| IUPAC name |
|Other names |
Tocofersolan; Vitamin E PEG succinate; α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS); Liqui-E
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|A11HA08 ( WHO )|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
|Other names||Tocophersolan (USAN US)|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||UK Drug Information|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
Tocofersolan (INN) or tocophersolan, also referred to as TPGS (for tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate), is a synthetic water-soluble version of vitamin E. Natural forms of vitamin E are fat soluble, but not water-soluble. Tocofersolan is polyethylene glycol derivative of α-tocopherol that enables water solubility.
Tocofersolan is used as a vitamin E supplement or to treat vitamin E deficiency in individuals who cannot absorb fats due to disease. mg/ml oral solution for the treatment of vitamin E deficiency due to digestive malabsorption in paediatric patients suffering from congenital or hereditary chronic cholestasis, from birth (in term newborns) to 16 or 18 years of age (depending on the region).On 24 July 2009 the European Medicines Agency approved tocofersolan under the trade name Vedrop 50
Tocofersolan is also used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals as an antioxidant.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and sold as a dietary supplement. It is essential to the formation of two major coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. These coenzymes are involved in energy metabolism, cellular respiration, and antibody production, as well as normal growth and development. The coenzymes are also required for the metabolism of niacin, vitamin B6, and folate. Riboflavin is prescribed to treat corneal thinning, and taken orally, may reduce the incidence of migraine headaches in adults.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.e. vitamers) that is an essential micronutrient which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. Most vitamins are not single molecules, but groups of related molecules called vitamers. For example, there are eight vitamers of vitamin E: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Some sources list fourteen vitamins, by including choline, but major health organizations list thirteen: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones).
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, meat, poultry, red fish such as tuna and salmon, lesser amounts in nuts, legumes and seeds. Niacin as a dietary supplement is used to treat pellagra, a disease caused by niacin deficiency. Signs and symptoms of pellagra include skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. Many countries mandate its addition to wheat flour or other food grains, thereby reducing the risk of pellagra.
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient. All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to, in general, synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
Vitamin E is a group of eight fat soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Vitamin E deficiency, which is rare and usually due to an underlying problem with digesting dietary fat rather than from a diet low in vitamin E, can cause nerve problems. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant which may help protect cell membranes from reactive oxygen species.
Tocopherols are a class of organic chemical compounds, many of which have vitamin E activity. Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was named tocopherol, from Greek τόκοςtókos 'birth' and φέρεινphérein 'to bear or carry', that is 'to carry a pregnancy', with the ending -ol signifying its status as a chemical alcohol.
Abetalipoproteinemia is a disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food. It is caused by a mutation in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein resulting in deficiencies in the apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100, which are used in the synthesis and exportation of chylomicrons and VLDL respectively. It is not to be confused with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia.
Vitamin deficiency is the condition of a long-term lack of a vitamin. When caused by not enough vitamin intake it is classified as a primary deficiency, whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency. An underlying disorder may be metabolic – as in a genetic defect for converting tryptophan to niacin – or from lifestyle choices that increase vitamin needs, such as smoking or drinking alcohol. Government guidelines on vitamin deficiencies advise certain intakes for healthy people, with specific values for women, men, babies, the elderly, and during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Many countries have mandated vitamin food fortification programs to prevent commonly occurring vitamin deficiencies.
Choline is an essential nutrient for humans and many other animals. Choline occurs as a cation that forms various salts. To maintain health, it must be obtained from the diet as choline or as choline phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine. Humans, as well as most other animal species, do make choline de novo, however production is generally insufficient. Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid–like metabolism. In most animals, choline phospholipids are necessary components in cell membranes, in the membranes of cell organelles, and in very low-density lipoproteins. Choline is required to produce acetylcholine – a neurotransmitter – and S-adenosylmethionine, a universal methyl donor involved in the synthesis of homocysteine.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements. They are used to treat and prevent constipation.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a viscous, colorless liquid, which is nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. Its chemical formula is CH3CH(OH)CH2OH. Containing two alcohol groups, it is classed as a diol. It is miscible with a broad range of solvents, including water, acetone, and chloroform. In general, glycols are non-irritating and have very low volatility.
Vitamin E deficiency in humans is a very rare condition, occurring as a consequence of abnormalities in dietary fat absorption or metabolism rather than from a diet low in vitamin E. Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs for vitamin E and other essential nutrients are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Vitamin E deficiency can cause nerve problems due to poor conduction of electrical impulses along nerves due to changes in nerve membrane structure and function.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients to food. It can be carried out by food manufacturers, or by governments as a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population. The predominant diet within a region can lack particular nutrients due to the local soil or from inherent deficiencies within the staple foods; the addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases.
Hydroxocobalamin, also known as vitamin B12a and hydroxycobalamin, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency including pernicious anemia. Other uses include treatment for cyanide poisoning, Leber's optic atrophy, and toxic amblyopia. It is given by injection into a muscle or vein.
Macrogol, also known as polyethylene glycol (PEG), is used as a medication to treat constipation in children and adults. It is also used to empty the bowels before a colonoscopy. It is taken by mouth. Benefits usually occur within three days. Generally it is only recommended for up to two weeks.
Ioflupane (123I) is the international nonproprietary name (INN) of a cocaine analogue which is a neuro-imaging radiopharmaceutical drug, used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease over other disorders presenting similar symptoms. During the DaT scan procedure it is injected into a patient and viewed with a gamma camera in order to acquire SPECT images of the brain with particular respect to the striatum, a subcortical region of the basal ganglia. The drug is sold under the brand name Datscan and is manufactured by GE Healthcare, formerly Amersham plc.
Metreleptin, sold under the brand name Myalept among others, is a synthetic analog of the hormone leptin used to treat various forms of dyslipidemia. It has been approved in Japan for metabolic disorders including lipodystrophy and in the United States as replacement therapy to treat the complications of leptin deficiency, in addition to diet, in patients with congenital generalized or acquired generalized lipodystrophy.
Semaglutide, sold under the brand name Ozempic among others, is an antidiabetic medication used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and long-term weight management.
4-Amino-2-methyl-1-naphthol is a menadione analog. Its hydrochloride (HCl) salt is often called vitamin K5. The HCl salt has been used as a medicine for vitamin K deficiency under tradenames such as Synkamin, which was sold by Parke-Davis, but has since been discontinued.
Bimatoprost/timolol, sold as eye drops under the brand name Ganfort, is a medication for the treatment of certain conditions involving high pressure in the eyes, specifically open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It is available in a flask and in single-dose vials.