|Thrips tabaci (left); Frankliniella occidentalis (right)|
| Thrips physapus |
Thrips is a genus of thrips.
Species in the genus Thrips feed on pollen, and can be major agricultural pests, with several being vectors of tospoviruses.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes. Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants, or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail. The study of pollen is called palynology and is highly useful in paleoecology, paleontology, archaeology, and forensics. Pollen in plants is used for transferring haploid male genetic material from the anther of a single flower to the stigma of another in cross-pollination. In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower.
A pest is any animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns, including crops, livestock and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.
The name Thrips comes from the Greek word θρίψ meaning woodworm.
Thrips is the largest genus of thrips, with over 280 species,most of which are found in Europe, Africa and the Mediterranean Basin. Other species occur on each of the continents, including one species described from Antarctica. Thrips includes the species of thrips most frequently intercepted at ports of entry into the United States, T. tabaci .
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The following species are recognised:
Thrips angusticeps is an insect of the order Thysanoptera and the family of Thripidae. It is a pest on crops of flax, cereals and peas.
Thrips palmi is an insect from the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is known commonly as the melon thrips.
Thrips simplex is a species of insect in the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is commonly known as the gladiolus thrips and infests gladiolus plants as well as various other monocotyledonous plants such as lilies, irises and freesias.
The Thripidae are the most speciose family of thrips, with over 290 genera representing just over two thousand species. They can be distinguished from other thrips by a saw-like ovipositor curving downwards, narrow wings with two veins, and antennae of six to ten antennomeres with stiletto-like forked sense cones on antennal segments III and IV.
Franklinothrips is a genus of thrips with pantropical distribution.
The Orthotospoviruses are a genus of negative RNA virus found within the family Tospoviridae of the order Bunyavirales. The genus takes its name from the discovery of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Australia in 1919. It remained the only member of the family until the early 1990s when genetic characterisation of viruses discovered in plants became more common. There are now at least twenty viral species in the family with more being recorded and described on a relatively regular basis. Together, these viruses have been documented infecting over eight hundred different plant species from 82 different families.
The chilli thrips or yellow tea thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is an extremely successful invasive species of pest-thrips which has expanded rapidly from Asia over the last twenty years, and is gradually achieving a global distribution. It has most recently been reported in St. Vincent (2004) Florida (2005), Texas (2006), and Puerto Rico (2007). It is a pest of economic significance with a broad host range, with prominent pest reports on crops including pepper, mango, citrus, strawberry, grapes, cotton, tea, peanuts, blueberry, and roses. Chilli thrips appear to feed preferentially on new growth, and infested plants usually develop characteristic wrinkled leaves, with distinctive brown scarring along the veins of leaves, the buds of flowers, and the calyx of fruit. Feeding damage can reduce the sale value of crops produced, and in sufficient numbers, kill plants already aggravated by environmental stress. This thrips has also been implicated in the transmission of three tospoviruses, but there is some controversy over its efficiency as a vector.
The Thripinae are a subfamily of thrips, insects of the order Thysanoptera. The Thripinae belong to the common thrips family Thripidae and include around 1,400 species in 150 genera. A 2012 molecular phylogeny found that the Thripinae was paraphyletic; further work will be needed to clarify the relationships within the group.
Thrips tabaci is a species of very small insect in the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is commonly known as the onion thrips, the potato thrips, the tobacco thrips or the cotton seedling thrips. It is an agricultural pest that can damage crops of onions and other plants, and it can additionally act as a vector for plant viruses.
Neohydatothrips samayunkur, the marigold thrips, is a species of thrips in the family Thripidae. It is found in Africa, Australia, Europe & Northern Asia, Central America, and North America.
Neohydatothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least 30 described species in Neohydatothrips.
Salpingothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least three described species in Salpingothrips.
Ctenothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about 10 described species in Ctenothrips.
Gynaikothrips ficorum, the Cuban laurel thrips, is a species of tube-tailed thrip in the family Phlaeothripidae. It is found in Africa, North America, and Europe.
Gynaikothrips is a genus of tube-tailed thrips in the family Phlaeothripidae. There are more than 30 described species in Gynaikothrips.
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, the greenhouse thrips, is a species of thrips in the family Thripidae. It is found in Africa, Europe & Northern Asia, Central America, North America, and Southern Asia.
Heliothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about 18 described species in Heliothrips.
Panchaetothripinae is a subfamily of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about 11 genera and more than 50 described species in Panchaetothripinae.
Parthenothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There is one described species in Parthenothrips, P. dracaenae.
Echinothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are about seven described species in Echinothrips.
Neohydatothrips variabilis, the soybean thrips, is a species of thrips in the family Thripidae. It is found in Central America and North America.
Selenothrips is a genus of thrips in the family Thripidae. There are at least two described species in Selenothrips.
Systematic Entomology is a scientific journal covering the field of systematic entomology, published by the Royal Entomological Society of London. Having begun in 1932 as Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Series B: Taxonomy, the title was changed to Journal of Entomology, Series B: Taxonomy in 1971, starting with volume 40. After volume 44 in 1976, the journal became Systematic Entomology, starting again with volume 1.
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.
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