Union Mills Canal Outlet Locks #1 and #2
Looking downstream toward the locks
|Nearest city||Crofton, Virginia|
|Area||1 acre (0.40 ha)|
|NRHP reference #||99001256|
|Added to NRHP||October 14, 1999|
The Union Mills Canal Outlet Locks No. 1 and No. 2 are a pair of locks along the route of a canal system that improved navigation on the Rivanna River in Fluvanna County, Virginia. Located near Crofton, these are two large locks fashioned out of dressed granite blocks. They were built between 1850 and 1854.
The Rivanna River is a 42.1-mile-long (67.8 km) tributary of the James River in central Virginia in the United States. The Rivanna's tributaries originate in the Blue Ridge Mountains; via the James River, it is part of the watershed of Chesapeake Bay.
Fluvanna County is a county located in the Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,691. Its county seat is Palmyra.
Until the 1850s, canal and river transportation primarily employed batteaux, but mid-century saw the construction of towpaths to enable mules to pull boats. It was for this purpose that the Union Mills Canal and its outlet locks were constructed. The canal is approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) long, with a lock and dam complex at the upper end; it runs on the right bank of the river. :12
A towpath is a road or trail on the bank of a river, canal, or other inland waterway. The purpose of a towpath is to allow a land vehicle, beasts of burden, or a team of human pullers to tow a boat, often a barge. This mode of transport was common where sailing was impractical due to tunnels and bridges, unfavourable winds, or the narrowness of the channel.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare). Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, which is the offspring of a female donkey (jenny) and a male horse (stallion).
In geography, the word bank generally refers to the land alongside a body of water. Different structures are referred to as banks in different fields of geography, as follows.
The outlet locks, situated at the lower end of the canal, are located just above the mouth of a small stream, Boston Creek, which nearby is dammed to form Lake Monticello. The lake is a resort community; although a footpath was built to the locks in 1984, it remains private property with limited access. One of the locks is in substantially better condition than the other: one is nearly invisible, thanks to silt buildup, while the other is well maintained and remains easily visible to the visitor who obtains permission to enter the property. 13:
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil or as sediment mixed in suspension with water and soil in a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, like mudflows from landslides. Silt has a moderate specific area with a typically non-sticky, plastic feel. Silt usually has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet. Silt can be visually observed with a hand lens, exhibiting a sparkly appearance. It also can be felt by the tongue as granular when placed on the front teeth.
The locks were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.
The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property.
The Clinton–Kalamazoo Canal is a canal in Michigan that was abandoned after being only partially completed. The canal was to connect Lake St. Clair with Lake Michigan. Project backers were inspired by the success of the Erie Canal in New York, which was completed in 1825. After gaining statehood in 1837, Michigan elected its first governor, Stevens Thomson Mason, who initiated an ambitious program of internal improvements, including three railroads and two canals. On March 21, 1837, the Legislature authorized Governor Mason to contract a loan for the construction of the canal from Mt. Clemens to Rochester, a railroad from Shelby to Detroit, a railroad from Detroit across the State and a railroad from Port Huron into the interior, to be known as the Port Huron & Grand River road. In the spring of 1838, a Board of Commissioners composed of seven men, was appointed to take charge of the canal work.
The Union Canal was a towpath canal that existed in southeastern Pennsylvania in the United States during the 19th century. First proposed in 1690 to connect Philadelphia with the Susquehanna River, it ran approximately 82 mi from Middletown on the Susquehanna below Harrisburg to Reading on the Schuylkill River.
The James River and Kanawha Canal was a partially built canal in Virginia intended to facilitate shipments of passengers and freight by water between the western counties of Virginia and the coast. Ultimately its towpath became the roadbed for a rail line following the same course.
Bremo Bluff is an unincorporated community located on the northern bank of the James River in Fluvanna County, Virginia, United States. The locale was established by the Cocke family in 1636. During the American Civil War, the family of General Robert E. Lee sought refuge in the community. It is home to Bremo Power Station, which generates 3 percent of the total electricity delivered by utility company Dominion Resources.
Wheeler Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Tennessee River between Lauderdale County and Lawrence County in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is one of nine dams on the river owned and operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority, which built the dam in the mid-1930s as part of a New Deal-era initiative to improve navigation on the river and bring flood control and economic development to the region. The dam impounds the Wheeler Lake of 67,070 acres (27,140 ha) and its tailwaters feed into Wilson Lake.
Palmyra is a census-designated place (CDP) in and the county seat of Fluvanna County, Virginia, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was 104. Palmyra lies on the eastern bank of the Rivanna River along U.S. Route 15. The ZIP code for Palmyra and surrounding rural land is 22963.
The Lehigh Canal or the Lehigh Navigation Canal is a navigable canal, beginning at the mouth of Nesquehoning Creek on the Lehigh River in Eastern Pennsylvania. It was built in two sections over a span of twenty years, beginning in 1818. The lower section spanned the distance between Easton, Pennsylvania and the town of Mauch Chunk, present-day Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania. In Easton the canal met the Delaware and Morris Canals, with which goods could be brought further up the east coast. At its height, the Lehigh Canal was 72 miles (116 km) long.
The Cumberland and Oxford Canal was opened in 1832 to connect the largest lakes of southern Maine with the seaport of Portland, Maine. The canal followed the Presumpscot River from Sebago Lake through the towns of Standish, Windham, Gorham, and Westbrook. The Canal diverged from the river at Westbrook to reach the navigable Fore River estuary and Portland Harbor. The canal required 27 locks to reach Sebago Lake at an elevation of 267 feet (81 m) above sea level. One additional lock was constructed in the Songo River to provide 5 feet (1.5 m) of additional elevation to reach Long Lake from Sebago Lake. Total navigable distance was approximately 38 miles (61 km) from Portland to Harrison at the north end of Long Lake. A proposed extension from Harrison to Bear Pond and Tom Pond in Waterford would have required three more locks on the Bear River, but they were never built.
The North Canal Historic District of Lawrence, Massachusetts, encompasses the historic industrial heart of the city. It is centered on the North Canal and the Great Stone Dam, which provided the waterpower for its many mill complexes. The canal was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975, while the district was first listed in 1984, and then expanded slightly in 2009.
Advance Mills, also known as Fray's Mill, is an unincorporated community in Albemarle County, Virginia.
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Fluvanna County, Virginia.
Power Plant and Dam No. 5, also known as Honeywood Dam, comprises a dam on the Potomac River, originally built for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and a power plant built to take advantage of the river's flow to generate hydroelectric power. The dam is included in Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park.
The Rapidan Dam Canal of the Rappahannock Navigation is a canal intended to safely carry Batteaus, sturdy flat-bottomed boats used primarily for transporting cargo, around the rapids at the confluence of the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers. The Rapidan Canal, funded and constructed by The Rappahannock Company, consists of two different canals built at different times. All of the Rappahannock Navigation, of which the Rapidan Canal is a part, is located in the Piedmont region of Virginia. The Confluence, the name used on maps of the day and sometimes maps of today to denote where the two rivers meet, is located where the borders of the Virginia Counties of Spotsylvania, Stafford and Culpeper meet but is owned by the City of Fredericksburg, Virginia. The Rapidan Canal was listed on the Virginia Landmarks Register (VLR) on June 19, 1973, and on the National Register of Historic Places on July 26, 1973.
The Cascade Locks Historic District is a historic district located in Akron, Ohio. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.
Coal River Locks, Dams, and Log Booms Archeological District is a national historic district and historic archaeological site located on the Coal River in Boone, Lincoln, and Kanawha County, West Virginia. It consists of an underwater resource depicting the navigation and transportation system used on the Coal River during the late-19th and early-20th century. It includes remains of timber cribs, locks and dams, and a lock master house. It was designed by William Rosecrans in the mid-1850s, and was one of the first complete lock and dam systems in West Virginia.
The Rivanna Farm, originally called Eglenton, is a historic home and farm located near Bremo Bluff in Fluvanna County, Virginia. The main house is the work by grassroots builder and architect, Capt. John B. Anderson, father of architect D. Wiley Anderson, who assisted in its construction. It was built in 1880, and is a two-story, frame dwelling in the Italianate style. Also on the property are the contributing kitchen / quarter building, smokehouse, overseer's house, two corncribs, stable, bath house / tool shed, granary, well, and schoolhouse / tenant house. Farm operations started at the Rivanna Farm site in 1839.
Roanoke Canal is a historic canal located near Roanoke Rapids, Halifax County, North Carolina. It was built as part of the Roanoke Navigation System and extends from Roanoke Rapids Lake southeast seven miles to the canal's return into the Roanoke River at Weldon, North Carolina. The Roanoke Navigation System was planned to connect the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. The earliest sections were built under the direction of civil engineer Hamilton Fulton. Extant structures include the middle or lift locks, the aqueduct (1821-1823), and the three-story brick mill (1892) and powerhouse.
The Georges River Canal, also known as the General Knox Canal was a short-lived canal that operated on and near the course of the Saint George River in Knox and Waldo Counties in south-central Maine. First owned and operated by American Revolutionary War General Henry Knox between 1794 and 1806, it was briefly revived in 1847-50, but was not financially successful. It provided for transport of goods from near the river's headwaters in Searsmont to the head of navigation at Warren. A few elements of the canal survive today, and its route was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970.
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