Thyrohyoid muscle

Last updated
Thyrohyoid muscle
Thyrohyoid muscle.PNG
Muscles of the neck. Lateral view. (Thyrohyoideus labeled center-left.)
Thyrohyoideus.png
Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. (Thyrohyoideus visible center-left.)
Details
Origin Thyroid cartilage of larynx
Insertion Hyoid bone
Artery Superior thyroid artery
Nerve First cervical nerve (C1) via hypoglossal nerve
Actions Elevates thyroid and depresses the hyoid bone
Identifiers
Latin Musculus thyrohyoideus
TA A04.2.04.007
FMA 13344
Anatomical terms of muscle

The thyrohyoid muscle is a small skeletal muscle on the neck which depresses the hyoid and elevates the larynx.

Skeletal muscle one of three major muscle types

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated muscle tissue, which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system. Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons.

Neck part of the body, on many terrestrial or secondarily aquatic vertebrates, that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk

The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. These in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx, trachea, and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the carotid arteries and jugular veins, and the top part of the spinal cord.

Larynx voice box, an organ in the neck of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals

The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. The larynx houses the vocal folds, and manipulates pitch and volume, which is essential for phonation. It is situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus. The word larynx comes from a similar Ancient Greek word.

Contents

This quadrilateral muscle appearing like an upward continuation of the sternothyreoideus. It belongs to the infrahyoid muscles group.

Infrahyoid muscles

The infrahyoid muscles, or strap muscles, are a group of four pairs of muscles in the anterior (frontal) part of the neck. The four infrahyoid muscles are: the sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid and omohyoid muscles.

It arises from the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage, and is inserted into the lower border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone.

Thyroid cartilage

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the nine cartilages that make up the laryngeal skeleton, the cartilage structure in and around the trachea that contains the larynx. It does not completely encircle the larynx; only the cricoid cartilage does.

Hyoid bone horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage

The hyoid bone is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. At rest, it lies at the level of the base of the mandible in the front and the third cervical vertebra (C3) behind.

It is innervated by thyrohyoid branch of C1 nerve. This nerve branches from the first cervical nerve as it joins the hypoglossal nerve (12th Cranial Nerve) for a short distance. This is the only exception in the infrahyoid muscles, or strap muscles, that is not innervated by ansa cervicalis [1] .

Hypoglossal nerve cranial nerve

The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve. It is a nerve with a solely motor function. The nerve arises from the hypoglossal nucleus in the brain stem as a number of small rootlets, passes through the hypoglossal canal and down through the neck, and eventually passes up again over the tongue muscles it supplies into the tongue. There are two hypoglossal nerves in the body: one on the left, and one on the right.

Ansa cervicalis

The ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. It lies superficial to the internal jugular vein in the carotid triangle. Its name means "handle of the neck" in Latin.

Additional images

See also

Related Research Articles

Ulnar nerve nerve which runs near the ulna bone

In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve that runs near the ulna bone. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint is in relation with the ulnar nerve. The nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body, so injury is common. This nerve is directly connected to the little finger, and the adjacent half of the ring finger, innervating the palmar aspect of these fingers, including both front and back of the tips, perhaps as far back as the fingernail beds.

Genitofemoral nerve

The genitofemoral nerve refers to a human nerve that is found in the abdomen. Its branches, the genital branch and femoral branch supply sensation to the upper anterior thigh, as well as the skin of the anterior scrotum in males and mons pubis in females. The femoral branch is different from the femoral nerve, which also arises from the lumbar plexus.

Omohyoid muscle

The omohyoid muscle is a muscle that depresses the hyoid. It is located in the front of the neck and consists of two bellies separated by an intermediate tendon. Its superior belly serves as the most lateral member of the infrahyoid muscles, located lateral to both the sternothyroid and thyrohyoid muscles. Its name derives from the Greek "omos" meaning shoulder, giving one of its attachments, and "hyoid", giving the other attachment - the hyoid bone.

Cervical plexus

The cervical plexus is a plexus of the anterior rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which arise from C1 to C4 cervical segment in the neck. They are located laterally to the transverse processes between prevertebral muscles from the medial side and vertebral from lateral side. There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk.

Digastric muscle

The digastric muscle is a small muscle located under the jaw. The term "digastric muscle" refers to this specific muscle. However, other muscles that have two separate muscle bellies include the ligament of Treitz, omohyoid, occipitofrontalis.

Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its passage from the chin to the hyoid bone.

Sternohyoid muscle human neck muscle

The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone. It is innervated by the ansa cervicalis.

Sternothyroid muscle

The Sternothyroideus is a muscle in the neck. It is shorter and wider than the sternohyoideus, beneath which it is situated.

Hyoglossus

The hyoglossus, thin and quadrilateral, arises from the side of the body and from the whole length of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, and passes almost vertically upward to enter the side of the tongue, between the styloglossus and the inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue. It forms a part of the floor of submandibular triangle.

Styloglossus

The Styloglossus, the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles, arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process near its apex, and from the stylomandibular ligament.

Thyrohyoid membrane

The thyrohyoid membrane is a broad, fibro-elastic sheet of the larynx. It is attached below to the upper border of the thyroid cartilage and to the front of its superior cornu, and above to the upper margin of the posterior surface of the body and greater cornua of the hyoid bone, thus passing behind the posterior surface of the body of the hyoid. It is separated from the hyoid bone by a mucous bursa, which facilitates the upward movement of the larynx during swallowing.

Lingual artery

The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery. It can be located easily in the tongue.

Superior thyroid artery

The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland.

Temporal styloid process

The temporal styloid process is a process of bone that extends down from the temporal bone of the human skull, just below the ear.

Carotid triangle

The carotid triangle is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck.

Muscular triangle

The inferior carotid triangle, is bounded, in front, by the median line of the neck from the hyoid bone to the sternum; behind, by the anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid; above, by the superior belly of the omohyoid.

Cervical branch of the facial nerve

The cervical branch of the facial nerve runs forward beneath the platysma, and forms a series of arches across the side of the neck over the suprahyoid region. This nerve innervates the posterior belly of the Digastric muscle and the Stylohyoid muscle.

Pretracheal fascia

The pretracheal fascia is a portion of the structure of the human neck. It extends medially in front of the carotid vessels and assists in forming the carotid sheath.

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 394 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.

<i>Grays Anatomy</i> English-language textbook of human anatomy

Gray's Anatomy is an English language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, Anatomy of the Human Body and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is commonly shortened to, and later editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015.

  1. Netter, Frank H. (2018). Atlas of Human Anatomy. Elsevier. pp. Table 2.9. ISBN   9780323393218.