Thyrohyoid muscle

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Thyrohyoid muscle
Thyrohyoid muscle.PNG
Muscles of the neck. Lateral view. (Thyrohyoideus labeled center-left.)
Thyrohyoideus.png
Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. (Thyrohyoideus visible center-left.)
Details
Origin thyroid cartilage of the larynx
Insertion hyoid bone
Artery superior thyroid artery
Nerve hypoglossal nerve, first cervical nerve (C1) via hypoglossal nerve
Actions elevates thyroid and depresses the hyoid bone
Identifiers
Latin Musculus thyrohyoideus
TA98 A04.2.04.007
TA2 2174
FMA 13344
Anatomical terms of muscle

The thyrohyoid muscle is a small skeletal muscle on the neck. It originates from the lamina of the thyroid cartilage, and inserts into the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. It is supplied by the hypoglossal nerve, and a branch of the ventral rami of the cervical plexus, spinal nerve C1, which travels with the hypoglossal nerve. The thyrohyoid muscle depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx. By controlling the position and shape of the larynx, it aids in making sound.

Contents

Structure

The thyrohyoid muscle is a quadrilateral muscle in shape. It appears like an upward continuation of the sternothyroid muscle. It belongs to the infrahyoid muscles group. It lies in the carotid triangle. [1]

It arises from the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage. [2] It is inserted into the lower border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. [2]

Nerve supply

The thyrohyoid muscle is supplied by the hypoglossal nerve (XII). [3] It is the only infrahyoid muscle that is not supplied by the ansa cervicalis. [4] It is also supplied by the thyrohyoid branch of cervical spinal nerve 1 (C1). [5] This is via the cervical plexus. [6] This nerve branches from the first cervical nerve as it joins the hypoglossal nerve for a short distance. [5]

Function

The thyrohyoid muscle depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx and the thyroid cartilage, drawing them together. [2] By controlling the position and shape of the larynx, it aids in making sound. [7]

Other animals

The thyrohyoid muscle is found in many other animals, including horses. [2]

Additional images

See also

Related Research Articles

Larynx Voice box, an organ in the neck of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals

The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. The opening of larynx into pharynx known as the laryngeal inlet is about 4–5 centimeters in diameter. The larynx houses the vocal cords, and manipulates pitch and volume, which is essential for phonation. It is situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus. The word ʻlarynxʼ comes from the Ancient Greek word lárunx ʻlarynx, gullet, throat.

Neck Part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso

The neck is the part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso and provides the mobility and movements of the head. The structures of the human neck are anatomically grouped into four compartments; vertebral, visceral and two vascular compartments. Within these compartments, the neck houses the cervical vertebrae and cervical part of the spinal cord, upper parts of the respiratory and digestive tracts, endocrine glands, nerves, arteries and veins. Muscles of the neck are described separately from the compartments. They bound the neck triangles.

Hyoid bone Bone situated in the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage

The hyoid bone is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. At rest, it lies between the base of the mandible and the third cervical vertebra.

Infrahyoid muscles

The infrahyoid muscles, or strap muscles, are a group of four pairs of muscles in the anterior (frontal) part of the neck. The four infrahyoid muscles are the sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid and omohyoid muscles.

Omohyoid muscle

The omohyoid muscle is a muscle that depresses the hyoid. It is located in the front of the neck, and consists of two bellies separated by an intermediate tendon. The omohyoid muscle is proximally attached to the scapula and distally attached to the hyoid bone, stabilising it. Its superior belly serves as the most lateral member of the infrahyoid muscles, located lateral to both the sternothyroid muscles and the thyrohyoid muscles.

Cervical plexus

The cervical plexus is a plexus of the anterior rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which arise from C1 to C4 cervical segment in the neck. They are located laterally to the transverse processes between prevertebral muscles from the medial side and vertebral from lateral side. There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk.

Geniohyoid muscle Muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its passage from the chin to the hyoid bone.

Common carotid artery One of the two arteries that supply the head and neck with blood

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

Ansa cervicalis

The ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. It lies superficial to the internal jugular vein in the carotid triangle. Its name means "handle of the neck" in Latin.

Sternohyoid muscle

The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum. It is one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles. It is supplied by the ansa cervicalis. It depresses the hyoid bone.

Sternothyroid muscle

The sternothyroid muscle, or sternothyroideus, is an infrahyoid muscle in the neck. It acts to depress the hyoid bone. It is below the sternohyoid muscle. It is shorter and wider than the sternohyoid.

Hyoglossus Muscle

The hyoglossus, thin and quadrilateral, arises from the side of the body and from the whole length of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, and passes almost vertically upward to enter the side of the tongue, between the styloglossus and the inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue. It forms a part of the floor of submandibular triangle.

Intercostal nerves

The intercostal nerves are part of the somatic nervous system, and arise from the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. The intercostal nerves are distributed chiefly to the thoracic pleura and abdominal peritoneum, and differ from the anterior rami of the other spinal nerves in that each pursues an independent course without plexus formation.

Thyrohyoid membrane Fibroelastic sheet connecting the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone

The thyrohyoid membrane is a broad, fibro-elastic sheet of the larynx. It connects the upper border of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone.

Lingual artery

The lingual artery arises from the external carotid artery between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery. It can be located easily in the tongue.

Superior thyroid artery

The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland.

Thyrocervical trunk Artery of the neck

The thyrocervical trunk is an artery of the neck. It is a branch of the subclavian artery. It arises from the first portion of this vessel, between the origin of the subclavian artery and the inner border of the scalenus anterior muscle. It is located distally to the vertebral artery and proximally to the costocervical trunk. It gives off a number of branches to the neck. It helps to supply blood to the muscles of the neck.

Superior laryngeal nerve

The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system.

Deep cervical fascia

The deep cervical fascia lies under cover of the platysma, and invests the muscles of the neck; it also forms sheaths for the carotid vessels, and for the structures situated in front of the vertebral column. Its attachment to the hyoid bone prevents the formation of a dewlap.

Carotid triangle

The carotid triangle is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck.

References

PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text in the public domain from page 394 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. Luna, Mario A.; Pfaltz, Madeleine (2009). "11 - Cysts of the Neck, Unknown Primary Tumor, and Neck Dissection". Diagnostic Surgical Pathology of the Head and Neck (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 839–881. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-2589-4.00011-5. ISBN   978-1-4377-1951-2. OCLC   460904310.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Parente, Eric J.; Franklin, Samantha H.; Derksen, Frederik J.; Weishaupt, Michael A.; Chalmers, Heather J.; Tessier, Caroline (2012). "42 - Diagnostic Techniques in Equine Upper Respiratory Tract Disease". Equine Surgery (4th ed.). St. Louis: Saunders. pp. 536–557. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4377-0867-7.00042-9. ISBN   978-1-4377-0868-4. OCLC   761714103.
  3. Thomas, P. K.; Mathias, Christopher J. (2005). "52 - Diseases of the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Cranial Nerves". Peripheral neuropathy (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 1273–1293. doi:10.1016/B978-0-7216-9491-7.50055-7. ISBN   978-1-4377-1347-3. OCLC   324998243.
  4. Netter, Frank H. (2018). Atlas of Human Anatomy. Elsevier. pp. Table 2.9. ISBN   9780323393218.
  5. 1 2 Brandmeir, Nicholas (2015). "32 - Nerve Injuries of the Neck". Nerves and nerve injuries: Pain, treatment, injury, disease and future directions. Vol. 2. London, UK: Academic Press. pp. 493–504. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-802653-3.00081-6. ISBN   0-12-802653-7. OCLC   908203065.
  6. "Thyrohyoid muscle".
  7. Hage, Steffen R. (2010). "8.3 - Neuronal networks involved in the generation of vocalization". Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience. Stefan Brudzynski. London: Academic Press. pp. 339–349. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374593-4.00032-2. ISBN   978-0-12-374593-4. ISSN   1569-7339. OCLC   528610774.