Thuja sutchuenensis

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Thuja sutchuenensis
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae
Genus: Thuja
Species:T. sutchuenensis
Binomial name
Thuja sutchuenensis
Franch.

Thuja sutchuenensis, the Sichuan thuja, is a species of Thuja , an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae. [2] It is native to China, where it is an endangered local endemic in Chengkou County (Chongqing Municipality, formerly part of Sichuan province), on the southern slope of the Daba Mountains. [1] [3]

<i>Thuja</i> genus of plants

Thuja is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae. There are five species in the genus, two native to North America and three native to eastern Asia. The genus is monophyletic and sister to Thujopsis. Members are commonly known as arborvitaes, thujas or cedars.

Evergreen plant that has leaves in all four seasons

In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year that are always green. This is true even if the plant retains its foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season. There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs. Evergreens include:

Tree Perennial woody plant with elongated trunk

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.

Contents

Description

It is a small or medium-sized tree, reaching possibly 20 m tall, [2] though no trees of this size are currently known. The foliage forms in flat sprays with scale-like leaves 1.5–4 mm long, green above, and with narrow white stomatal bands below. The cones are oval, green ripening brown, 5–8 mm long and 3-4.2 mm broad (opening to 7 mm broad), with 8-10 overlapping scales. [3]

Leaf organ of a vascular plant, composing its foliage

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".

Stoma part of a plant

In botany, a stoma, also called a stomate, is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange. The pore is bordered by a pair of specialized parenchyma cells known as guard cells that are responsible for regulating the size of the stomatal opening.

Conifer cone Reproductive organ on conifers

A cone is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones, which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous even at full maturity. The name "cone" derives from the fact that the shape in some species resembles a geometric cone. The individual plates of a cone are known as scales.

Discovery and rediscovery

It was first described in 1899 from specimens collected by the French botanist Paul Guillaume Farges in 1892 and 1900, but was not seen again thereafter, despite many searches, for almost 100 years and was presumed to be extinct due to over-cutting for its valuable scented wood. A small number of specimens were however rediscovered in 1999, growing on very inaccessible steep ridges close to (or at the same site) where Farges had first found it. [1] The area of its occurrence has now been designated a Special Protection Area in order to protect the species.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Father Paul Guillaume Farges (1844–1912) was a French catholic missionary, botanist and plant collector, based for much of his life in China, serving at Chongqing from 1892 until his death.

Wood fibrous material from trees or other plants

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.

Related Research Articles

Cupressaceae family of plants

Cupressaceae is a conifer family, the cypress family, with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27–30 genera, which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130–140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or (rarely) dioecious trees and shrubs up to 116 m (381 ft) tall. The bark of mature trees is commonly orange- to red- brown and of stringy texture, often flaking or peeling in vertical strips, but smooth, scaly or hard and square-cracked in some species.

<i>Thuja occidentalis</i> species of plant

Thuja occidentalis, also known as northern white-cedar or eastern arborvitae, is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is native to eastern Canada and much of the north, central and upper Northeastern United States, but widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, and the binomial name remains current.

<i>Platycladus</i> species of plant

Platycladus is a distinct genus of evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae, containing only one species, Platycladus orientalis, also known as Chinese thuja, Oriental arborvitae, Chinese arborvitae, biota or oriental thuja. It is native to northeastern parts of eastern Asia and north Asia, but is also now naturalised as an introduced species elsewhere in Asia.

<i>Calocedrus</i> genus of plants

Calocedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the cypress family Cupressaceae first described as a genus in 1873. It is native to eastern Asia and western North America. The generic name means "beautiful cedar".

<i>Taiwania</i> species of plant

Taiwania, with the single living species Taiwania cryptomerioides, is a large coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae.

<i>Cunninghamia</i> genus of plants

Cunninghamia is a genus of one or two living species of evergreen coniferous trees in the cypress family Cupressaceae. They are native to China, northern Vietnam and Laos, and perhaps also Cambodia. They may reach 50 m (160 ft) in height. In vernacular use, it is most often known as Cunninghamia, but is also sometimes called "China-fir". The genus name Cunninghamia honours Dr. James Cunningham, a British doctor who introduced this species into cultivation in 1702 and botanist Allan Cunningham.

<i>Thuja standishii</i> species of plant

Thuja standishii is a species of thuja, an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae. It is native to southern Japan, where it occurs on the islands of Honshū and Shikoku. It is a medium-sized tree, reaching 20–35 m tall and with a trunk up to 1 m diameter.

<i>Glyptostrobus pensilis</i> species of plant

Glyptostrobus pensilis, also known as Chinese swamp cypress, is the sole living species in the genus Glyptostrobus. It is native to subtropical southeastern China, from Fujian west to southeast Yunnan, and also very locally in northern Vietnam.

<i>Juniperus squamata</i> species of plant

Juniperus squamata is a species of juniper native to the Himalayas and China, from northeastern Afghanistan east to western Yunnan in southwestern China, and with disjunct populations north to western Gansu and east to Fujian. It grows at 1,600-4,900 m altitude. It represents the provincial tree of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (unofficial).

<i>Cupressus funebris</i> species of plant

Cupressus funebris, the Chinese weeping cypress, is a species of cypress native to southwestern and central China. It may also occur naturally in Vietnam.

<i>Juniperus foetidissima</i> species of plant

Juniperus foetidissima, with common names foetid juniper or stinking juniper, is a juniper tree species in the Cupressaceae family.

<i>Callitris columellaris</i> species of plant

Callitris columellaris is a species of coniferous tree in the family Cupressaceae, native to most of Australia. Common names include White Cypress-pine, Murray River Cypress-pine, and Northern Cypress-pine. Callitris columellaris has been naturalised in Hawaii and in southern Florida.

<i>Calocedrus macrolepis</i> species of plant

Calocedrus macrolepis is a conifer native to southwest China, northern Vietnam, northern Laos, extreme northern Thailand and northeastern Myanmar.

<i>Abies fargesii</i> species of plant

Abies fargesii is a species of fir, a coniferous tree in the Pinaceae family. Its common name is Farges' fir, after the French missionary, botanist and plant collector, Paul Guillaume Farges. Abies fargesii can grow very large and be up to 40 metres (130 ft) tall. It is endemic to central China where it is found in Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, and Sichuan provinces. It grows in mountains and river basins at altitudes between 1,500–3,900 metres (4,900–12,800 ft) ASL. The cones of the given fir are 0.8 to 1.5 by 1.3–2 centimetres (0.51–0.79 in).

Juniperus convallium is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family. It is a tree that is found only in the mountains of the Chinese provinces of; Tibet, Qinghai, and Sichuan.

<i>Juniperus formosana</i> species of plant

Juniperus formosana, the Formosan juniper, is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family. It is a shrub or tree to 15 m (49 ft) tall, found in China and in Taiwan.

Juniperus pingii is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family. Commonly used in bonsai, if maintained properly, it will make a very nice looking and size proportional mini version of the full size tree. It is native only to China.

<i>Thuja koraiensis</i> species of plant

Thuja koraiensis, also called Korean arborvitae, is a species of Thuja, native to Korea and the extreme northeast of China (Changbaishan). Its current status is poorly known; the small population in China is protected in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve, as is the small population in Soraksan Nature Reserve in northern South Korea, but most of the species' range in North Korea is unprotected and threatened by habitat loss.

Torreya fargesii is a species of conifer in the Cephalotaxaceae family. It is a large tree that can be up to 20 metres (66 ft) tall. It is endemic to central and southern China; it is found in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces, and possibly in Anhui. It occurs in coniferous, mixed, and broad-leaved forests at altitudes 1,000–3,400 metres (3,300–11,200 ft) ASL. The seeds can be pressed for oil. The wood is used in construction and furniture.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Yang, Y.; Li, N.; Christian, T. & Luscombe, D (2013). "Thuja sutchuenensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . IUCN. 2013: e.T32378A2816862. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T32378A2816862.en . Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  2. 1 2 Liguo Fu, Yong-fu Yu, Robert P. Adams & Aljos Farjon. "Thuja sutchuenensis". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  3. 1 2 Xiang, Qiaoping; Fajon, Alan; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Likuo; Liu, Zhengyu (2002). "Thuja sutchuenensis: A rediscovered species of the Cupressaceae" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 139 (3): 305–310. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00055.x.