (92 km) from Birmingham and 24 miles (39 km) from Reading.

Santander UK plc is a British bank, wholly owned by the Spanish Santander Group. Santander UK plc manages its affairs autonomously, with its own local management team, responsible solely for its performance.

Carfax, Oxford Crossroads; central area of Oxford in England

Carfax is at the junction of St Aldate's (south), Cornmarket Street (north), Queen Street (west) and the High Street (east) in Oxford, England. It is considered to be the centre of the city, and is at 51.752°N 1.258°W. The name "Carfax" derives from the Latin "quadrifurcus" via the French "carrefour", both of which mean "crossroads".

The mayor of Oxford, John de Bereford, asked the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Humphrey de Cherlton, to arrest the two students, to no avail. Instead, 200 students supported Spryngeheuse and Chesterfield, allegedly assaulting the mayor and others. [2] As the situation escalated, locals from the surrounding countryside poured in, crying: "Havac! Havoc! Smyt fast, give gode knocks!" [3]

Humphrey de Cherlton was an English medieval churchman and university chancellor.

A riot broke out and lasted two days, which left 63 students and perhaps 30 locals dead. [2] [4] The students were eventually routed.

Resolution

The plaque commemorating the site of the Swindlestock Tavern from 1250 to 1709 Swindlestock tavern plaque.jpeg
The plaque commemorating the site of the Swindlestock Tavern from 1250 to 1709

The dispute was eventually settled in favour of the University, when a special charter was created. Annually thereafter, on 10 February the saint's day of St Scholastica, the mayor and councillors had to march bareheaded through the streets, attend Mass, and pay to the university a fine of one penny for every scholar killed, a total of 5s, 3d. The penance ended 470 years later in 1825, when the mayor refused to take part. [5] [6]

Scholastica is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Born in Italy, according to a ninth century tradition, she was the twin sister of Benedict of Nursia. Her feast day is 10 February.

Mass (liturgy) type of worship service within many Christian denomination

Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church and Anglican churches, as well as some Lutheran churches, Methodist, Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches.

Shilling unit of currency formerly used in the United Kingdom, Australia, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. Currently the shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Somalia. It is also the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce . The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, and from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning 'to separate.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent.

Aftermath

In an act of conciliation on 10 February 1955, the Mayor was given an honorary degree and the Vice-Chancellor was made an Honorary Freeman, at a commemoration of the events of 1355. [2]

The riot was a culmination of other riots in Oxford, which resulted in over 90 deaths. [7] In the 1850s novel The Adventures of Mr. Verdant Green by Cuthbert Bede, students still saw St Scholastica's Day as an opportunity for a confrontation.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bill Bryson American author

William McGuire Bryson is an American-British author of books on travel, the English language, science, and other non-fiction topics. Born in the United States, he has been a resident of Britain for most of his adult life, returning to the United States between 1995 and 2003, and holds dual American and British citizenship. He served as the chancellor of Durham University from 2005 to 2011.

Year 1355 (MCCCLV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

University of Bristol research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom

The University of Bristol is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1909, although like the University of the West of England and the University of Bath, it can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, founded as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers. Its key predecessor institution, University College, Bristol, had been in existence since 1876.

Jesus College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford in England

Jesus College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. It is in the centre of the city, on a site between Turl Street, Ship Street, Cornmarket Street and Market Street. The college was founded by Elizabeth I on 27 June 1571 for the education of clergy, though students now study a broad range of secular subjects. A major driving force behind the establishment of the college was Hugh Price, a churchman from Brecon in Wales. The oldest buildings, in the first quadrangle, date from the 16th and early 17th centuries; a second quadrangle was added between about 1640 and about 1713, and a third quadrangle was built in about 1906. Further accommodation was built on the main site to mark the 400th anniversary of the college, in 1971, and student flats have been constructed at sites in north and east Oxford.

Chesterfield Town & Borough in England

Chesterfield is a large market town and borough in Derbyshire, England. It lies 24 miles (39 km) north of Derby and 11 miles (18 km) south of Sheffield at the confluence of the rivers Rother and Hipper. Including Whittington, Brimington and Staveley it had a population of about 103,800 in 2011, making it the second largest town in the ceremonial county after Derby. Archaeologists trace it back to a Roman fort built in the 1st century AD, but soon abandoned. Later an Anglo-Saxon village developed. The name derives from the Old English ceaster and feld. It has a street market of some 250 stalls three days a week. The town sits on a coalfield, which was economically important until the 1980s. Little visual evidence of mining remains. The best-known landmark is the Church of St Mary and All Saints with its crooked spire, originally built in the 14th century.

Benedictine College

Benedictine College is a co-educational university in Atchison, Kansas, United States, founded in 1971 by the merger of St. Benedict's College for men and Mount St. Scholastica College for women. It is a Roman Catholic, Benedictine, liberal arts, and residential college located on bluffs overlooking the Missouri River, northwest of Kansas City, Missouri. Benedictine is one of a number of U.S. Benedictine colleges, and is sponsored by St. Benedict's Abbey and Mount St. Scholastica Monastery. The abbey has a current population of 53 monks, while the Mount monastery numbers 147 community members. The college has built its core values around four "pillars"—Catholic, Benedictine, Liberal Arts, Residential—which support the Benedictine College mission to educate men and women in a community of faith and scholarship.

The University of Paris strike of 1229 was caused by the deaths of a number of students in punishing a student riot. The students protested with a "dispersion", or student strike, which lasted more than two years and led to a number of reforms of the medieval university. The event demonstrates the town and gown power struggles with the Church, secular leaders and the emerging student class and a lessening of local Church authority over the University of Paris. The university was placed squarely under direct papal patronage, part of the program to centralise the Church structure, which had intensified under Innocent III.

College of St. Scholastica

The College of Saint Scholastica (CSS) is a private college with its main campus in Duluth, Minnesota, United States. Today St. Scholastica educates more than 4,000 students annually and has graduated more than 24,000 alumni.

May 1998 riots of Indonesia mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest, mainly targeting ethnic Chinese, that occurred throughout Indonesia in May 1998, especially Medan  (4–8 May), Jakarta (12–15 May), and Surakarta (13–15 May); led to the resignation of President Suhart

The May 1998 riots of Indonesia, also known as the 1998 tragedy or simply the 1998 event, were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest of a racial nature that occurred throughout Indonesia, mainly in Medan in the province of North Sumatra, the capital city of Jakarta, and Surakarta in the province of Central Java. The riots were triggered by economic problems including food shortages and mass unemployment, and eventually led to the resignation of President Suharto and the fall of the New Order government. The main targets of the violence were ethnic Chinese; however, most of the casualties occurred among the Javanese Indonesian looters due to a massive fire.

Town and gown

Town and gown are two distinct communities of a university town; 'town' being the non-academic population and 'gown' metonymically being the university community, especially in ancient seats of learning such as Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and St Andrews, although the term is also used to describe modern university towns as well as towns with a significant public school. The metaphor is historical in its connotation but continues to be used in the literature on urban higher education and in common parlance.

The Zip to Zap riot of May 9–11, 1969 in Zap, North Dakota, was originally intended as a spring break diversion. As a result of an article that originally appeared in the North Dakota State University's The Spectrum newspaper and was later picked up by the AP, between 2000 and 3000 people descended upon the small town of Zap, located in Mercer County in the west central part of the state, nearly 300 miles (482 km) from the NDSU campus. A few accounts have also referred to the name of the event as the "Zap-in".

Rector of the University of Dundee

The Rector of the University of Dundee is elected by the matriculated students of the University. From 1967 to 2010, the Rector was automatically a full member of the University Court. The Rector also had the right to appoint an Assessor, who was also a full member of the University Court. Following changes made to the University Charter in August 2010, the Rector must choose to take up full membership of the University Court or appoint an Assessor who has full voting rights.

Events from the 1350s in England.

Michael James Spence is an Australian academic and Anglican priest. Spence began serving as the 25th Vice-Chancellor and Principal of the University of Sydney on 11 July 2008.

Ole Miss riot of 1962 dispute over integration at University of Mississippi

The Ole Miss riot of 1962, or Battle of Oxford, was fought between Southern segregationists and federal and state forces beginning the night of September 30, 1962. Segregationists were protesting the enrollment of James Meredith, a black US military veteran, at the University of Mississippi at Oxford, Mississippi. Two civilians, one a French journalist, were killed during the night, and over 300 people were injured, including one third of the US Marshals deployed.

Adam Houghton, also known as Adam de Houghton, was Bishop of St David's from 1361 until his death and Lord Chancellor of England from 1377 to 1378.

King assassination riots Riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

The King assassination riots, also known as the Holy Week Uprising, was a wave of civil disturbance which swept the United States following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968. It was the greatest wave of social unrest the United States had experienced since the Civil War. Some of the biggest riots took place in Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Chicago, and Kansas City.

References

  1. "Top_ten_astonishing_facts". Oxford City Council, UK. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 15 December 2009.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Miller, Carol M. (June 1993). "The St. Scholastica Day Riot: Oxford after the Black Death". FCH Annals – Journal of the Florida Conference of Historians. 1: 29–42. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015. (PDF of entire volume Archived 14 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine )
  3. Morris, James (1965). Oxford. Harcourt. p. 69.
  4. "10 February". Ward's Book of Days. 19 August 2010. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  5. Selwood, Dominic (10 February 2017). "On this day in 1355: University fracas ends with 93 dead and the birth of a 600-year-long tradition". The Telegraph. ISSN   0307-1235. Archived from the original on 3 March 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  6. Sullivan, Paul (31 January 2012). Bloody British History: Oxford. History Press. p. 54. ISBN   9780752481975 . Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  7. Koenig, Chris. "Rioting over wine led to 90 deaths". The Oxford Times . Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2012.