Trisomy 9

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Trisomy 9
Chromosome 9.svg
Chromosome 9
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Full trisomy 9 is a lethal chromosomal disorder caused by having three copies (trisomy) of chromosome number 9. It can be a viable condition if trisomy affects only part of the cells of the body (mosaicism) or in cases of partial trisomy (trisomy 9p) in which cells have a normal set of two entire chromosomes 9 plus part of a third copy, usually of the short arm of the chromosome (arm p).



Symptoms vary, but usually result in dysmorphisms in the skull, nervous system problems, and developmental delay. Dysmorphisms in the heart, kidneys, and musculoskeletal system may also occur. An infant with complete trisomy 9 surviving 20 days after birth showed clinical features including a small face, wide fontanelle, prominent occiput, micrognathia, low set ears, upslanting palpebral fissures, high-arched palate, short sternum, overlapping fingers, limited hip abduction, rocker bottom feet, heart murmurs and a webbed neck. [1]

Trisomy 9p is one of the most frequent autosomal anomalies compatible with long survival rate. A study of five cases showed an association with Coffin–Siris syndrome, as well as a wide gap between the first and second toes in all five, while three had brain malformations including dilated ventricles with hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and Dandy-Walker malformation. [2]


Trisomy 9 can be detected prenatally with chorionic villus sampling and cordocentesis, and can be suggested by obstetric ultrasonography.[ citation needed ]

Because trisomy 9 may appear with mosaicism, it is suggested that doctors take samples from multiple tissues when karyotyping for diagnosis. [3]

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Trisomy 22 Medical condition

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Tetrasomy 9p Presence of four copies of the short arm of chromosome 9

Tetrasomy 9p is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by the presence of two extra copies of the short arm of chromosome 9, in addition to the usual two. Symptoms of tetrasomy 9p vary widely among affected individuals but typically include varying degrees of delayed growth, abnormal facial features and intellectual disability. Symptoms of the disorder are comparable to those of trisomy 9p.

Tetrasomy X Chromosomal disorder with 4 X chromosomes

Tetrasomy X, also known as 48,XXXX, is a chromosomal disorder in which a female has four, rather than two, copies of the X chromosome. It is associated with intellectual disability of varying severity, characteristic "coarse" facial features, heart defects, and skeletal anomalies such as increased height, clinodactyly, and radioulnar synostosis. Tetrasomy X is a rare condition, with few medically recognized cases; it is estimated to occur in approximately 1 in 50,000 females.

Pentasomy X Chromosomal disorder

Pentasomy X, also known as 49,XXXXX, is a chromosomal disorder in which a female has five, rather than two, copies of the X chromosome. Pentasomy X is associated with short stature, intellectual disability, characteristic facial features, heart defects, skeletal anomalies, and pubertal and reproductive abnormalities. The condition is exceptionally rare, with an estimated prevalence between 1 in 85,000 and 1 in 250,000.

Trisomy X Chromosome disorder in women

Trisomy X, also known as triple X syndrome and characterized by the karyotype 47,XXX, is a chromosome disorder in which a female has an extra copy of the X chromosome. It is relatively common and occurs in 1 in 1,000 women but it is rarely diagnosed; fewer than 10% of those with the condition know they have it.


  1. Kannan, T. P.; Hemlatha, S.; Ankathil, R.; Zilfalil, B. A. (2009). "Clinical manifestations in trisomy 9". The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 76 (7): 745–6. doi:10.1007/s12098-009-0158-2. PMID   19475342. S2CID   207385217.
  2. Temtamy, SA; Kamel, AK; Ismail, S; Helmy, NA; Aglan, MS; El Gammal, M; El Ruby, M; Mohamed, AM (2007). "Phenotypic and cytogenetic spectrum of 9p trisomy". Genetic Counseling. 18 (1): 29–48. PMID   17515299.
  3. Stipoljev, F.; Kos, M.; Kos, M.; Miskovi, B.; Matijevic, R.; Hafner, T.; Kurjak, A. (2003). "Antenatal detection of mosaic trisomy 9 by ultrasound: A case report and literature review". The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine . 14 (1): 65–9. doi:10.1080/jmf. PMID   14563095. S2CID   24028391.