Thyrohyoid muscle

Last updated
Thyrohyoid muscle
Thyrohyoid muscle.PNG
Muscles of the neck. Lateral view. (Thyrohyoideus labeled center-left.)
Thyrohyoideus.png
Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. (Thyrohyoideus visible center-left.)
Details
Origin thyroid cartilage of the larynx
Insertion hyoid bone
Artery superior thyroid artery
Nerve hypoglossal nerve, first cervical nerve (C1) via hypoglossal nerve
Actions elevates thyroid and depresses the hyoid bone
Identifiers
Latin Musculus thyrohyoideus
TA98 A04.2.04.007
TA2 2174
FMA 13344
Anatomical terms of muscle

The thyrohyoid muscle is a small skeletal muscle of the neck. Above, it attaches onto the greater cornu of the hyoid bone; below, it attaches onto the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage. It is innervated by fibres derived from the cervical spinal nerve 1 that run with the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) to reach this muscle. The thyrohyoid muscle depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx during swallowing. By controlling the position and shape of the larynx, it aids in making sound.

Contents

Structure

The thyrohyoid muscle is a small, [1] broad and short muscle. [2] It is quadrilateral in shape. [1] It may be considered a superior-ward continuation of sternothyroid muscle. [1]

It belongs to the infrahyoid muscles group and the outer laryngeal muscle group. [3] :567–568

Attachments

Its superior attachment [note 1] [1] is the inferior border [1] of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone [2] [1] [3] :538 and adjacent portions of the body of hyoid bone. [1]

Its inferior attachment [note 2] [1] is the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage (alongside the sternothyroid muscle [1] ). [2] [1] [3] :538

Innervation

The thyrohyoid muscle is innervated (along with the geniohyoid muscle [4] [3] :457, 709) by a branch of the cervical plexus [5] [3] :538 - the nerve to thyrohyoid muscle (thyrohyoid branch of ansa cervicalis) [5] - which is formed by fibres of the cervical spinal nerve 1 (C1) [1] [2] [3] :538 (and - according to some sources - cervical spinal nerve 2 as well [5] [3] :457) that join and travel with the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) [2] before splitting away from it [1] [2] distal to the superior root of ansa cervicalis. [1] [3] :709 The thyrohyoid muscle is the only infrahyoid muscle that is not innervated via the ansa cervicalis. [4]

Blood supply

The muscle is provided with arterial blood by branches of the superior thyroid artery, and of the lingual artery. [4]

Relations

The thyrohyoid muscle forms the inferior boundary of the carotid triangle. [6] It is situated deep to (beneath) the (depending upon the source) superior portion of [2] /superior belly of [3] :538 the sternohyoid muscle, [2] [3] :538 and the superior portion of [2] the omohyoid muscle. [2] [3] :538

Function

The thyrohyoid muscle depresses and fixates the hyoid bone. It elevates the larynx during swallowing. [3] :538 By controlling the position and shape of the larynx, it aids in making sound. [7]

Additional images

See also

Notes

  1. Described as either the origin or as the insertion.
  2. Described as either the origin or as the insertion.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Infrahyoid muscles</span> Group of muscles

The infrahyoid muscles, or strap muscles, are a group of four pairs of muscles in the anterior (frontal) part of the neck. The four infrahyoid muscles are the sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid and omohyoid muscles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Omohyoid muscle</span> Human neck muscle

The omohyoid muscle is a muscle in the neck. It is one of the infrahyoid muscles. It consists of two bellies separated by an intermediate tendon. Its inferior belly is attached to the scapula; its superior belly is attached to the hyoid bone. Its intermediate tendon is anchored to the clavicle and first rib by a fascial sling. The omohyoid is innervated by the ansa cervicalis of the cervical plexus. It acts to depress the hyoid bone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cervical plexus</span>

The cervical plexus is a nerve plexus of the anterior rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves C1-C4. The cervical plexus provides motor innervation to some muscles of the neck, and the diaphragm; it provides sensory innervation to parts of the head, neck, and chest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle</span> Muscle of the larynx

The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle is a intrinsic muscle of the larynx. It arises from the cricoid cartilage; it inserts onto the arytenoid cartilage of the same side. It is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Each acts to open the vocal folds by pulling the vocal fold of the same side laterally. It participates in the production of sounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geniohyoid muscle</span> Muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is a narrow paired muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its passage from the chin to the hyoid bone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stylohyoid muscle</span> Muscle

The stylohyoid muscle is one of the suprahyoid muscles. Its originates from the styloid process of the temporal bone; it inserts onto hyoid bone. It is innervated by a branch of the facial nerve. It acts draw the hyoid bone upwards and backwards.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ansa cervicalis</span> From cervical plexus

The ansa cervicalis is a loop formed by muscular branches of the cervical plexus formed by branches of cervical spinal nerves C1-C3. The ansa cervicalis has two roots - a superior root and an inferior root - that unite distally, forming a loop. It is situated within the carotid sheath.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sternohyoid muscle</span>

The sternohyoid muscle is a bilaterally paired, long, thin, narrow strap muscle of the anterior neck. It is one of the infrahyoid muscles. It is innervated by the ansa cervicalis. It acts to depress the hyoid bone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sternothyroid muscle</span>

The sternothyroid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck. It acts to depress the hyoid bone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rectus capitis posterior major muscle</span> Tendon

The rectus capitis posterior major is a muscle in the upper back part of the neck. It is one of the suboccipital muscles. Its inferior attachment is at the spinous process of the axis ; its superior attachment is onto the outer surface of the occipital bone on and around the side part of the inferior nuchal line. The muscle is innervated by the suboccipital nerve. The muscle acts to extend the head and rorate the head to its side.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salpingopharyngeus muscle</span> Muscle of the pharynx

The salpingopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the pharynx. It arises from the lower part of the cartilage of the Eustachian tube, and inserts into the palatopharyngeus muscle by blending with its posterior fasciculus. It is innervated by vagus nerve via the pharyngeal plexus. It raises the pharynx and larynx during deglutition (swallowing) and laterally draws the pharyngeal walls up. It opens the pharyngeal orifice of the Eustachian tube during swallowing to allow for the equalization of pressure between it and the pharynx.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle</span> Muscle in the neck

The middle pharyngeal constrictor is a fan-shaped muscle located in the neck. It is one of three pharyngeal constrictor muscles. It is smaller than the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stylopharyngeus muscle</span> Muscle

The stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle in the head. It originates from the temporal styloid process. Some of its fibres insert onto the thyroid cartilage, while others end by intermingling with proximal structures. It is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve. It acts to elevate the larynx and pharynx, and dilate the pharynx, thus facilitating swallowing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carotid sheath</span>

The carotid sheath is a condensation of the deep cervical fascia enveloping multiple vital neurovascular structures of the neck, including the common and internal carotid arteries, the internal jugular vein, the vagus nerve, and ansa cervicalis. The carotid sheath helps protects the structures contained therein.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Superior thyroid artery</span>

The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inferior thyroid artery</span> Artery of the neck

The inferior thyroid artery is an artery in the neck. It arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and longus colli muscle. It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ganglion resting upon the vessel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anterior triangle of the neck</span>

The anterior triangle is a region of the neck.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carotid triangle</span>

The carotid triangle is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pharyngeal plexus of vagus nerve</span> Nerve fibers innervating most of the palate and pharynx

The pharyngeal plexus is a nerve plexus located upon the outer surface of the pharynx. It contains a motor component, a sensory component, and sympathetic component.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thyrohyoid branch</span> Nervous system structure

The thyrohyoid branch (also: thyrohyoid branch of ansa cervicalis, or nerve to thyrohyoid (muscle)) is a motor branch derived from the cervical plexus formed by fibres of (the anterior ramus of) the cervical spinal nerve 1 (C1) (and - according to some sources - cervical spinal nerve 2 (C2) as well) that join and travel with the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) to reach the suprahyoid region, branching away from CN XII distal to the superior root of ansa cervicalis (which is a branching other fibres of C1-C2 that had traveled with the CN XII), near the posterior border of the hyoglossus muscle. The thyrohyoid branch of ansa cervicalis innervates the thyrohyoid muscle.

References

PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text in the public domain from page 394 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Standring, Susan (2020). Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice (42th ed.). New York. p. 582. ISBN   978-0-7020-7707-4. OCLC   1201341621.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sinnatamby, Chummy S. (2011). Last's Anatomy (12th ed.). Elsevier Australia. p. 337. ISBN   978-0-7295-3752-0.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Waschke, Jens; Böckers, Tobias M.; Paulsen, Friedrich; Arnold, Wolfgang; Bechmann, Ingo, eds. (2018). Sobotta Anatomy Textbook: English Edition with Latin Nomenclature (1st ed.). München: Elsevier. ISBN   978-0-7020-6760-0.
  4. 1 2 3 Standring, Susan (2020). Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice (42th ed.). New York. p. 582. ISBN   978-0-7020-7707-4. OCLC   1201341621.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. 1 2 3 "ramus thyrohyoideus ansae cervicalis". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  6. Luna, Mario A.; Pfaltz, Madeleine (2009). "11 - Cysts of the Neck, Unknown Primary Tumor, and Neck Dissection". Diagnostic Surgical Pathology of the Head and Neck (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 839–881. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-2589-4.00011-5. ISBN   978-1-4377-1951-2. OCLC   460904310.
  7. Hage, Steffen R. (2010). "8.3 - Neuronal networks involved in the generation of vocalization". Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience. Vol. 19. Stefan Brudzynski. London: Academic Press. pp. 339–349. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374593-4.00032-2. ISBN   978-0-12-374593-4. ISSN   1569-7339. OCLC   528610774.