|Formation||November 10, 1981|
|Founded at||Ottumwa, Iowa, U.S.|
|Purpose||Video Game Scorekeeping|
|Headquarters||Banning, California, U.S.|
|Jace Hall (Caretaker and Custodian)|
|Affiliations||Guinness World Records|
Twin Galaxies is an American organization that tracks video game world records and conducts a program of electronic-gaming promotions. It operates the Twin Galaxies website and publishes the Twin Galaxies' Official Video Game & Pinball Book of World Records, with the Arcade Volume released on June 2, 2007. The Guinness World Records - Gamers Edition 2008 was released in March, 2008 in conjunction with Twin Galaxies, who Guinness World Records considers to be the official supplier of verified world records to the annual volume.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an increasingly important part of the entertainment industry, and whether they are also a form of art is a matter of dispute.
A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill or sport. The book Guinness World Records collates and publishes notable records of all types, from first and best to worst human achievements, to extremes in the natural world and beyond.
In mid-1981, Walter Day, founder of Twin Galaxies Incorporated, visited more than 100 video game arcades over four months, recording the high scores that he found on each game. On November 10, he opened his own arcade in Ottumwa, Iowa, naming it Twin Galaxies. On February 9, 1982, his database of records was released publicly as the Twin Galaxies National Scoreboard.[ citation needed ]
Walter Aldro Day, Jr. is an American businessman, historian, and the founder of Twin Galaxies, an American organization that tracks video game world records and conducts a program of electronic-gaming promotions. Day is an authority on video game scorekeeping records, who in 2010 retired from the industry to pursue a career in music.
An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers. While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost.
Ottumwa is a city in and the county seat of Wapello County, Iowa, United States. The population was 25,023 at the 2010 U.S. Census. Located in the state's southeastern part, the city is split into northern and southern halves by the Des Moines River.
Twin Galaxies became known as the official scoreboard, arranging contests between top players. Twin Galaxies' first event attracted international media attention for gathering the first teams of video-game stars. Top players in North Carolina and California were formed into state teams that faced off in a "California Challenges North Carolina All-Star Playoff", playing on 17 different games in Lakewood, California, and Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. California defeated North Carolina 10–7 over the weekend of August 27–30, 1982.
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U.S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties. The capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
Lakewood is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 80,048 at the 2010 census. It is bordered by Long Beach on the west and south, Bellflower on the north, Cerritos on the northeast, Cypress on the east, and Hawaiian Gardens on the southeast. Major thoroughfares include Lakewood, Bellflower, and Del Amo Boulevards and Carson and South Streets. The San Gabriel River Freeway (I-605) runs through the city's eastern regions.
Similar competitions were also conducted during the summers of 1983 and 1984 when Day organized the players in many U.S. states to form teams and compete in high score contests for the Guinness Book of World Records . The states included California, North Carolina, Washington, Illinois, Nebraska, Ohio, Michigan, Idaho, Florida, New York, Oklahoma, Alaska, Iowa and Kansas.[ citation needed ]
On November 30, 1982, Ottumwa mayor Jerry Parker declared the town "Video Game Capital of the World", a claim that was backed up by Iowa Governor Terry Branstad, Atari and the Amusement Game Manufacturers Association in a ceremony at Twin Galaxies on March 19, 1983.
Terry Edward Branstad is an American politician, university administrator, and diplomat serving as the United States Ambassador to China since 2017. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as Governor of Iowa. Branstad also previously served three terms in the Iowa House of Representatives from 1973 to 1979.
Atari SA is a French corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive, a subsidiary of the French publisher Atari, SA. The original Atari, Inc., founded in Sunnyvale, California in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was a pioneer in arcade games, home video game consoles, and home computers. The company's products, such as Pong and the Atari 2600, helped define the electronic entertainment industry from the 1970s to the mid-1980s.
Twin Galaxies' status as the official scorekeeper was further enhanced by support from the major video game publications of the early 1980s. Beginning in the summer of 1982, Video Games magazine and Joystik magazine published full-page high-score charts taken from Twin Galaxies' data. These high-score tables were published during the entire lives of these magazines. Additional high-score charts also appeared in Videogiochi (Milan, Italy), Computer Games, Video Game Player magazine and Electronic Fun magazine. Twin Galaxies' high-score charts also appeared in USA Today (April 22, 1983), Games magazine and was distributed sporadically in 1982 and 1983 by the Knight-Ridder news service as an occasional news feature, originating from the Charlotte Observer .
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan area has a population of 3,244,365. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres. The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age.
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern and Western Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a generally centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia. It is printed at 37 sites across the United States and at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local, regional, and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, and inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features.
Twin Galaxies brought top players together on November 7, 1982, to be photographed by Life magazine. This photo session is the subject of a recent documentary film, Chasing Ghosts: Beyond the Arcade , which was screened at the 2007 Sundance Film Festival. On January 8–9, 1983, Twin Galaxies organized the first significant video-game championship, to crown a world champion. This event was filmed in Ottumwa by ABC-TV's That's Incredible! and was aired on the night of February 21, 1983.
In March 1983, Twin Galaxies was contracted by the Electronic Circus to assemble a professional troupe of video game superstars who would travel with the Circus as an "act." With Walter Day hired as the "Circus Ringmaster", Twin Galaxies supplied a squad of 15 world-record holders on Twin Galaxies' high-score tables. Though the Circus was scheduled to visit 40 cities in North America, its Boston inaugural performance, opening in the Bayside Exposition Ctr. on July 15, 1983, lasted only five days, closing on July 19. The players selected by Twin Galaxies for the Circus are believed to be history's first professionally contracted video game players.
On July 25, 1983, Twin Galaxies established the professional U.S. National Video Game Team, the first such, with Walter Day as team captain. The USNVGT toured the United States during the summer of 1983 in a 44-foot GMC bus filled with arcade games, appearing at arcades around the nation and conducting the 1983 Video Game Masters Tournament, the results of which were published in the 1984 U.S. edition of Guinness World Records . Under the direction of Day, functioning as an assistant editor for the Guinness Book in charge of video-game scores, the USNVGT gathered annual contest results that were published in the 1984—1986 U.S. editions. In September 1983, the USNVGT visited the Italian and Japanese Embassies in Washington D.C. to issue challenges for an international video game championship. In 1987, the USNVGT toured Europe where it defeated a team of UK video game superstars. Every month between 1991 and 1994, the U.S. publication Electronic Gaming Monthly (EGM), published a full-page high-score table titled "The U.S. National Video Game Team's International Scoreboard".
In 1988 the Guinness Book of World records stopped publishing records from Twin Galaxies due to a decline in interest for arcade games.
On February 8, 1998, Twin Galaxies' Official Video Game & Pinball Book of World Records was published. It is a 984-page book containing scores compiled since 1981. A second edition was published as a three-volume set in 2007. A third edition was published in 2009.
Founder Walter Day left Twin Galaxies in 2010 to pursue a career in music,and since then ownership of Twin Galaxies has changed hands several times. In 2013 Twin Galaxies began charging a fee for score submissions.
In March 2014, Jace Hall announced himself as the new owner of Twin Galaxies.On April 28, 2014, the full Twin Galaxies website, including the high score database and forum content, came back online.
The U.S. National Video Game Team was founded on July 25, 1983 in Ottumwa, Iowa by Walter Day and the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard.[ citation needed ]
Twin Galaxies organized the first Video Game Film Festival on June 2, 2001, at the Funspot Family Fun Center in Weirs Beach, New Hampshire as a vehicle to document the cultural impact that video games have exerted on today's society. A second festival is planned but no date has been set.
Twin Galaxies conducted the first Console Video Game World Championship during Twin Galaxies' 1st Annual Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festival at the Mall of America, Bloomington, Minnesota, on the weekend of July 20–22, 2001. This event is also known as the Console Game World Championship and had originally been planned for March 24–25, 2001 at the Sheraton Dallas Brookhollow Hotel in Dallas, Texas, but was moved forward to the Mall of America event.
The second Console Video Game World Championship was held the weekend of July 12–14, 2002, at the 2nd Annual Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festival at the Mall of America.
Twin Galaxies conducted the first "Classic Video Game World Championship" on June 2–4, 2001 at the Funspot Family Fun Center in Weirs Beach, New Hampshire. The winner of this renewed video game contest was Dwayne Richard with Donald Hayes coming in second place. This event was descended from the Coronation Day Championships that were conducted by Twin Galaxies in 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986 and 2000. The 2nd "Classic Video Game World Championship" was conducted on the weekend of June 30–July 2, 2002. The winner was Dwayne Richard with Donald Hayes again coming in second place. This was the last year the contest was in this format. The following years had the Funspot location organizing and running the contest in a more informal arcade "Player of the Year," format.
In July 2001 and 2002, Twin Galaxies conducted the annual Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festivals at the Mall of America, attracting approximately 50,000–75,000 attendees each year.
On August 15, 2005, Walter Day and the staff of Twin Galaxies led a contingent of USA and UK video game players to Paris, France, where they delivered an eight-foot (2.4 meter) tall Proclamation which proposed a "London vs. Paris" Video Game Championship.
On September 24, 2005, The U.S. National Video Game Team revived and formed a New England Chapter with Walter Day as the national team captain and David Nelson of Derry, New Hampshire, as the chapter captain.
In the first week of July, 1985, Twin Galaxies conducted the 1st Twin Galaxies Iron Man Contest. The goal of the Iron Man competition was simple: competitors had to continue playing their game for as long as they could. If anyone passed 100 hours, they would be awarded a $10,000 prize from the Sports Achievement Association.
The winner of the contest was 18-year-old James Vollandt, who carried his Joust game for 67½ hours. The game malfunctioned at around 58 hours, wiping out all of his 210 extra lives. However, he earned back forty of them. He left the game voluntarily with a record-breaking score of 107,216,700 points, a record that stood until 2010, when John McAllister broke the record over live streaming video on justin.tv.
In 2007, a film about Twin Galaxies and video game champions in the 1980s, Chasing Ghosts: Beyond the Arcade , was screened at the Sundance Film Festival.
The King of Kong: A Fistful of Quarters , a feature documentary about retro arcade gamers, featuring Twin Galaxies, was released in theaters on August 24, 2007. The documentary was in large measure critical of Twin Galaxies' handling of challenges to long-established top scores, suggesting that its organizational structure is rife with conflicts of interest.
Frag , a feature documentary about modern professional gamers, was released on DVD on August 1, 2008 by Cohesion Productionsof Cedar Falls, Iowa. The first ten minutes of the documentary recapped Twin Galaxies' role as the pioneers of organized video game playing back in the early 1980s.
Man vs Snake: The Long and Twisted Tale of Nibbler , a feature documentary about the video game Nibbler, was released worldwide in 2016. The film includes Twin Galaxies history and the competition for high scores. Walter Day is featured throughout the film.
Since August 1, 1982, Twin Galaxies has been producing unique, colorful posters to document gaming events. [ citation needed ]Though the first dozen posters issued in the early 1980s enjoyed printing runs of 500 – 1,000 copies each, the posters created in later years have been issued as limited editions with only 20-24 copies produced of each one.
|April 3–4, 1982||National Defender Championship||33 Arcades across America||Nationwide|
|August 27–30, 1982||California Challenges North Carolina||Light Years Amusement/Phil's Family Fun Ctr.||Wrightsville Beach, NC/Lakewood, CA|
|January 8–9, 1983||North America Video Game Olympics||Twin Galaxies/"ABC-TV's "That's Incredible"||Ottumwa, IA|
|August 24–28, 1983||1983 North American Video Game Challenge||8 Cities Across America||Lake Odessa, MI/Omaha, NE/Chicago, IL/San Jose, CA/Seattle, WA|
|January 14, 1984||1984 Coronation Day Championship||Twin Galaxies||Ottumwa, IA|
|January 12–13, 1985||1985 Coronation Day Championship||Captain Video||Los Angeles, CA|
|April 19–20, 1997||1997 Video Game & Pinball Masters Tournament||12 Cities||Fairfield, IA/Wilmington, NC/Edmonton, AB, Canada/Voorhees, NJ/St. Louis, MO/Kansas City, MO|
|June 27, 1998||Crowning the Superstars of Mobile, Alabama||Cyberstation Arcade, Springdale Mall||Mobile, AL|
|August 22, 1998||Crowning the Videogame Superstars of Tulsa, Oklahoma||Funhouse||Tulsa, OK|
|August 29, 1998||Crowning the Videogame Superstars of St. Louis, MO||Exhilirama Arcade||St. Louis, MO|
|August 29, 1998||Crowning the Videogame Superstars of Hattiesburg, Mississippi||Cyberstation Arcade||Hattiesburg, MS|
|January 30–31, 1999||Chicagoland Arcade Championship||Friar Tuck's Arcade||Calumet City, IL|
|July 10, 1999||National Family Fun Day||28 States Across America||Nationwide|
|July 29–30, 2000||Classic Gaming Expo 2000||Plaza Hotel, Las Vegas, NV||Las Vegas, NV|
|September 25 - October 20, 2000||Unreal Tournament Championship||Online Competition||International|
|Nov. 20 - Dec. 20, 2000||Official Tony Hawk Pro 2 World Championship||Home-Based Submissions||International|
|January 1 - March 7, 2001||Space Empires IV World Championship||Online Submissions||International|
|May 3 - July 2, 2001||Crazy Taxi World Championship||Home-Based Submissions||International|
|July 20–22, 2001||1st Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festival||Mall of America||Bloomington, MN|
|May 18, 2002||Save the Pak Mann Arcade||Pak Mann Arcade||Pasadena, CA|
|May 30 - June 2, 2002||2nd Classic Video Game World Championship||Funspot Family Fun Center||Weirs Beach, NH|
|July 12–14, 2002||2nd Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festival||Mall of America||Bloomington, MN|
|November 12–19, 2005||November Hi-Score Jamboree at Funspot||Funspot Family Fun Center||Weirs Beach, NH|
|December 2–4, 2005||Legends of the Golden Age||Totally Amused||Humble, TX|
|April 6–9, 2006||Toughest Gun in the Dodge City||Apollo Amusements||Pompano Beach, FL|
|April 28–30, 2006||2006 Video Game & Pinball Masters Tournament||Pinball Hall of Fame||Las Vegas, NV|
|September 16, 2006||Grand Rapids Nintendo DS Championship||Ultimate LAN Experience||Grand Rapids, MI|
|November 10–18, 2007||5 November Hi-Score Jamboree at Funspot||Funspot Family Fun Center||Weirs Beach, NH|
|March 5, 2008||Steve Wiebe Attempts Donkey Kong World Record||MIX08 Event||Las Vegas, NV|
|July 17, 2008||Steve Wiebe Donkey Kong Record Attempt||Twiistup 4 Technology event||Santa Monica, CA|
|August 2, 2008||Nintendo Wii Shootout||Ultimate LAN Experience||Grand Rapids, MI|
|June 12–14, 2009||Steve Wiebe Donkey Kong World Record attempt and Walter Day presented inaugural Twin Galaxies Hall of Fame Ceremony||Northwest Pinball and Gameroom Show||Seattle, WA|
Scores by both Todd Rogers and Billy Mitchell have been called into question and found to be fraudulent.Rogers was revealed to have entered bogus records into the database either by himself or a referee friend, whereas Mitchell used an emulator to reach his scores while claiming to have played on an original arcade machine, in violation of the Twin Galaxies rules.
Pac-Man is an arcade game designed by Toru Iwatani (1955–) of Namco, and released in Japan as PUCKMAN in May 1980. Licensed for distribution in the United States by Midway Games, it was released in October 1980, at a time when the top arcade games were "stark" space shooters such as Galaxian and Asteroids. Pac-Man established the conventions of the maze chase genre, and is considered to be one of the classics in video game history and an icon of 1980s popular culture. There may have been a gender divide between gamers in different genres; according to one estimate published in 1982, 60% of Pac-Man players were women, while 90% of those playing space shoot-'em-up Omega Race were men.
An amusement arcade is a venue where people play arcade games such as video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, merchandisers, or coin-operated billiards or air hockey tables. In some countries, some types of arcades are also legally permitted to provide gambling machines such as slot machines or pachinko machines. Games are usually housed in cabinets. The term used for ancestors of these venues in the beginning of the 20th century was penny arcades.
Q*bert is an arcade game developed and published for the North American market by Gottlieb in 1982. It is a 2D action game with puzzle elements that uses isometric graphics to create a pseudo-3D effect. The objective of each level in the game is to change the color of every cube in a pyramid by making Q*bert, the on-screen character, hop on top of the cube while avoiding obstacles and enemies. Players use a joystick to control the character.
Defender is an arcade video game developed and released by Williams Electronics in 1981. A horizontally scrolling shoot 'em up, the game is set on an unnamed planet where the player must defeat waves of invading aliens while protecting astronauts. Development was led by Eugene Jarvis, a pinball programmer at Williams; Defender was Jarvis' first video game project and drew inspiration from Space Invaders and Asteroids.
Track & Field, known in Japan and Europe as Hyper Olympic, is an Olympic-themed sports arcade game developed by Konami and released in 1983. The Japanese release sported an official license for the 1984 Summer Olympics. Players compete in a series of events, most involving alternately pressing two buttons as quickly as possible to make the onscreen character run faster. It was followed by a sequel, Hyper Sports.
Donkey Kong Jr. is a 1982 platform video game by Nintendo. It's the sequel to Donkey Kong, which featured Mario as the hero and Junior's father as the villain; the roles are reversed here. It first appeared in arcades, and, over the course of the 1980s, was released for a variety of home platforms. The game's title is written out as Donkey Kong Junior in the North American arcade version and various ports to non-Nintendo systems.
The golden age of arcade video games was the era when arcade video games entered pop culture and became a dominant cultural force. The exact time period is disputed, but key moments include the release of Space Invaders in 1978 and the vector-based Asteroids in 1979—moments made possible by the increase in power and decrease in cost of computing technology. This led to the rise of both video game arcades and video games in other media, such as songs, cartoons, and movies like 1982's TRON. Other iconic games from this era include Pac-Man, Defender, Galaga, Donkey Kong, and Centipede.
Star Wars is an arcade game designed by Mike Hally and produced by Atari, Inc. in 1983. The game is a first person space combat game using 3D color vector graphics to simulate the assault on the Death Star from the 1977 film Star Wars. It was developed during the Golden Age of Arcade Games and has appeared in lists of the greatest video games of all time.
In games, score refers to an abstract quantity associated with a player or team. Score is usually measured in the abstract unit of points, and events in the game can raise or lower the score of different parties. Most games with score use it as a quantitative indicator of success in the game, and in competitive games, a goal is often made of attaining a better score than one's opponents in order to win.
Nibbler is an arcade snake game released in 1982 by Chicago-based developer Rock-Ola. The player navigates a long snake through an enclosed maze consuming food along the way, while the length of the snake increases with each object consumed. The game was the first to include nine digits of score, allowing players to surpass one billion points. Home versions were published in 1983 by Datasoft for the Atari 8-bit family and the Apple II.
The U.S. National Video Game Team (USNVGT) was founded in July, 1983 in Ottumwa, Iowa, United States by Walter Day and Jim Riley as part of the Electronic Circus tour, with Steve Sanders as the first captain. After the Circus folded, Day re-established the team with himself as the captain, taking the team on a bus tour. The team challenged the players of arcades across the country and attempted to challenge other countries through visits to foreign embassies. In the years that followed the team ran numerous competitive contests.
The King of Kong: A Fistful of Quarters is a 2007 American documentary film about competitive gaming directed by Seth Gordon. It follows Steve Wiebe in his attempts to take the high score record for the 1981 arcade game Donkey Kong from the previous holder, Billy Mitchell. The film premiered at the 2007 Slamdance Film Festival and was released in U.S. theaters in August 2007. It received positive reviews.
Doris Self was a video game competitor who gained recognition in the 1980s as "the world's oldest video game champion". In the 2007 Guinness World Records, Self was recognized as the world's oldest video game competitor. The documentary film The King of Kong: A Fistful of Quarters detailed Self's quest to recover her standing as the "oldest champion" from John Lawton, the 72-year-old co-founder of the Funspot Family Fun Center in Weirs Beach, New Hampshire, who had captured the world title on Depthcharge.
Todd Rogers is an American video game player from Brooksville, Florida, who gained fame in the early 1980s for his claim to having many world record high scores and for his expertise on Activision games. However, many of his records have been found to be impossible or unverifiable, and on January 29, 2018, Twin Galaxies removed all of his scores from their leaderboards and banned him permanently. Guinness World Records stripped his records the following day.
David Nelson is an American arcade video game player who holds world record high scores listed in the 2008 Guinness World Records-Gamer's Edition.
William James Mitchell Jr. is an American restaurateur, businessman, and former competitive gamer. He initially rose to fame in the 1980s when Life magazine included him in a photo spread of video game champions during the height of the golden age of arcade video games. Though once recognized as the holder of several notable records on classic games, a 2018 investigation found several of Mitchell's scores to be fraudulent, having been obtained dishonestly. As a result, his scores were stricken from Twin Galaxies' rolls and Guinness World Records, and he was banned from submitting any future scores.
The Video Game Masters Tournament was an event that was created in 1983 by Twin Galaxies to generate world record high scores for the 1984 U.S. Edition of the Guinness Book of World Records. It was the most prestigious contest of that era and the only one that the Guinness book looked to for verified world records on video games at the time. This contest was conducted under the joint efforts of Twin Galaxies and the U.S. National Video Game Team in 1983, 1984 and 1985 and by the U.S. National Video Game Team alone in 1986 and 1987.
Dragster, released in 1980 for the Atari 2600, is the first video game developed by Activision. It was programmed by David Crane, who later wrote Pitfall! The object of the game is to either beat the player's opponent across the screen, or to race against the clock for best time, depending on the settings used. Dragster is an unauthorized adaptation of the 1977 Kee Games coin-op Drag Race.
Man vs Snake: The Long and Twisted Tale of Nibbler is a 2016 documentary film directed by Andrew Seklir and Tim Kinzy. The film premiered on September 27, 2015, at Fantastic Fest Film Festival, followed by a Canadian premiere on April 17, 2016, and a worldwide release on June 24 of the same year. The film follows players as they try to accumulate a billion points on the 1982 arcade game Nibbler, a feat first achieved by Tim McVey in 1984.
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