Thoroughfare Gap Battlefield
Historical marker, with Beverly Mill in the background
|Location||Junction of Interstate 66 and State Route 55, Broad Run, Virginia|
|Area||514 acres (208 ha)|
|Architectural style||Federal, Mid 19th Century Revival|
|NRHP reference #||99001374|
|Added to NRHP||November 18, 1999|
|Designated VLR||June 16, 1999|
Thoroughfare Gap Battlefield is a historic American Civil War battlefield located at Thoroughfare Gap, Broad Run, Prince William County, Virginia. It was the site of the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap. The property includes a number of resources present at the time of the battle including the separately listed Beverley Mill, a five-story, coursed-rubble stone building set into the north side of Thoroughfare Gap. Meadowlands, the Chapman's house and the second Upper Mill are clearly visible on the landscape, as well as an important ice pit and a walled cemetery associated with the Chapman family.
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces. A war usually consists of multiple battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment. A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish.
Thoroughfare Gap is a water gap in the Bull Run Mountains created by Broad Run between High Point Mountain to the north and Bisquit Mountain to the south. It is located on the border of Prince William and Fauquier counties in Virginia.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. 109 acres (0.44 km2) of the battlefield. The battlefield is accessible from a walking trail adjacent to the ruins of Chapman's Mill, located north of Interstate 66 on Beverly Mill Drive. Sharpshooters used the mill's upper floor windows to defend the pass. Historic and wayside markers are placed along Virginia Route 55 just south of the mill.The Civil War Trust (a division of the American Battlefield Trust) and its partners have acquired and preserved
The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred in preserving the property.
The Civil War Trust is now the American Battlefield Trust, a 501(c)(3) charitable organization whose primary focus is in the preservation of American battlefields. The name was changed on May 8, 2018 to reflect the organization's more-comprehensive mission, which was expanded in 2014 to include battlefields of the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. The American Battlefield Trust is the umbrella organization for the Civil War Trust as well as the Revolutionary War Trust, the new name for the Trust's "Campaign 1776" land preservation project.
The American Battlefield Trust is a charitable organization whose primary focus is in the preservation of battlefields of the American Civil War, the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 through acquisition of battlefield land. The American Battlefield Trust was formerly known as the Civil War Trust. On May 8, 2018, the organization announced the creation of the American Battlefield Trust as the umbrella organization for two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust, which was formerly known as "Campaign 1776." The name American Battlefield Trust reflects the organization's expanded mission, announced in 2014, of saving land at battlefields of the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 as well as the American Civil War The American Battlefield Trust also promotes educational programs and heritage tourism initiatives to inform the public about these three conflicts and their significance in American history. On May 31, 2018, the Trust announced that with the acquisition of 13 acres at the Cedar Creek battlefield in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, it had reached the milestone of 50,000 acres of battlefield land acquired and preserved. Since 1988, the Trust and its federal, state and local partners have preserved land in 24 states at more than 130 battlefields of the Civil War, the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. More than 10,000 of the acres have been acquired and preserved since 2014.
The Battle of South Mountain—known in several early Southern accounts as the Battle of Boonsboro Gap—was fought September 14, 1862, as part of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War. Three pitched battles were fought for possession of three South Mountain passes: Crampton's, Turner's, and Fox's Gaps. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, commanding the Union Army of the Potomac, needed to pass through these gaps in his pursuit of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's precariously divided Army of Northern Virginia. Although the delay bought at South Mountain would allow him to reunite his army and forestall defeat in detail, Lee considered termination of the Maryland Campaign at nightfall.
The First Battle of Rappahannock Station, also known as Waterloo Bridge, White Sulphur Springs, Lee Springs, or Freeman's Ford, took place from August 22 to August 25, 1862, in Culpeper County and Fauquier County, Virginia, as part of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, also known as Chapman's Mill, took place on August 28, 1862, in Fauquier County and Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War. Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. James Longstreet successfully drove back Union forces under Brig. Gen. James B. Ricketts and Col. Percy Wyndham, allowing his corps to unite with that of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson prior to the Second Battle of Bull Run.
The Battle of Champion Hill, fought May 16, 1863, was the pivotal battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War (1861-1865). Union Army commander Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and the Army of the Tennessee pursued the retreating Confederate States Army, under Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton and defeated his army twenty miles to the east of Vicksburg, Mississippi, leading inevitably to the Siege of Vicksburg and surrender. The battle is also known as Baker's Creek.
Antietam National Battlefield is a National Park Service protected area along Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Washington County, northwestern Maryland. It commemorates the American Civil War Battle of Antietam that occurred on September 17, 1862.
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park is a unit of the National Park Service in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and elsewhere in Spotsylvania County, commemorating four major battles in the American Civil War: Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, The Wilderness, and Spotsylvania.
Malvern Hill stands on the north bank of the James River in Henrico County, Virginia, USA, about eighteen miles southeast of Richmond. On 1 July 1862, it was the scene of the Battle of Malvern Hill, one of the Seven Days Battles of the American Civil War.
Buildings, sites, districts, and objects in Virginia listed on the National Register of Historic Places:
Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park became the 388th unit of the United States National Park Service when it was authorized on December 19, 2002. The National Historical Park was created to protect several historically significant locations in the Shenandoah Valley of Northern Virginia, notably the site of the American Civil War Battle of Cedar Creek and the Belle Grove Plantation.
The Manassas Gap Railroad (MGRR) ran from Mount Jackson, Virginia, to the Orange and Alexandria Railroad's Manassas Junction, which later became the city of Manassas, Virginia. Chartered by the Virginia General Assembly in 1850, the MGRR was a 4 ft 8 in narrow gauge line whose 90 completed miles of track included 38 miles (61 km) of 60 pounds-per-yard T-rail and 52 miles (84 km) of 52 pounds-per-yard T-rail. A total of nine locomotives and 232 cars were operated on the line, serving 20 stations.
Broad Run is a small, unincorporated community in Fauquier County, Virginia. It is on Bust Head Road just north of Interstate 66 and State Route 55, near the Prince William County line. Broad Run is named after the waterway that flows through the town. Broad Run has its own ZIP Code of 20137, and its post office serves a population of 1,510.
Bentonville Battlefield is a North Carolina state historic site at 5466 Harper House Road in Johnston County, North Carolina. It belongs to the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources and is the site of the 1865 Battle of Bentonville, fought in the waning days of the American Civil War. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1996.
The Petersburg Breakthrough Battlefield is a historic district in Dinwiddie County, near Petersburg, Virginia. It was the location of the Third Battle of Petersburg, in which the Union Army broke through Confederate Army lines protecting Petersburg and Richmond on April 2, 1865, during the American Civil War. The success of the breakthrough led to abandonment of Richmond by General Robert E. Lee, a general retreat, and surrender at Appomattox Court House one week later. Portions of the area were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003, and a different portion was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2006. Much of the battlefield area is part of Pamplin Historical Park, a private park open to the public that interprets the battle. The park includes a full-service visitor center, trails, displays, interpretive signs and history programs. The Civil War Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 407 acres (1.65 km2) of the Breakthrough battlefield in five transactions since 2004.
Sayler's Creek Battlefield near Farmville, Virginia was the site of the Battle of Sayler's Creek of the American Civil War. Robert E. Lee's army was retreating from the Richmond to Petersburg line. Here, on April 6, 1865, Union General Philip Sheridan cut off and beat back about a quarter of Lee's army. Eight Confederate generals surrendered, and 7,700 men were lost. Confederate Major General George Washington Custis Lee, eldest son of Robert E. Lee, was forcibly captured on the battlefield by Private David Dunnels White of the 37th Massachusetts Regiment. This was the last major engagement of the war in Virginia; Lee's surrender at Appomattox occurred three days later. A portion of the landmarked battlefield area is included in Sailor's Creek Battlefield Historical State Park. The Civil War Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 885 acres (3.58 km2) of the battlefield in five transactions since 1996.
Cool Spring Battlefield is a historic American Civil War battlefield and national historic district located near Berryville, Clarke County, Virginia. It encompasses 17 contributing buildings, 26 contributing sites, and 11 contributing structures. The district includes the terrain and hydrography over which the Battle of Cool Spring, July 16–20, 1864, was fought and which served to shape the tactical progress of the engagement in time and space. The district also includes the archaeological and architectural remnants of plantations, farmsteads, transportation, mining, and industrial centers that were a part of the economically prosperous community over which the conflict was fought. Located in the district is the separately listed Wickliffe Church.
Beverley Mill, also known as Chapman Mill, is a historic grist mill located north of Interstate 66 and Virginia State Route 55 in Thoroughfare Gap near Broad Run, Virginia, straddling the county line between Prince William and Fauquier Counties. It was built about 1759, and is a five-story, four bay by three bay, rubble stone structure. The water power was provided by Broad Run which, in its 1,300-foot (400-metre) passage through the Gap, drops 87 feet. Exterior mill machinery included a 29-foot (8.8-metre) metal waterwheel and sluice gate as well as a stone mill race. The mill continued in operation through World War II. It is included in the Thoroughfare Gap Battlefield.
Occoquan Historic District is a national historic district located at Occoquan, Prince William County, Virginia. It encompasses 60 contributing buildings in the town of Occoquan. The buildings are predominantly frame, two-story, residential structures although the earliest examples are constructed of stone or brick. The Ellicott's Mill House houses Historic Occoquan, Inc. The district also includes a number of notable non-residential buildings including the Hammill Hotel, Ebenezer Church (1924), Methodist church (1926), and Crescent Lodge #3 (1889). Located in the district is the separately listed Rockledge.
Saltville Battlefields Historic District is a historic American Civil War battlefield and national historic district located around Saltville, in Smyth County and Washington County, Virginia. The district includes 3 contributing buildings, 31 contributing sites, 4 contributing structures, and 1 contributing object near Saltville. It encompass the core areas of two battles, fought on October 2 and December 20, 1864, known as the Battle of Saltville I and Battle of Saltville II, where Confederate and Union forces contested control of the South's most important salt production facilities. Notable resources include the sites of salt furnaces, Well Fields, Fort Statham, Lover's Leap Defenses, Saltville Gap Overlooks, Mill Cliff gun emplacements, Fort Breckinridge, Fort Hatton, Sanders’ House/Williams Site Battlefield/field hospital, William A. Stuart House, and the Elizabeth Cemetery.
The Broad Run–Little Georgetown Rural Historic District encompasses a large rural landscape in northeastern Fauquier County, Virginia, and a small portion of neighboring Prince William County, Virginia. The district covers about 9,500 acres (3,800 ha) of rolling hills, that has an agricultural history dating to the 18th century. It is roughly divided by the John Marshall Highway, and is bounded on the west by The Plains, the east by the Bull Run Mountains, and the south by Pignut Mountain.
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