Timeline of the surrender of Axis forces at the end of World War II

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This is a timeline of the surrenders of the various armies of the Axis powers that marked the end of World War II. There are two lists: the first denotes surrenders in April–November 1945. The second one shows the surrenders of Japanese holdouts that only surrendered in the months, years, and even decades after the end of the war.

Contents

Table of surrenders

CountryForces it applies toNumber of troops surrendered (if applicable)Commanding OfficerDate surrender document signed (if applicable)Date surrender took effect (if applicable)Notes
Italy All forces of the Italian Social Republic 429,000 Maresciallo d'Italia Rodolfo Graziani April 29May 1[ citation needed ]
NetherlandsKampfgruppen "General Seyffardt" of the 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland in Halbe, Germany500 Jürgen Wagner?May 1May 1Destroyed in the Halbe pocket
Germany Army Group C, in Italy and Western Austria nearly 1,000,000 Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff April 29May 2, at 12:00 PM
Belgium (Flemish) 27th SS Volunteer Division Langemarck, at Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 6,000? Thomas Müller May 2May 2
LatviaComponents of the 15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS, south of Schwerin, Germanyc. 4,500Karl BurkMay 2May 2
Germany/
France/
Other
All forces in Berlin 480,000 (470,970 Germans, 30 French and 9,000 other foreigners) General der Artillerie Helmuth Weidling May 2May 2, at 6:00 PM
Germany XXI Army and the Third Panzer Army at Hagenow, Germany300,000 General der Infanterie Kurt von Tippelskirch (XXI Army); General der Panzertruppe Hasso von Manteuffel (III Panzer Army)Night of May 2–3May 3
NetherlandsKampfgruppen "de Ruys" of the 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland, west of Parchim, Germany500 Jürgen Wagner?May 3May 3
Germany 36th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS 700NoneMay 3May 3
Germany Army Group H, in Northwest Germany, Schleswig-Holstein, Heligoland, the Frisian Islands, Denmark and other islands near Northwest Germany880,000 Generaladmiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg and General der Infanterie Eberhard Kinzel May 4May 5, at 8:00 AM
Hungary 25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Hunyadi (1st Hungarian) and 26th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Hungarian), near Lake Attersee c. 29,606 (19,106 in the 25th, and 10,500 in the 26th)Józef GrassyMay 3–5May 5Part of Army Group H
Germany U-291, U-779, U-883, U-1103, U-1406, U-1407, U-2341 and U-2356 257-306? (44-60? on U-291, 48-56? on U-779, 55-64? on U-883, 44-52? on U-1103, 19? on U-1406, 19? on U-1407, 14-18? on U-2341 and 14-18? on U-2356)Hermann Neumeister (U-291), Johann Stegmann (U-779), Johanes Uebel (U-883), Wilhelm Eisele (U-1103), Werner Klug (U-1406), Horst Heitz (U-1407), Hermann Böhm (U-2341) and Friedrich Hartel (U-2356)May 5May 5Surrendered in Cuxhaven
Germany U-2351 14-18?Werner BrücknerMay 5May 5Surrendered in Flensburg
Germany U-143, U-145, U-149, U-150, U-368, U-720 and U-1230 236-268? (25? on U-143, 25? on U-145, 25? on U-149, 25? on U-150, 44-60? on U-368, 44-60? on U-720 and 48? on U-1230)Walter Kasparek (U-143),

Friedrich-Karl Görner (U-145), Helmut Plohr (U-149), Jürgen Kriegshammer (U-150), Götz Roth (U-368), Wolf-Harald Schüer (U-720) and Hans Hilbig (U-1230)

May 5May 5Surrendered in Heligoland
Germany U-155, U-680 and U-1233 144-168? (48-60? on U-155, 48-60? on U-680, and 48? on U-1233)Friedrich Altmeier (U-155), Max Ulber (U-680), and Heinrich Niemeyer (U-1233)May 5May 5Surrendered in Baring Bay off Fredericia
GermanyAll forces in the Netherlands 120,000 Johannes Blaskowitz May 4May 5, at 4:00 PMSeparate surrender from the surrender in Northwest Germany and Denmark
Germany U-806 48?Klaus HornbostelMay 6May 6Surrendered in Aarhus
Other 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen, at Rottach-Egern 8,811Georg BochmannMay 6May 6
Germany Army Group G, in Bavaria400,000 Hermann Foertsch May 4, at 2:30 PMMay 6, at 12:00 PM
GermanyAll forces in Breslau 45,000 Hermann Niehoff May 6May 6, at 6:00 PM
Germany/
Soviet Union
Twelfth Army and remnants of the Ninth Army, at Tangermünde c. 200,000 (195,000 German, 5,000 troops from the Soviet Union) Walther Wenck (12 Army)May 7May 7No commander for the 9th Army
GermanyAll forces in La Rochelle c. 22,000? Ernst Schirlitz May 7May 7, at 11:45 PM
Germany/
Italy
All forces on the Dodecanese Islands c. 5,600 (more than 5,000 Germans and 600 Italians) Otto Wagener May 8May 8, at 10:00 AM
GermanyU-119844-56?Gerhard PetersMay 8May 8Surrendered in Cuxhaven
Hungary (Germans) 18th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Horst Wessel, in Czechoslovakia4,000?Heinrich PetersenMay 8May 8
Germany 1st Naval Infantry Division, along the Oder2,000?Wilhelm BleckwennMay 8May 8
Germany 2nd Naval Infantry Division, in Schleswig-Holstein2,000?Werner-Graf von Bassewitz-LevetzowMay 8May 8
Germany 6th Parachute Division Unknown Hermann Plocher May 8May 8
Germany 7th Parachute Division, in Oldenburg Unknown Wolfgang Erdmann May 8May 8
Germany 1st Fallschirm-Panzer Division Hermann Göring, in Dresden5,000? Max Lemke May 8May 8
Germany 32nd SS Volunteer Grenadier Division 30 Januar, in Tangermünde 5,000? Hans Kempin May 8May 8
Germany 38th SS Division Nibelungen, in Alpen-Donau, Germany6,000?Martin StrangeMay 8May 8
Germany 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division, along the Elbe Riverc. 9,000? Walter Harzer May 8May 8
Germany 35th SS and Police Grenadier Division, along the ElbeUnknownNoneMay 8May 8Commanding officer killed on April 25
Germany 10th Parachute Division, in AustriaUnknownHans KreysingMay 8May 8
Russia (Cossacks) XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps in Austria50,000Hermann von PannwitzMay 8May 8
Hungary (German) 31st SS Volunteer Grenadier Division, in Czechoslovakia10,000?Wilhelm TrabandtMay 8May 8
Germany 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS, in Klagenfurt, Austriac. 14,000? Otto Baum May 8May 8
Germany 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen, in Linz, Austriac. 6,000? Sylvester Stadler May 8May 8
Germany 6th SS Mountain Division Nord, in Austriac. 2,000Franz SchreiberMay 8May 8
Germany 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend, in Enns, Austriac. 10,000 Hugo Kraas May 8May 8Made up the bulk of the I SS Panzer Corps
India Indian Legion, near Lake Constance2,000unknownMay 8?May 8?
Germany 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg, in Teplice, Czechoslovakiac. 15,000?Franz RoestelMay 8May 8
GermanyAll forces in Norway c. 400,000 Franz Böhme May 8May 8, at 11:00 PM
Germany All German forces N/A Wilhelm Keitel May 7May 9, at 12:01 AM
NetherlandsMost of the 34th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division Landstorm Nederland, near Oosterbeek 5,956Martin KohlroserMay 9May 9
GermanyU-119448-56?Herbert ZeisslerMay 9May 9Surrendered in Cuxhaven
GermanyU-51048?Alfred EickMay 9May 9Surrendered in St. Nazaire
GermanyAll forces on Jersey 11,671Vice Admiral Friedrich Hüffmeier May 9May 9, at 10:00 AM
Hungary 37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow, in Steyr180Karl GeseleMay 9May 9
Germany 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, in Steyr, Austriac. 1,600SS-Brigadeführerund Generalmajor der Waffen-SS Otto Kumm May 9May 9Made up part of the I SS Panzer Corps
Various 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking, in Czechoslovakiac. 14,000? Karl Ullrich May 9May 9
Germany 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich, in Czechoslovakiac. 2,000?SS-Standartenführer Karl KreutzMay 9May 9
Germany 3rd SS Panzer Division Totenkopf, in Czechoslovakiac. 1,000 Hellmuth Becker May 9May 9
Yugoslav and
Italian Germans
24th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Karstjäger, in Yugoslaviac. 3,000Adolf WagnerMay 9May 9
GermanyAll forces in the Heiligenbeil Pocket, the Danzig beachhead, the Hel Peninsula, and in the Vistula Deltac. 100,000 [1] Dietrich von Saucken May 9May 9, at 11:00 AM
GermanyAll forces in Dunkirk 20,000 Friedrich Frisius May 9May 9, at 4:00 PM
GermanyAll forces in Bornholm c. 12,000 Gerhard von Kamptz May 9May 9, at 4:30 PM
GermanyU-127244-52?Hans SchatteburgMay 10May 10Surrendered in Bergen
Germany/
Latvia
Army Group Courland, in the Courland Pocket c. 180,000 (165,000 Germans, 15,000 Latvians) [1] Carl Hilpert May 10May 10
GermanyAll forces in Lorient c. 2,000?General Wilhelm Fahrmbacher May 10May 10
Germany U-249 44-60?Uwe KockMay 10May 10Surrendered in Portland, United Kingdom
GermanyU-1009, U-1058, U-1105 and U-1305180-216?Dietrich Zehle (U-1009), Hermann Bruder (U-1058), Hans-Joachim Schwarz (U-1105) and Helmuth Christiansen (U-1305)May 10May 10Surrendered in Loch Eriboll
Germany U-1023 44-52?Heinrich-Andreas SchroetelerMay 10May 10Surrendered in Weymouth, Dorset
Germany16 crew members on U-877 off Bergen16N/AMay 10May 10the rest continued on to Argentina
GermanyAll forces on Sark 281Vice Admiral Friedrich Hüffmeier May 9May 10
Galicia (Ukrainians) 1st Ukrainian Division of the Ukrainian National Army, in Italy25,000?Pavlo ShandrukMay 10May 10
Croatia 373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division, west of Sisak 2,000?Hans GravensteinMay 10May 10
EstoniaMost of the 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS, at Mělník, Czechoslovakia7,000?Berthold MaackMay 11May 11Part of the III Panzer Corps
EstoniaElements of the 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian), in Czechoslovakia3,000unknownMay 11May 11
GermanyAll forces in Saint-Nazaire 28,000Major General Werner Junck May 10May 11
Germany Army Group Centre c. 580,000 [1] Ferdinand Schörner May 11May 11Schörner himself surrendered days later.
GermanyU-293, U-802 and U-826140-164?Erich Steinbrink (U-293), Helmut Schmoeckel (U-802) and Olaf LübckeMay 11May 11Surrendered in Loch Eriboll
GermanyU-300857?Helmut ManseckMay 11May 11Surrendered in Kiel
Croatia 369th (Croatian) Infantry Division, near Bleiburg, Austriac. 2,000Fritz NeidholdtMay 11May 11
Germans
from various areas
7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen, in Celje, Slovenia20,000?August SchmidthuberMay 11May 11
GermanyAll forces on Crete 10,000General Hans-Georg Benthack May 10May 12Unconfirmed sources put the date in June
Croatia 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian) 12,000?Desiderius HampelMay 12May 12
GermanyAll forces on Guernsey 11,755VIce Admiral Friedrich Hüffmeier May 9May 12, at 2:00 PM
GermanyAll forces under Carl Friedrich von Pückler-Burghauss c. 6,000 [1] Carl Friedrich von Pückler-Burghauss May 12May 12
GermanyU-110944-52?Friedrich von RiesenMay 12May 12Surrendered in Loch Eriboll
GermanyU-21844?Rupprecht StockMay 12May 12Surrendered in Bergen
GermanyU-485 and U-54192-108? (44-60? on U-485 and 48 on U-541)Friedrich Lutz (U-485) and Kurt Petersen (U-541)May 12May 12Surrendered in Gibraltar
GermanyU-532, U-825, U-956 and U-1231184-216?Ottoheinrich Junker (U-532), Gerhard Stoelker (U-825), Hans-Dieter Mohs (U-956) and Helmut Wicke (U-1231)May 13May 13Surrendered in Loch Eriboll
GermanyU-73944-60?Johannes NeyMay 13May 13Surrendered in Emden, Germany
GermanyU-110244-57?Erwin SellMay 13May 13Surrendered in Hohwacht Bay
GermanyU-88948?Friedrich BraeuckerMay 13May 13Surrendered in Shelbourne, Canada
Russia Russian Liberation Army (1st Division)c. 20,000 [1] Sergei Bunyachenko May 14May 14Ordered to disband.
GermanyU-244, U-516, U-764 and U-1010180-220?Hans-Peter Mackeprang (U-244), Friedrich Petran (U-516), Hanskurt von Bremen (U-764) and Günther Strauch (U-1010)May 14May 14Surrendered in Loch Eriboll
GermanyU-111044-52?Joachim-Walter BachMay 14May 14Surrendered in List auf Sylt
GermanyU-100544-52?Hermann LauthMay 14May 14Surrendered in Bergen
GermanyU-232614-18?Karl JobstMay 14May 14Surrendered in Dundee
GermanyU-19048?Hans-Erwin ReithMay 14May 14Surrendered in the Bay of Bulls
GermanyU-85848?Thilo BodeMay 14May 14Surrendered in Lewes, Delaware
Germany Army Group E c. 13,000 [1] Alexander Löhr May 14May 14See Battle of Slivice
GermanyU-80548?Richard BernardelliMay 15May 15Surrendered in Portsmouth, New Hampshire
GermanyU-90148-56?Hans SchrenkMay 15May 15Surrendered in Stavanger
Germany U-2336 14-18?Emil KlusmeierMay 15May 15Surrendered in Kiel
Germany/
Croatia/
Slovenia/
Montenegro
A large column in Poljana, Prevalje 29,650 (1,000? Germans, 15,250? Croatians, 11,400 Slovenes, and 2,000 Montenegrins)N/AMay 15May 15, at 4 PMSee Battle of Poljana
GermanyAll forces on Alderney 3,202Vice Admiral Friedrich Hüffmeier May 16May 16
GermanyU-77648-56?Lothar MartinMay 16May 16Surrendered in Portland, United Kingdom
Germany U-873 55-64?Friedrich SteinhoffMay 16May 16Surrendered in Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Germany U-255 44-60?Helmut HeinrichMay 17May 17Surrendered in Loch Eriboll
GermanyU-122848?Friedrich-Wilhelm MarienfeldMay 17May 17Surrendered in Portsmouth, New Hampshire
CroatiaRemnants of the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian), in Austriasee previous section on this divisionN/AMay 18May 18
Germany U-234 12Johann-Heinrich FehlerMay 19May 19Surrendered in Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Georgia Georgian Legion on Texel 226 [1] None (their commander, Shalva Loladze, was killed on April 23)May 20May 20see Georgian uprising on Texel

for more details

GermanyAll German forces on Texel 4,000 [1] Klaus Breitner May 20May 20Fighting against the Georgian Legion
GermanyA small company of soldiers on Minquiers reef [2] 80?N/AMay 23May 23
CroatiaRemnants of Croatian forces, in Odžak c. 1,800?N/AMay 25May 25Some soldiers became guerrillas and fought until spring 1947. Everyone else was KIA. See Battle of Odžak for more details
Germany U-530 48?Otto WermuthJuly 10July 10Surrendered at Mar del Plata
Germany U-977 28-44?Heinz SchäfferAugust 17August 17Surrendered at Mar del Plata (16 left the ship)
JapanAll forces on Bougainville Island 21,335 [3] Hitoshi Imamura August 21August 21
JapanAll forces in Manchuria 1,950,479 [3] Otozō Yamada August 22August 22
JapanAll forces on Mili Atoll c. 2,282 [4] Navy Captain Masanori Shiga August 22August 22
JapanAir force personnel in central Bukidnon 4,000 [3] UnknownAugust 23August 23
JapanAll forces on Shumshu 8,244Tsutsumi FusakiAugust 23August 23
JapanAll forces on Sakhalin 394,551 [3] Lieutenant General Kiichiro Higuchi August 25August 25
JapanPersonnel in the Infanta area of Southern Luzonc, 1,500 [3] August 30August 30
JapanAll forces on Marcus Island c. 2,542UnknownAugust 31August 31
JapanAll forces on Bangka Island and Billiton Island UnknownUnknownSeptember 1September 1
JapanAll forces in BataanUnknownUnknownSeptember 1September 1
Japan All Japanese forces 2,354,946 Yoshijirō Umezu September 2September 2, at 12:00 AMFormal surrender of all Japanese forces
JapanAll forces on Rota Island 2,665Shigeo IwagawaSeptember 2September 2, at 1:00 AM
JapanAll forces on Pagan c. 2,494 [4] Colonel UmehachiSeptember 2September 2
JapanAll forces in Penang 26,000 [5] [ full citation needed ]Jisaku UozamiSeptember 2September 2
JapanAll forces in Thailand 114,351 [3] Lieutenant Colonel HamadaSeptember 2September 2
JapanForces in the southern Cagayan Valley, in the PhilippinesUnknownColonel MatsuiSeptember 2September 2
JapanAll forces on Truk Atoll 28,000Shunzaburo MugikuraSeptember 3September 3
JapanAll forces in the Palau Islands 44,000Lieutenant General Sadae Inoue September 3September 3
JapanAll forces in the Bonin Islands 23,379 [3] Lieutenant Yoshio Tachibana September 3September 3
JapanAll forces in the Philippines 151,102 [3] Tomoyuki Yamashita September 3, at 12:10 PMSeptember 3
JapanForces in Cebu 2,900 [3] UnknownSeptember 4?September 4?
JapanForces in the Negros Occidental 1,400 [3] UnknownSeptember 4?September 4?
JapanForces on Mindoro 7,000 [3] UnknownSeptember 4?September 4?
JapanAll forces on Wake Island c. 4,139 [4] Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara September 4September 4
JapanAll forces on Aguigan c. 200Second Lieutenant Kinichi YamadaSeptember 4September 4
GermanyGarrison on Bear Island 11Lieutenant Wilhelm DegeSeptember 4September 4see Operation Haudegen for more details
JapanAll forces on Yap Island c. 5,917 [4] Colonel Daihachi Itoh September 5September 5
JapanAll forces in the Kuril Islands 70,136 [3] Tsutsumi FusakiSeptember 5September 5
JapanAll forces on Jaluit Atoll c. 2,311 [4] Captain Nisuke MasudaSeptember 5September 5
JapanAll forces on Ulithi September 5September 5
JapanA small force in the Capisayan District of the PhilippinesMore than 2,300 [3] UnknownSeptember 2September 6
JapanAll forces in the Bismarck Islands, Christmas Island, Wewak, the Solomon Islands and other Australian territories in the South Pacific139,000 (41,384 in the Bismarck Islands (including 47,000 on New Britain), [3] 29.059 in the Solomon Islands, [3] 8,000 on Wewak [3] and 13,557 in other Islands) Hitoshi Imamura (Army), Admiral Jinichi Kusaka (Navy)September 6, at 11:27 AMSeptember 6Unknown number of soldiers in Christmas Island
JapanAll forces in the Ryukyu Islands 62,414 [3] Lieutenant General Nomi Toshiro September 7September 7
JapanAll forces on Kusaie c. 4,511 [4] Lieutenant General Yoshikazu HiradaSeptember 8September 8
JapanThe Japanese Northern FleetSeptember 8September 8
JapanAll forces on Morotai and Halmahera 126,000 Heitarō Kimura September 9September 9
JapanAll forces in China 1,541,973 [3] Yasuji Okamura Morning of September 9September 9
JapanAll forces in Korea south of the 38th parallel 420,796Lieutenant General Yoshio KozukiSeptember 9 (afternoon)September 9
All forces in Korea, north of the 38th parallel 595,418Yoshio KozukiSeptember 9September 9
JapanAll forces in Borneo and the Dutch East Indies east of Lombok 42,459 (in Borneo) [3] Lieutenant General Fusataro Teshima September 8September 9
JapanA Japanese force in China [6] c. 140,000N/ASeptemberSeptemberJoined the Chinese Red Army
JapanAll forces on Wotje Atoll and Maeolap Atollc. 2,162 (1,066 on Wotje, 1,096 on Maeolap) [4] September 10September 10
JapanAll forces in North Borneo10,300Lieutenant General Masao BabaSeptember 10September 10
JapanAll forces in Labuansee forces in Sarawaksee forces in SarawakSeptember 10September 10
JapanAll forces in New Guinea 37,658 [3] Hatazō Adachi September 11September 11
Japan Thirty-Seventh Army, in Sarawak c. 15,000Lieutenant General Masao Baba September 11September 11
JapanAll forces in Timor 3,235Colonel Kaida Tatsuichi September 11September 11
JapanAll forces on Ponape Island c. 7,984 [4] Lieutenant General Masao Watanabe September 11September 11
JapanAll forces in Singapore and the Dutch East Indiesc. 585,000 (76,700 on Singapore, 65,540 on Java, [3] 188,546 in the Malay Pennsula, and 254,214 on the other islands) Hisaichi Terauchi September 12September 12Formal ceremony for the forces in the Malay Peninsula took place on February 22, 1946.
JapanAll forces on Nauru 3,745Captain Hisayuki SoedaSeptember 13September 13
JapanAll forces in Burma 71,733 [3] Hisaichi TerauchiSeptember 13September 13
JapanAll forces in Hong Kong 19,222General Takashi Sakai September 16September 16
JapanAll forces on Lamotrek September 16September 16
JapanAll forces on Namoluk September 17September 17
JapanAll forces on Woleai 1,600September 19September 19
Japan 38th Army in Indochina 106,184 [3] Lieutenant General Yuitsu Tsuchihashi September 28September 28
JapanAll forces in Miyako Island and on Ishigaki Island 32,000 (in the Miyako Islands)September 29September 29
JapanAll forces on Ocean Islandc. 760Lieutenant Nahoomi Suzuki October 1October 1
JapanAll forces on Tobi, Sonsorol, and Merir 1,339 (439 on Tobi, 639 on Sonsoral and 269 on Merir)October 6October 6
JapanAll forces in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands c. 600?October 7October 7
Japan North China Area Army Hiroshi NemotoOctober 10October 10
JapanThird Air FleetNoneOctober 15October 15
JapanAll forces on Puluwat c. 1,253 [4] Tatsuo YasuiOctober 16October 16
JapanAll forces in Sumatra 68,764 [3] Moritake TanabeOctober 21October 21
JapanAll forces in the Nomoi Islands c. 1,010 [4] UnknownOctober 21October 21
JapanAll forces in Taiwan, the Paracel Islands, and the Spratly Islands 488,417 (in Taiwan) [3] Rikichi Andō September 9 (In Taiwan)October 25
JapanMilitary personnel on Lukunor [7] [ full citation needed ]NovemberNovember
Japan Twelfth Air Fleet NoneNovember 30November 30

Table of Japanese holdouts

This table displays a chronology of Japanese holdouts throughout the Pacific. The pink-colored rows show unconfirmed holdouts, while the gray-colored rows show those holdouts who were aware the war was over, but did not surrender.

CountryForces the surrender applies toCommanding officerNumber of troops surrendered (if applicable)Date of surrender (if applicable)Notes
JapanA company of soldiers on Saipan Captain Sakae Ōba 47December 1, 1945
JapanHoldout on Corregidor [6] 1December 1945
JapanArmy personnel in Corregidor 20January 1, 1946
JapanUnit south of Manila48January 25, 1946originally 120, but many were killed
JapanA group of holdouts on Lubang30February 22, 1946
JapanGroup of holdouts on Lubang41April 1946
JapanMajor Sei Igawa in Indochina11946Volunteered as a staff officer with the Viet Minh; killed in a firefight with French troops.
JapanNavy Lieutenant HIdeo Horiuchi in Indonesia1August 13, 1946Volunteered as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Indonesian Army; arrested by Dutch troops.
JapanSoldiers under Ei Yamaguchi in PelelieuLIeutenant Ei Yamaguchi34April 1947
JapanMortar team on Palawan7April 1947
JapanStragglers in Luzon15April 1947
JapanStraggler in Guadalcanal1October 27, 1947
JapanParty of soldiers on Mindanao [6] 200January 1948
JapanSoldiers in Guam2May 12, 1948
JapanHoldouts in the mountains in Manchuria [6] c. 20,0001948
JapanNaval machine gunners Yamakage Kufuku and Matsudo Linsoki on Iwo Jima2January 6, 1949
JapanHoldouts in New Guinea81949
JapanCommander Namataro Nagai on New Guinea [6] 11950
JapanPrivate First Class Yūichi Akatsu in the Philippine village of Looc, Occidental Mindoro 1March 1950Was on Lubang Island with Hiroo Onoda until surrender.
JapanMajor Takuo Ishii in Indochina1May 20, 1950Served with the Viet Minh as an adviser until he was killed by French troops.
JapanA petty officer on Anatahan Island 1June 13, 1951Reported the 18 men on Anatahan.
JapanHoldouts on Anatahan Island18June 27, 1951
JapanCorporal Shōichi Shimada on Lubang Island1May 1954Shimada was with Hiroo Onoda until the former's death in a shootout with Philippine police.
JapanLieutenant Kikuo Tanimoto in Indochina11954Volunteered as a Viet Minh adviser and commander. He returned to Japan after Vietnam's independence.
JapanStragglers in Hollandia [6] 211954
JapanSeaman Noburo Kinoshita in the Luzon jungle1November 1955Hanged himself after being captured.
JapanJapanese airmen Simada Kakuo, Simokubo Kumao, Odjima Mamoru and Jaegasi Sanzo in Hollandia 41955Survivors of a larger group.
JapanSoldiers on Morotai 91956
JapanLieutenant Sigheichi Yamamoto and corporals Unitaro Ishii, Masajii Izumida and Juhie Nakano on Mindoro Lieutenant Sigheichi Yamamoto4November 1956
JapanPrivate Bunzō Minagawa on Guam 1May 1960
JapanSergeant Masashi Itō on Guam1May 23, 1960Mingawa's superior.
JapanA Lieutenant in Okinawa [6] 11963
JapanHoldout on Vella Lavella [6] 11965
JapanHoldout on Okinawa [6] 1Late 1960s-Early 1970sYear unknown
JapanCorporal Shoichi Yokoi on Guam1January 1972Served under Itō
JapanPrivate 1st Class KInshichi Kozuka on Lubang1October 1972Was with Hiroo Onoda until Kozuka died in a shootout with Philippine police.
JapanLIeutenant Hiroo Onoda 1March 1974
Taiwan (Amiss people)Private Teruo Nakamura on Morotai1December 18, 1974
JapanStraggler on Vella Lavella [6] 11978unconfirmed
JapanCaptain Fumio Nakaharu in Mount Halcon in the Philippines1January 1980There were reports of him holding out, but a search party found no evidence aside from some huts.
JapanHoldouts on Vella Lavella 21981/1989No evidence for the holdouts' existence.
JapanShigeyuki Hashimoto and Kiyoaki Tanaka in Thailand2January 1990
JapanPossible holdouts on Kolombangara2 or 31997
JapanA soldier in MindoroSangrayban1January 1997
JapanUnconfirmed holdouts in Mt. Makarakomburi [6] 02001Unlikely

Number of troops surrendered

If one were to add up all of these numbers (including the minimum number of crew members on the U-boats), the number of troops surrendered would be as follows (in order of number of troops and organized by ethnicity/nation);

Country of originApproximate number of
soldiers surrendered
Japanese9,779,248
Germans4,889,905
Italians429,600
Russians70,000
(including 50,000 Cossacks)
Foreign-born Germans (Volksdeutsche)37,000
Croatians33,050
Other foreigners in the SS31,811
Hungarians29,786
Galician Ukrainians25,000
Latvians19,500
Slovenes11,400
Estonians10,000
Dutch6,956
Flemish6,000
Various Soviet Union people5,000
Indians2,000
Montenegrins2,000
Georgians226
French30
Total15,388,513

(NOTE: this table does not account for combat deaths.)

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World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, genocides including the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Battle of Iwo Jima Major battle in which US Forces captured the island of Iwo Jima from Japan during World War II

The Battle of Iwo Jima was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps and Navy landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during World War II. The American invasion, designated Operation Detachment, had the goal of capturing the entire island, including the three Japanese-controlled airfields, to provide a staging area for attacks on the Japanese main islands. This five-week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the Pacific War of World War II.

Japanese Instrument of Surrender Was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of the Empire of Japan

The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of the Empire of Japan, marking the end of hostilities in World War II. It was signed by representatives from the Empire of Japan, the United States of America, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Commonwealth of Australia, the Dominion of Canada, the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the Dominion of New Zealand. The signing took place on the deck of USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945.

Pacific War Theater of World War II fought in the Pacific and Asia

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was geographically the largest theater of the war, including the vast Pacific Ocean theater, the South West Pacific theater, the South-East Asian theater, the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Soviet–Japanese War.

End of World War II in Europe Final battles as well as the German surrender to the Allies

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.

Victory over Japan Day Effective end of World War II

Victory over Japan Day is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect bringing the war to an end. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made – to the afternoon of August 15, 1945, in Japan, and because of time zone differences, to August 14, 1945 – as well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.

Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation or simply the Manchurian Operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo, Mengjiang and northern Korea. The Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms.

Battle of Saipan battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands

The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June to 9 July 1944. The Allied invasion fleet embarking the expeditionary forces left Pearl Harbor on 5 June 1944, the day before Operation Overlord in Europe was launched. The U.S. 2nd Marine Division, 4th Marine Division, and the Army's 27th Infantry Division, commanded by Lieutenant General Holland Smith, defeated the 43rd Infantry Division of the Imperial Japanese Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Yoshitsugu Saito. The loss of Saipan, with the deaths of at least 29,000 troops and heavy civilian casualties, precipitated the resignation of Prime Minister of Japan Hideki Tōjō and left the Japanese archipelago within the range of United States Army Air Forces B-29 bombers.

Battle of Tinian battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II on the island of Tinian in the Mariana Islands

The Battle of Tinian was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Tinian in the Mariana Islands from 24 July until 1 August 1944. The 8,000-man Japanese garrison was eliminated, and the island joined Saipan and Guam as a base for the Twentieth Air Force.

The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 2 September 1945, when armed forces of the Empire of Japan surrendered to the forces of the Allies. The surrender came almost four months after the surrender of the Axis forces in Europe and brought an end to World War II.

Japanese holdouts were soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during the Pacific Theatre of World War II who continued fighting after the surrender of Japan in August 1945. Japanese holdouts either doubted the veracity of the formal surrender, rejected demobilization for ideological reasons, or were simply not aware because communications had been cut off by Allied advances.

Battle of Luzon major battle in the Philippines Campaign (1944–1945) against Empire of Japan

The Battle of Luzon, was a land battle of the Pacific Theater of Operations of World War II by the Allied forces of the U.S., its colony the Philippines, and allies against forces of the Empire of Japan. The battle resulted in a U.S. and Filipino victory. The Allies had taken control of all strategically and economically important locations of Luzon by March 1945, although pockets of Japanese resistance held out in the mountains until the unconditional surrender of Japan. While not the highest in U.S. casualties, it is the highest net casualty battle U.S. forces fought in World War II, with 192,000 to 205,000 Japanese combatants dead, 8,000 American combatants killed, and over 150,000 Filipinos, overwhelmingly civilians who were murdered by Japanese forces, mainly during the Manila massacre of February, 1945.

Surrender of Japan Surrender of the Empire of Japan at the end of World War II

The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced by Japanese Emperor Hirohito on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the British Empire and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders were privately making entreaties to the publicly neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. While maintaining a sufficient level of diplomatic engagement with the Japanese to give them the impression they might be willing to mediate, the Soviets were covertly preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.

Anatahan island in the Northern Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean

Anatahan is an island in the Northern Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean, and has one of the most active volcanoes of the archipelago. Formerly inhabited, the island currently does not have any population due to the always-present danger of volcanic eruptions. Anatahan is located 60 kilometers (32 nmi) northwest of Farallon de Medinilla and 120 km (65 nmi) north of Saipan.

Allied war crimes include both alleged and legally proven violations of the laws of war by the Allies of World War II against either civilians or military personnel of the Axis powers.

Philippines campaign (1944–1945) campaign which started on October 20, 1944 during WWII

The Philippines campaign, Operation Musketeer, Battle of the Philippines or the Liberation of the Philippines, , was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines during World War II. The Japanese Army overran all of the Philippines during the first half of 1942. The liberation of the Philippines commenced with amphibious landings on the eastern Philippine island of Leyte on October 20, 1944. United States and Philippine Commonwealth military forces were progressing in liberating territory and islands when the Japanese forces in the Philippines were ordered to surrender by Tokyo on August 15, 1945, after the dropping of the atomic bombs on mainland Japan and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.

The Aftermath of World War II was the beginning of a new era, defined by the decline of all European colonial empires and simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (USA). Allies during World War II, the US and the USSR became competitors on the world stage and engaged in the Cold War, so called because it never resulted in overt, declared hot war between the two powers but was instead characterized by espionage, political subversion and proxy wars. Western Europe and Japan were rebuilt through the American Marshall Plan whereas Central and Eastern Europe fell under the Soviet sphere of influence and eventually behind an "Iron Curtain". Europe was divided into a US-led Western Bloc and a Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. Internationally, alliances with the two blocs gradually shifted, with some nations trying to stay out of the Cold War through the Non-Aligned Movement. The War also saw a nuclear arms race between the two superpowers; part of the reason that the Cold War never became a "hot" war was that the Soviet Union and the United States had nuclear deterrents against each other, leading to a mutually assured destruction standoff.

Operation Magic Carpet repatriation of American military service members after World War II

Operation Magic Carpet was the post-World War II operation by the War Shipping Administration to repatriate over eight million American military personnel from the European, Pacific, and Asian theaters. Hundreds of Liberty ships, Victory ships, and troop transports began repatriating soldiers from Europe in June 1945. Beginning in October 1945, over 370 navy ships were used for repatriation duties in the Pacific. Warships, such as aircraft carriers, battleships, hospital ships, and large numbers of assault transports were used. The European phase of Operation Magic Carpet concluded in February 1946 while the Pacific phase continued until September 1946.

Japanese prisoners of war in World War II

During World War II, it has been estimated that between 19,500 and 50,000 members of the Imperial Japanese military surrendered to Western Allied combatants prior to the end of the Pacific War in August 1945. Soviet troops seized and imprisoned more than half a million Japanese troops and civilians in China and other places. The number of Japanese soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen who surrendered was limited by the Japanese military indoctrinating its personnel to fight to the death, Allied combat personnel often being unwilling to take prisoners, and many Japanese soldiers believing that those who surrendered would be killed by their captors.

References

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  2. Whiting, Charles (1973). The end of the war; Europe: April 15-May 23, 1945. New York: Stein and Day. p. 168. ISBN   0-8128-1605-6. OCLC   810423.
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  7. The Typhoon of War: Micronesian Experiences in the Pacific War.