XL Center

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XL Center
XL Group 2011 logo.svg
XL Center logo
XL Center
Former namesHartford Civic Center (1975–2007)
Address1 Civic Center Plaza
Location Hartford, Connecticut
Coordinates 41°46′06″N72°40′37″W / 41.76833°N 72.67694°W / 41.76833; -72.67694 Coordinates: 41°46′06″N72°40′37″W / 41.76833°N 72.67694°W / 41.76833; -72.67694
Owner City of Hartford [1]
Operator Global Spectrum
Capacity Concerts: 16,500
Basketball: 15,600
Ice hockey: 14,750 (9,801 with curtain system)
Surface200 ft × 85 ft (61 m × 26 m) (hockey)
Construction
Broke groundApril 2, 1971 [2]
OpenedJanuary 9, 1975
Closed1978–1980 (roof collapse, renovations)
Construction cost$30 million [3]
($144 million in 2020 dollars [4] )
Architect Kling & Associates
Danos and Associates [5]
Project manager Gilbane Building Company [6]
Structural engineerFraoli, Blum, and Yesselman, Engineers [7]
General contractorWilliam L. Crow Construction Company [6]
Tenants
Hartford Wolf Pack (AHL) (1997–present)
UConn Huskies (NCAA)
Men's basketball (1975–present) [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2]
Women's basketball (1975–present) [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2]
Men's ice hockey (2013–present)
New England / Hartford Whalers (WHA / NHL) (1975–1997) [lower-alpha 2]
Boston Celtics (NBA) (1975–1995) [lower-alpha 1]
Hartford Hellions (MISL) (1980–1981)
Connecticut Coyotes (AFL) (1995–1996)
New England Blizzard (ABL) (1996–1998)
Connecticut Pride (CBA) (1993–2000)
New England Sea Wolves (AFL) (1999–2000)
Website
Official Website

The XL Center (originally known as the Hartford Civic Center) is a multi-purpose arena and convention center located in downtown Hartford, Connecticut. Owned by the City of Hartford, it is managed by the quasi-public Capital Region Development Authority (CRDA) under a lease with the city and operated by Spectra. In December 2007, the Center was renamed when the arena's naming rights were sold to XL Group insurance company in a 6-year agreement. The arena is ranked the 28th largest among college basketball arenas. It opened in 1974 as the Hartford Civic Center and was originally located adjacent to Civic Center Mall, which was demolished in 2004. It consists of two facilities: the Veterans Memorial Coliseum and the Exhibition Center.

Contents

On March 21, 2007, the CRDA selected the Northland/Anschutz Entertainment Group proposal to operate the arena complex; Northland also developed the Hartford 21 residential tower on the adjacent Civic Center Mall site. It was revealed that Northland will assume total responsibility for the building paying for any and all losses, and will keep any profits. In 2012, the CRDA put the contract out to bid with hopes of combining the operations with Rentschler Field. [8] In February 2013, Global Spectrum of Philadelphia, was chosen to take over both the XL Center and Rentschler Field [9] with Ovations Food Services taking over all food and beverage operations.

Hartford Civic Center

The Civic Center is the full-time home of the Hartford Wolf Pack AHL hockey team and part-time home of the University of Connecticut (UConn) men's and women's basketball teams and the UConn Huskies men's ice hockey team. Starting in the late 1990s, UConn men's basketball moved most of their important gamesincluding the bulk of their Big East Conference gamesto the Coliseum. During the 2011–2012 season, for instance, they played 11 home games at the Coliseum and only eight at their on-campus facility, Gampel Pavilion. This practice continued when the Huskies joined the American Athletic Conference, successor to the original Big East, in 2013. The UConn men's hockey team uses the XL Center as its primary home as the newest men's member of Hockey East.

It was the home of the New England/Hartford Whalers of the WHA and NHL from 1975 to 1978 and 1980 to 1997, and the Hartford Hellions of the MISL from 1980 to 1981, and the New England Blizzard of the ABL from 1996 to 1998, and hosted occasional Boston Celtics home games from 1975 to 1995. It was the home of the Connecticut Coyotes and later the New England Sea Wolves of the Arena Football League.

The arena seats 15,635 for ice hockey and 16,294 for basketball, 16,606 for center-stage concerts, 16,282 for end-stage concerts, and 8,239 for ¾-end stage concerts, and contains 46 luxury suites and a 310-seat Coliseum Club, plus 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2) of arena floor space, enabling it to be used for trade shows and conventions in addition to concerts, circuses, ice shows, sporting events and other events. The graduation ceremonies of Central Connecticut State University and other local colleges are also held annually at the XL Center.

Early history and roof collapse

The arena remains a site for popular concerts. October 2007. HartfordCivicCenterSoldOut.jpg
The arena remains a site for popular concerts. October 2007.

As originally built in 1975, it seated 10,507 for hockey, and served as the home of the then New England Whalers for three years. In the early morning of January 18, 1978, the Civic Center's roof collapsed. Engineering analyses during litigation following the collapse indicated that compression members were overloaded through undersizing and underestimation of the probable loadings, and that lateral bracing of individual members was insufficient. "The roof did not fail due to the heavy snow that fell on that January night. According to the official City investigation, the roof began progressive failure as soon as it had been installed. Contributing factors included design errors, an underestimation of the weight of the roof, and differences between the design and the actual built structure." [10]

Investigations attributed the design issues to the unprecedented use of and trust in computer analysis. An absence of peer review for the novel structure and design process, and fragmentation of oversight responsibility during construction were also cited as contributing factors. Evidence showed that the roof had started to fail during construction, with bowed compression members. These distortions, and an unpredicted degree of deflection in the structure, were not investigated before the collapse. [11] There were no injuries due to the collapse. The building was heavily renovated and re-opened January 17, 1980.

The Arena hosted the Hartford Whalers from January 11, 1975 to April 13, 1997. Shortly thereafter the team relocated to Raleigh to become the Carolina Hurricanes. In 1994, new owner Peter Karmanos purchased the team and pledged to keep the Whalers in Connecticut until 1998, unless they could not sell over 11,000 season tickets. After failed negotiations to build a new downtown arena for the Whalers with then-Governor John G. Rowland, on March 25, 1997, Karmanos announced that the team would leave. The New York Rangers, looking to capitalize on Hartford as a potential market, placed its farm team there to become the Hartford Wolf Pack starting in 1997. After a short stint as the Connecticut Whale, they reverted to the Wolf Pack moniker in 2013. Renovations were complete in October 2014.

Current arena and recent renovations

In September 2010, the arena was upgraded with a new center-hung scoreboard with four Sony Jumbotrons and a state-of-the-art sound system. [12] The Connecticut State Legislature set aside $35 million in funding for improvements to the XL Center that began in early spring 2014 and completed in time for the start of the 2014-15 seasons of the Wolf Pack and UConn men's hockey in October. Improvements included upgrades to the mechanical system, locker rooms and concourse, replacing jumbotrons with a new HD video board, as well as aesthetic improvements such as a new bar area inside the arena and luxury seating in the lower bowl. A portion of the $35 million allocation went towards a study on the arena's long-term viability; either more major renovations or replacing it with a new facility.

Events

The XL Center has held many notable events including:

The Veterans Memorial Coliseum as set up for Monster Jam Hartfordmj.jpg
The Veterans Memorial Coliseum as set up for Monster Jam

Boston Celtics

Boston Celtics games played at Hartford Civic Center [24]
DateOpponentResultScoreGame TypeAttendance
November 11, 1975 Atlanta Hawks L100–91 RS 10,591
December 17, 1975 Kansas City Kings W104–118RS11,243
January 13, 1976 Portland Trail Blazers W94–106RS11,243
March 9, 1976 New Orleans Jazz L117–99RS11,230
April 6, 1976 Cleveland Cavaliers L101–92RS11,243
October 28, 1976 Buffalo Braves W105–112RS10,608
January 11, 1977 Houston Rockets W101–105RS10,011
February 15, 1977 Detroit Pistons W99–109RS9,879
March 1, 1977 Golden State Warriors L101–94RS11,273
March 30, 1977 Chicago Bulls W88–90RS11,089
April 9, 1977 San Antonio Spurs W105–120RS10,859
October 25, 1977Atlanta HawksW103–110RS6,590
December 13, 1977 New Jersey Nets W108–122RS5,518
January 5, 1978 Phoenix Suns L121–111RS10,019
February 26, 1980Atlanta HawksW97–108RS15,622
March 18, 1980 Indiana Pacers W102–114RS15,622
October 23, 1980 New York Knicks L109–107RS12,941
November 9, 1980Chicago BullsW105–111RS8,627
December 7, 1980 Washington Bullets L113–103RS11,430
January 19, 1981Detroit PistonsW90–92RS9,941
March 13, 1981Indiana PacersL101–94RS15,622
November 13, 1981New Jersey NetsW97–11RS11,753
December 11, 1981Atlanta HawksW86–94RS13,369
January 10, 1982Detroit PistonsW124–134RS15,429
November 30, 1982Detroit PistonsL123–116RS11,762
January 31, 1983Chicago BullsW104–110RS12,742
March 7, 1983New Jersey NetsW114–121RS15,165
December 9, 1983 Denver Nuggets W90–119RS13,374
January 20, 1984Indiana PacersW125–132RS13,134
March 2, 1984Chicago BullsW100–104RS14,529
December 11, 1984New Jersey NetsW121–130RS13,357
January 29, 1985Detroit PistonsW130–131RS15,685
February 22, 1985Chicago BullsW105–115RS15,685
December 10, 1985Atlanta HawksW110–114RS14,493
February 23, 1986Indiana PacersW98–113RS15,124
March 18, 1986Cleveland CavaliersW96–126RS15,134
December 2, 1986Washington BulletsL117–109RS15,134
February 23, 1987New Jersey NetsW103–116RS15,134
March 24, 1987Cleveland CavaliersW88–111RS15,134
November 23, 1987Chicago BullsL107–102RS15,134
February 22, 1988New York KnicksW93–95RS15,134
March 11, 1988Indiana PacersW112–122RS15,134
November 22, 1988Cleveland CavaliersL114–102RS15,239
February 24, 1989 Milwaukee Bucks W112–125RS15,239
March 13, 1989New Jersey NetsW91–114RS15,239
November 14, 1989 Philadelphia 76ers W94–96RS15,239
February 6, 1990Milwaukee BucksL119–106RS15,239
March 9, 1990Washington BulletsL115–108RS15,239
November 26, 1990 Miami Heat W101–118RS15,239
February 22, 1991New Jersey NetsW99–111RS15,239
March 4, 1991Indiana PacersW101–126RS15,239
November 25, 1991Washington BulletsW108–121RS14,678
February 21, 1992 Charlotte Hornets W110–113RS15,239
March 13, 1992New Jersey NetsL110–108RS15,239
November 23, 1992Atlanta HawksL101–97RS13,299
February 9, 1993Milwaukee BucksW92–104RS14,137
March 28, 1993Washington BulletsW113–114RS15,239
November 22, 1993Indiana PacersL102–71RS13,200
February 17, 1994New Jersey NetsL117–98RS12,588
March 27, 1994Philadelphia 76ersW122–124RS13,259
November 22, 1994Milwaukee BucksL116–94RS12,829
February 23, 1995 Orlando Magic W117–119RS15,242
April 15, 1995Detroit PistonsW104–129RS12,979
October 14, 2009 Toronto Raptors W90–106 PS 10,117
October 16, 2010New York KnicksW84–97PS15,138
October 13, 2012New York KnicksL98–95PS14,218
October 8, 2014New York KnicksW86–106PS8,462

International basketball games

DateOpponentResultHomeGame TypeAttendance
January 27, 2020 United States Flag of the United States.svg 79–64 UConn Huskies Exhibition13,919

International hockey games

DateAwayScoreHomeAttendance
December 27, 1976 Soviet Union  Flag of the Soviet Union.svg2–5 Flag of the United States.svg New England Whalers
August 28, 1987 Finland  Flag of Finland.svg1–4Flag of the United States.svg  United States 8,508
September 4, 1987 Soviet Union  Flag of the Soviet Union.svg5–1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 14,838
January 7, 1989 CSKA Moscow Flag of the Soviet Union.svg 6–3 Flag of the United States.svg Hartford Whalers
December 27, 1989 Krylya Sovetov Moscow Flag of the Soviet Union.svg 3–4 (OT) Flag of the United States.svg Hartford Whalers
January 3, 1991 Dynamo Moscow Flag of the Soviet Union.svg 0–0 Flag of the United States.svg Hartford Whalers
December 14, 2019 Canada  Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg1–4Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7,126 [25]

UConn Huskies

The XL Center serves as the second home for the University of Connecticut's men's and women's basketball programs. At the start of the 2014–15 season the UConn men's ice hockey program moved to the XL Center as a condition of its joining Hockey East. [26] In September 2018, the UConn Board of Trustees approved a plan to build a new 2,500-seat arena with 500 seat-backs in Storrs with the option to expand to 3,500 seats if necessary. Though Hockey East requires arenas to hold at least 4,000, UConn received a waiver for the project since the expectation is for the Huskies’ men’s hockey program to continue to play some of its games at the XL Center in Hartford. The target construction date is April 2021 with substantial completion wanted by October 2022. If everything stays on track, the arena would open in December 2022. [27]

UConn Hockey Attendance Records

DateOpponentResultAttendance
February 9, 2019 Merrimack W 5–08,211 [28]
November 15, 2014#3 Boston College W 1–08,089 [29]
November 22, 2014#3 Boston University L 2–57,712
February 16, 2018#20 Boston University W 5–4OT7,372 [30]

Exhibition center

The Exhibition Center consists of a 68,855-square-foot (6,397 m2) exhibit hall, a 16,080-square-foot (1,494 m2) assembly hall that can divide into two meeting rooms, plus seven meeting rooms totaling 7,390 square feet (687 m2) and two lobbies totaling 6,100 square feet (570 m2). It is used for trade shows, conventions, banquets, meetings and other events.

The surrounding shopping mall was torn down in 2004 and was replaced by street-level retail shops and a 36-story residential tower named Hartford 21 which opened in 2006 and is the tallest residential tower between New York City and Boston.

See also

Related Research Articles

Hartford Wolf Pack

The Hartford Wolf Pack are a professional ice hockey team based in Hartford, Connecticut. A member of the American Hockey League (AHL), they play their home games at the XL Center. The team was established in 1926 as the Providence Reds. After a series of relocations, the team moved to Hartford in 1997 as the Hartford Wolf Pack. It is one of the oldest professional hockey franchises extant, and the oldest continuously operating minor league hockey franchise in North America.

Harry A. Gampel Pavilion Indoor arena at the University of Connecticut

Harry A. Gampel Pavilion is a 10,167-seat multi-purpose arena in Storrs, Connecticut, United States, on the campus of the University of Connecticut (UConn). The arena opened on January 21, 1990, and is the largest on-campus arena in New England. It was named after industrialist and 1943 UConn graduate Harry A. Gampel, a philanthropist who walked with Martin Luther King Jr., and who donated $1 million for the construction of the arena. It is about 216,000 sq ft (20,100 m2). Gampel Pavilion is the primary home to the UConn Huskies men's basketball, women's basketball, and women's volleyball teams.

Pratt & Whitney Stadium at Rentschler Field

Pratt & Whitney Stadium at Rentschler Field is a stadium in East Hartford, Connecticut. It is primarily used for football and soccer, and is the home field of the University of Connecticut (UConn) Huskies. It may also host the Connecticut Underground of the Freedom Football League; in the fall of 2010, it was home to the Hartford Colonials of the United Football League. The stadium, which opened in 2003, was the first stadium used primarily by an NCAA Division I-A team to open in the 21st century. The permanent stadium capacity is 40,000, consisting of 38,066 permanent seats with a standing-room area in the scoreboard plaza that can accommodate up to 1,934 people. It also has a game day capability to add approximately 2,000 temporary seats as it did for UConn football vs. Michigan in 2013. Connecticut played on campus at Memorial Stadium in Storrs, before 2003.

Chase Family Arena at Reich Family Pavilion, commonly shortened to Chase Arena, is a 4,017-seat multi-purpose arena in West Hartford, Connecticut. Home to the University of Hartford Hawks men's and women's basketball teams, the arena opened on January 25, 1990, and was dedicated to the Chase family and the Reich family, both of West Hartford, in 1998 and 2004, respectively. It hosted the 2010 and 2011 America East Conference men's and women's basketball tournaments. In 2015 the men's basketball locker room was expanded and refurbished.

Mark Edward Freitas Ice Forum is a 2,000-seat hockey rink in Storrs, Connecticut. It is the home arena for the University of Connecticut women's and practice facility of men's college ice hockey teams. It opened on November 7, 1998, replacing the outdoor UConn Ice Arena, which was in use since the 1960s. The Forum was constructed as part of the UCONN 2000 commitment by the State of Connecticut to help rebuild, renew, and enhance the campuses of the University of Connecticut. It was opened in time for the hockey team's elevation to Division I status. The arena was used for the 2000 MAAC Championship, the 2001 MAAC tournament, and the 2002 ECAC women's hockey tournament. It hosted the 2008 Hockey East Women's Tournament. The building was named for Mark E. Freitas '81, a former hockey letter winner and benefactor, on February 5, 2005.

UConn Huskies College athletic program of the University of Connecticut, US

The UConn Huskies are the intercollegiate athletic teams that represent the University of Connecticut, located in Storrs. The school is a member of the NCAA's Division I and the Big East Conference. The university's football team plays at Rentschler Field, and the men's and women's basketball teams play on-campus at Harry A. Gampel Pavilion and off-campus at the XL Center.

Morrone Stadium

Morrone Stadium, officially known as Joseph J. Morrone Stadium is the on-campus soccer stadium at University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut.

Huskies of Honor Award given by the University of Connecticut

Huskies of Honor is a recognition program sponsored by the University of Connecticut (UConn). Similar to a hall of fame, it honors the most significant figures in the history of the UConn Huskies—the university's athletic teams—especially the men's and women's basketball teams. The inaugural honorees, inducted in two separate ceremonies during the 2006–07 season, included thirteen men's basketball players, ten women's basketball players, and four head coaches, of whom two coaches—Jim Calhoun and Geno Auriemma—and two players—Ray Allen and Rebecca Lobo—are also enshrined in the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Since that time, an additional nine women's basketball players, seven men's basketball players, five national championship teams, one women's basketball assistant coach, and one athletic director have been honored.

The 2010–11 Connecticut Huskies women's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 2010–2011 NCAA Division I basketball season. The Huskies were coached by Geno Auriemma, and played their home games at the XL Center in Hartford, Connecticut, and on campus at the Harry A. Gampel Pavilion in Storrs, Connecticut. The Huskies are a member of the Big East Conference and attempted to win their eighth NCAA championship. The UConn team had won the last two national championships, and extended a win streak to an NCAA record 90 consecutive games.

The UConn Huskies men's ice hockey team is a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college ice hockey program that represents the University of Connecticut. The Huskies are a member of Hockey East. They play at the XL Center in Hartford, Connecticut.

Professional ice hockey in Connecticut has a rich tradition dating from the mid-1920s. Most of these teams were NHL minor league affiliates located in New Haven, though with the closure of the New Haven Coliseum, minor league affiliates now exist only exist in Hartford and Bridgeport. Hartford had its own Major league team, the Whalers team that existed in Hartford from 1974-97. Independent hockey leagues teams have also been gaining a foothold in Danbury starting in 2004.

The 1975–76 Connecticut Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 1975–76 collegiate men's basketball season. The Huskies completed the season with a 19–10 overall record. The Huskies were members of the Yankee Conference, where they ended the season with a 7–5 record. They were the champions of the postseason ECAC Tournament. They made it to the sweet sixteen in the 1976 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. The Huskies played their home games at Hugh S. Greer Field House in Storrs, Connecticut and the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut, and were led by seventh-year head coach Dee Rowe.

The 1979–80 Connecticut Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 1979–80 collegiate men's basketball season. The Huskies completed the season with a 20–9 overall record. The Huskies were members of the Big East Conference where they finished with a 3–3 record. They made it to the first round of the 1980 National Invitation Tournament. The Huskies played their home games at Hugh S. Greer Field House in Storrs, Connecticut, the New Haven Coliseum in New Haven, Connecticut, and the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut and were led by third-year head coach Dom Perno.

The 1980–81 Connecticut Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 1980–81 collegiate men's basketball season. The Huskies completed the season with a 20–9 overall record. The Huskies were members of the Big East Conference where they finished with an 8–6 record. They made it to the second round of the 1981 National Invitation Tournament. The Huskies played their home games at Hugh S. Greer Field House in Storrs, Connecticut, the New Haven Coliseum in New Haven, Connecticut, and the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut and were led by fourth-year head coach Dom Perno.

The 1981–82 Connecticut Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 1981–82 collegiate men's basketball season. The Huskies completed the season with a 17–11 overall record. The Huskies were members of the Big East Conference where they finished with a 7–7 record. They made it to the first round of the 1982 National Invitation Tournament. The Huskies played their home games at Hugh S. Greer Field House in Storrs, Connecticut, the New Haven Coliseum in New Haven, Connecticut, and the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut and were led by fifth-year head coach Dom Perno.

The 1982–83 Connecticut Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 1982–83 collegiate men's basketball season. The Huskies completed the season with a 12–16 overall record. The Huskies were members of the Big East Conference where they finished with a 5–11 record. The Huskies played their home games at Hugh S. Greer Field House in Storrs, Connecticut, the New Haven Coliseum in New Haven, Connecticut, and the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut and were led by sixth-year head coach Dom Perno.

The 1984–85 Connecticut Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 1984–85 collegiate men's basketball season. The Huskies completed the season with a 13–15 overall record. The Huskies were members of the Big East Conference where they finished with a 6–10 record. The Huskies played their home games at Hugh S. Greer Field House in Storrs, Connecticut, the New Haven Coliseum in New Haven, Connecticut and the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut and they were led by eighth-year head coach Dom Perno.

The 1986–87 Connecticut Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 1986–87 collegiate men's basketball season. The Huskies completed the season with a 9–19 overall record. The Huskies were members of the Big East Conference where they finished with a 3–13 record. The Huskies played their home games at Hugh S. Greer Field House in Storrs, Connecticut, the New Haven Coliseum in New Haven, Connecticut, and the Hartford Civic Center in Hartford, Connecticut, and they were led by first-year head coach Jim Calhoun.

The 2017–18 UConn Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 2017–18 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Huskies were led by sixth-year head coach Kevin Ollie. The Huskies split their home games between the XL Center in Hartford, Connecticut, and the Harry A. Gampel Pavilion on the UConn campus in Storrs, Connecticut as members of the American Athletic Conference. They finished the season 14–18, 7–11 in AAC play to finish in eighth place. They lost in the first round of the AAC Tournament to SMU.

The 2018–19 UConn Huskies men's basketball team represented the University of Connecticut in the 2018–19 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Huskies were led by first-year head coach Dan Hurley and participated as members of the American Athletic Conference. The Huskies split their home games between the XL Center in Hartford, Connecticut, and the Harry A. Gampel Pavilion on the UConn campus in Storrs, Connecticut. They finished the season 16–17, 6–12 in AAC play to finish in a tie for ninth place. They defeated South Florida in the first round of the AAC Tournament before losing in the quarterfinals to Houston.

References

  1. "Opportunities for The Hartford Civic Center" (PDF). The Connecticut Development Authority. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2008.
  2. "Ground is Broken For the Civic Center". Hartford Courant . April 2, 1971. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
  3. Swift, Mike (January 9, 1995). "A Quiet Hartford Civic Center Turns 20 Today". Hartford Courant . Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  4. 1634 to 1699: Harris, P. (1996). "Inflation and Deflation in Early America, 1634–1860: Patterns of Change in the British American Economy". Social Science History . 20 (4): 469–505. JSTOR   1171338. 1700-1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How much is that in real money?: a historical price index for use as a deflator of money values in the economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–" . Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  5. Modern concrete: Volume 40. Chicago: Pit & Quarry Publications. 1976. p. 20.
  6. 1 2 "XL Center". Emporis. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
  7. "Failure Cases - Hartford Civic Center". Materials Education and Research Pathway. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
  8. Jacobs, Jeff (February 3, 2013). "Secrecy On XL Center, Rentschler Plans Isn't Helping Matters". Hartford Courant . Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  9. Gosselin, Kenneth R. (February 7, 2013). "Philadelphia Group Picked To Run XL Center, Rentschler Field". Hartford Courant . Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  10. Gammell, Ben. "Almost a Tragedy: The Collapse of the Hartford Civic Center".
  11. Martin, Rachel. "Hartford Civic Center Arena Roof Collapse". University of Alabama at Birmingham. Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
  12. Jacobs, Jeff (October 5, 2010). "XL Center Gets New Video Boards". Hartford Courant . Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  13. "ECAC Men's Basketball Tournaments". Varsity Pride. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  14. "1977 ECAC Men's Basketball Tournaments". Varsity Pride. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  15. "XL Center (Hartford, CT)". University of Connecticut Department of Athletics. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  16. Catlin, Roger. "'83 Hartford Show Latest "Dick's Pick"". courant.com. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  17. Broun, Sara (October 6, 2011). "PBR Built Ford Tough Series Visits Hartford for First Time". Professional Bull Riders. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  18. "2016 Kellogg's Tour of Gymnastics Champions takes center stage beginning Sept. 15". usagym.org. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  19. "1979-80 Hartford Whalers Results and Schedule". Hockey Database. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
  20. McGowen, Deane (March 22, 1981). "Duguay Gets 2 Goals As Rangers Win, 6-4". The New York Times . Retrieved February 27, 2013.
  21. Berlet, Bruce (February 13, 1984). "Whalers Drill Oilers, 11-0, Flood Record Books". Hartford Courant . Retrieved February 27, 2013.
  22. 1 2 3 Jacobs, Jeff (March 27, 1992). "Playoff Sales Are Down". Hartford Courant . Retrieved February 27, 2013.
  23. Clinton, Jared (February 20, 2015). "Hartford Looking at Upgrades for XL Center – Could the NHL Come Back?". The Hockey News . Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  24. Basketball Reference https://www.basketball-reference.com/teams/BOS
  25. https://www.courant.com/sports/hc-sp-womens-hockey-usa-canada-rivalry-series-1215-20191215-55y45lo5knbttjoi2roimdaudi-story.html
  26. "Connecticut joins Hockey East". Associated Press. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  27. "UConn hockey's future home to seat 2,700 fans; construction starting in April 2021". SB Nation. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  28. "Evans Scores Twice as Huskies Shutout Merrimack, 5–0". UConn Huskies. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  29. "Huskies Knock Off #3 Boston College, 1–0 in Front of XL Sellout Crowd". UConn Huskies. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  30. "Huskies Win Seventh-Straight on Letunov's OT Winner". UConn Huskies. Retrieved February 10, 2019.

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Part-time.
  2. 1 2 3 Tenure interrupted in 1979 by roof collapse.
Events and tenants
Preceded by
Boston Garden
Springfield Civic Center
Home of the New England / Hartford Whalers
1974–1978
1980–1997
Succeeded by
Springfield Civic Center
Greensboro Coliseum
Preceded by
Madison Square Garden
Home of the New England Sea Wolves
1999–2000
Succeeded by
Air Canada Centre
Preceded by
Olympic Saddledome
Host of NHL All-Star Game
1986
Succeeded by
St. Louis Arena
Preceded by
Broome County Veterans Memorial Arena
Home of the Hartford Wolf Pack/Connecticut Whale
1997-Present
Succeeded by
Current Arena
Preceded by
Madison Square Garden
Host of WrestleMania
1995
Succeeded by
Arrowhead Pond of Anaheim