Trisomy 9

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Trisomy 9
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Chromosome 9
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Full trisomy 9 is a lethal chromosomal disorder caused by having three copies (trisomy) of chromosome number 9. It can be a viable condition if trisomy affects only part of the cells of the body (mosaicism) or in cases of partial trisomy (trisomy 9p) in which cells have a normal set of two entire chromosomes 9 plus part of a third copy, usually of the short arm of the chromosome (arm p).

Contents

Presentation

Symptoms vary, but usually result in dysmorphisms in the skull, nervous system problems, and developmental delay. Dysmorphisms in the heart, kidneys, and musculoskeletal system may also occur. An infant with complete trisomy 9 surviving 20 days after birth showed clinical features including a small face, wide fontanelle, prominent occiput, micrognathia, low set ears, upslanting palpebral fissures, high-arched palate, short sternum, overlapping fingers, limited hip abduction, rocker bottom feet, heart murmurs and a webbed neck. [1]

Trisomy 9p is one of the most frequent autosomal anomalies compatible with long survival rate. A study of five cases showed an association with Coffin–Siris syndrome, as well as a wide gap between the first and second toes in all five, while three had brain malformations including dilated ventricles with hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and Dandy-Walker malformation. [2]

Diagnosis

Trisomy 9 can be detected prenatally with chorionic villus sampling and cordocentesis, and can be suggested by obstetric ultrasonography.[ citation needed ]

Because trisomy 9 may appear with mosaicism, it is suggested that doctors take samples from multiple tissues when karyotyping for diagnosis. [3]

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Ring chromosome 20 syndrome Medical condition

Ring chromosome 20, ring-shaped chromosome 20 or r(20) syndrome is a rare human chromosome abnormality where the two arms of chromosome 20 fuse to form a ring chromosome. The syndrome is associated with epileptic seizures, behaviour disorders and mental retardation.

Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) represents a discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta and the cells in the fetus. CPM was first described by Kalousek and Dill in 1983. CPM is diagnosed when some trisomic cells are detected on chorionic villus sampling and only normal cells are found on a subsequent prenatal test, such as amniocentesis or fetal blood sampling. In theory, CPM is when the trisomic cells are found only in the placenta. CPM is detected in approximately 1-2% of ongoing pregnancies that are studied by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 10 to 12 weeks of pregnancy. Chorionic villus sampling is a prenatal procedure which involves a placental biopsy. Most commonly when CPM is found it represents a trisomic cell line in the placenta and a normal diploid chromosome complement in the baby. However, the fetus is involved in about 10% of cases.

3C syndrome is a rare condition whose symptoms include heart defects, cerebellar hypoplasia, and cranial dysmorphism. It was first described in the medical literature in 1987 by Ritscher and Schinzel, for whom the disorder is sometimes named.

Cat eye syndrome Medical condition

Cat eye syndrome (CES) or Schmid–Fraccaro syndrome is a rare condition caused by an abnormal extra chromosome, i.e. a small supernumerary marker chromosome. This chromosome consists of the entire short arm and a small section of the long arm of chromosome 22. In consequence, individuals with the cat eye syndrome have three (trisomic) or four (tetrasomic) copies of the genetic material contained in the abnormal chromosome instead of the normal two copies. The prognosis for patients with CES varies depending on the severity of the condition and their associated signs and symptoms, specially when heart or kidney abnormalities are seen.

Trisomy 22 Medical condition

Trisomy 22 is a chromosomal disorder in which three copies of chromosome 22 are present rather than two. It is a frequent cause of spontaneous abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. Progression to the second trimester and live birth are rare. This disorder is found in individuals with an extra copy or a variation of chromosome 22 in some or all cells of their bodies.

Trisomy 16 Partial or complete triplication of chromosome 16

Trisomy 16 is a chromosomal abnormality in which there are 3 copies of chromosome 16 rather than two. It is the most common trisomy leading to miscarriage and the second most common chromosomal cause of it, closely following X-chromosome monosomy. About 6% of miscarriages have trisomy 16. Those mostly occur between 8 and 15 weeks after the last menstrual period.

Tetrasomy 9p Presence of four copies of the short arm of chromosome 9

Tetrasomy 9p is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by the presence of two extra copies of the short arm of chromosome 9, in addition to the usual two. Symptoms of tetrasomy 9p vary widely among affected individuals but typically include varying degrees of delayed growth, abnormal facial features and intellectual disability. Symptoms of the disorder are comparable to those of trisomy 9p.

Tetrasomy X Chromosomal disorder with 4 X chromosomes

Tetrasomy X, also known as 48,XXXX, is a chromosomal disorder in which a female has four, rather than two, copies of the X chromosome. It is associated with intellectual disability of varying severity, characteristic "coarse" facial features, heart defects, and skeletal anomalies such as increased height, clinodactyly, and radioulnar synostosis. Tetrasomy X is a rare condition, with few medically recognized cases; it is estimated to occur in approximately 1 in 50,000 females.

Pentasomy X Chromosomal disorder

Pentasomy X, also known as 49,XXXXX, is a chromosomal disorder in which a female has five, rather than two, copies of the X chromosome. Pentasomy X is associated with short stature, intellectual disability, characteristic facial features, heart defects, skeletal anomalies, and pubertal and reproductive abnormalities. The condition is exceptionally rare, with an estimated prevalence between 1 in 85,000 and 1 in 250,000.

Trisomy X Chromosome disorder in women

Trisomy X, also known as triple X syndrome and characterized by the karyotype 47,XXX, is a chromosome disorder in which a female has an extra copy of the X chromosome. It is relatively common and occurs in 1 in 1,000 women but it is rarely diagnosed; fewer than 10% of those with the condition know they have it.

References

  1. Kannan, T. P.; Hemlatha, S.; Ankathil, R.; Zilfalil, B. A. (2009). "Clinical manifestations in trisomy 9". The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 76 (7): 745–6. doi:10.1007/s12098-009-0158-2. PMID   19475342. S2CID   207385217.
  2. Temtamy, SA; Kamel, AK; Ismail, S; Helmy, NA; Aglan, MS; El Gammal, M; El Ruby, M; Mohamed, AM (2007). "Phenotypic and cytogenetic spectrum of 9p trisomy". Genetic Counseling. 18 (1): 29–48. PMID   17515299.
  3. Stipoljev, F.; Kos, M.; Kos, M.; Miskovi, B.; Matijevic, R.; Hafner, T.; Kurjak, A. (2003). "Antenatal detection of mosaic trisomy 9 by ultrasound: A case report and literature review". The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine . 14 (1): 65–9. doi:10.1080/jmf.14.1.65.69. PMID   14563095. S2CID   24028391.
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