Bani Suheila

Last updated
Bani Suheila
Arabic transcription(s)
   Arabic بني سهيلا
BaniSuheila Logo.gif
Municipal Logo of Bani Suheila
Palestine location map wide.png
Red pog.svg
Bani Suheila
Location of Bani Suheila within Palestine
Coordinates: 31°20′34″N34°19′31″E / 31.34278°N 34.32528°E / 31.34278; 34.32528 Coordinates: 31°20′34″N34°19′31″E / 31.34278°N 34.32528°E / 31.34278; 34.32528
Palestine grid 85/83
State State of Palestine
Governorate Khan Yunis
Government
  Type City
  Head of Municipality5.1
Area
  Total5,170  dunams (5.17 km2 or 2.00 sq mi)
Population
 (2007)
  Total33,767
Website www.banisuhaila.org

Bani Suheila (Arabic : بني سهيلا) is a Palestinian town in the southern Gaza Strip part of the Khan Yunis Governorate.

Gaza Strip region on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea

The Gaza Strip, or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) and Israel on the east and north along a 51 km (32 mi) border. Gaza and the West Bank are claimed by the State of Palestine.

Khan Yunis Governorate governorate of the Palestinian National Authority

The Khan Yunis Governorate is one of 16 Governorates of Palestine, located in the southern Gaza Strip. Its district capital is Khan Yunis. The governorate has a total population of approximately 280,000. Its land area is 69.61% urban, 12.8% rural and 17.57% comprising the Khan Yunis refugee camp.

Contents

History

The history of these towns goes back to Canaanite, Philistine, and Roman times. Before 1948, these towns boasted numerous khans (inns) for travelers. Khan Yunis owes its name to a Mamluk official who built its large khan in the 14th century.[ citation needed ]

Canaan A Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East

Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region and civilization in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Mamluk Muslim slave soldiers

Mamluk is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to non-muslim slave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin.

For centuries, the coastal area was a main thoroughfare between Egypt and the Mediterranean coast, used by traders and conquering armies alike. The trade route through Gaza to Egypt brought great economic advantage to the area. In previous centuries, the lack of restricting borders enabled unobstructed communication and travel and the intermixing of influences and styles, especially among the Bedouin tribes. This rich agricultural area prospered by settled Bedouin tribes that became active in regional trade on routes connecting Egypt, the Levant, and Arabia. Many families benefited from the increase in regional trade and became large land owners during this time. During Ottoman rule, the Al Qarra clan became the largest land owning family in southern Gaza due to their vast trade networks.[ citation needed ]

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Bedouin group of Arab nomads who have historically inhabited the Arabian and Syrian Deserts

The Bedouin or Bedu are a grouping of nomadic Arab people who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", and is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa to the rocky sands of the Middle East. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, and share a common culture of herding camels and goats. The vast majority of Bedouin adhere to Islam.

Levant Geographic and cultural region consisting of the eastern Mediterranean between Anatolia and Egypt

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean, primarily in Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.

Bani Suheila was marked Maatadieh Village on Jacotin’s map surveyed during Napoleon's 1799 invasion. [1]

Pierre Jacotin French geographer

Pierre Jacotin (1765–1827) was named director of all the surveyors and geographers working in the Nile Valley in 1799 during the campaign in Egypt of Napoleon. Later on, he also prepared maps of Palestine during Napoleon's campaign there.

French campaign in Egypt and Syria military conflict

The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Ottoman territories of Egypt and Syria, proclaimed to defend French trade interests, weaken Britain's access to British India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region. It was the primary purpose of the Mediterranean campaign of 1798, a series of naval engagements that included the capture of Malta.

In 1838, Edward Robinson called it Beni Sehileh, located in Gaza. [2] In 1863, the French explorer Victor Guérin found Bani Suheila to have about 1300 inhabitants, [3] while an official Ottoman village list of about 1870 showed 209 houses and a population of 440, though the population count included men, only. [4] [5]

Edward Robinson (scholar) American Biblical scholar

Edward Robinson was an American biblical scholar. He studied in the United States and Germany, a center of biblical scholarship and exploration of the Bible as history. He translated scriptural works from classical languages, as well as German translations. His Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament became a standard authority in the United States, and was reprinted several times in Great Britain.

Victor Guérin French archaeologist

Victor Guérin was a French intellectual, explorer and amateur archaeologist. He published books describing the geography, archeology and history of the areas he explored, which included Greece, Asia Minor, North Africa, Syria and Palestine.

As recorded in 1886, Bani Suheila was a large village counting one hundred and twenty huts, partly built of stone, partly of adobe, and surrounded by gardens of water-melons, figs, palms, jummez, apricots and legumes. In the north a good but deep well, worked by a camel, supplied the town with drinking water. Near the town, in Sheikh Yusuf several ancient remains, including small twisted marble columns and building stones were found. [6]

Adobe Building material made from earth and organic materials

Adobe is a building material made from earth and organic materials. Adobe is Spanish for mudbrick, but in some English-speaking regions of Spanish heritage, the term is used to refer to any kind of earth construction. Most adobe buildings are similar in appearance to cob and rammed earth buildings. Adobe is among the earliest building materials, and is used throughout the world.

British era

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Bani Suheila had a population of 1,043 inhabitants, all Muslim, [7] increasing in the 1931 census to 2,063, still all Muslims, in 406 houses. [8]

At the end of the Mandate period, in the 1945 statistics, Bani Suheila had a population of 3,220, all Muslims, [9] with 11,128 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. [10] Of this, 54 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 10,639 used for cereals, [11] while 97 dunams were built-up land. [12]

Post 1948

During the night of August 31, 1955, Israeli armed forces attacked Bani Suheila. [13] On April 5, 1956 Israeli artillery shelled the town. [14]

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics the population of Bani Suheila had grown to 32,800 people in mid-year 2006. [15] [16] The city is currently under Hamas administration.

Related Research Articles

Hamama Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Hamama was a Palestinian town of over 5,000 inhabitants that was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It was located 24 kilometers north of Gaza, between Ashkelon and Ashdod.

Jabalia Municipality A in North Gaza, State of Palestine

Jabalia also Jabalya is a Palestinian city located 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) north of Gaza City. It is under the jurisdiction of the North Gaza Governorate, in the Gaza Strip. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Jabalia had a population of 82,877 in mid‑2006. The Jabalia refugee camp is adjacent to the city to the north. The nearby town of Nazla is a part of the Jabalia municipality. The city is currently ruled by a Hamas administration.

Barbara, Gaza Former village in Israel

Barbara was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict located 17 km northeast of Gaza city, in the vicinity of modern Ashkelon. It had an entirely Arab population of 2,410 in 1945. The village consisted of nearly 14,000 dunums of which approximately 12,700 dunums was able to be cultivated. It was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

Qatanna Municipality C in Jerusalem, State of Palestine

Qatanna is a Palestinian town in the central West Bank part of the Jerusalem Governorate, located 12 km. northwest of Jerusalem. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of approximately 7,500 inhabitants in 2006. Primary health care for the town is level 2.

Jammala Municipality C in Ramallah and al-Bireh, State of Palestine

Jammala is a Palestinian town in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate, located 18 kilometers Northwest of Ramallah in the northern West Bank. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), the town had a population of 1,453 inhabitants in mid-year 2006.

Artuf Village in Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine

Artuf was a Palestinian village in the Jerusalem foothills depopulated in 1948. It was situated 21.5 kilometers (13.4 mi) west of Jerusalem on a high plateau, surrounded by plains on the south, east, and west. The village was on a secondary road that linked it to the main road to Jerusalem.

Deir Nidham Municipality D in Ramallah and al-Bireh, State of Palestine

Deir Nidham is a Palestinian village in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate in the central West Bank. It is located approximately 23 kilometers (14 mi) northwest of the city of Ramallah and its elevation is 590 meters (1,940 ft). According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) 2007 census, the town had a population of 879.

Dimra Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Dimra was a small Palestinian Arab village located 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) northeast of Gaza City. Ancient remains at the site attest to longtime settlement there. During the era of Mamluk rule in Palestine, the town was the home of the Bani Jabir tribe. Depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, the Israeli kibbutz of Erez was founded in 1949 on part of the former village's lands.

Dayr Sunayd Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Dayr Sunayd was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict, located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) northeast of Gaza. Situated at an elevation of 50 meters (160 ft) along the southern coastal plain of Palestine, Deir Sunayd had a total land area of 6,081 dunams. Prior to its depopulation during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, it had 730 inhabitants in 1945.

Bayt Tima Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Bayt Tima was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict, located 21 kilometers (13 mi) northeast of Gaza and some 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the coastline. It was situated in flat terrain on the southern coastal plain of Palestine. Bayt Tima was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Its population in 1945 was 1,060.

Al-Batani al-Sharqi Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Al-Batani al-Sharqi was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict, located 36.5 kilometers (22.7 mi) northeast of Gaza situated in the flat terrain on the southern coastal plain of Palestine. It had a population of 650 in 1945. Al-Batani al-Sharqi was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

Al-Batani al-Gharbi Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Al-Batani al-Gharbi was a Palestinian village in the Gaza Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine on May 13, 1948, by the Giv'ati Brigade under Operation Barak. It was located 36 km northeast of Gaza.

Bayt Affa Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Bayt 'Affa was a Palestinian village in the Gaza Subdistrict. It was depopulated and destroyed during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine. It was located 29 km northeast of Gaza and Wadi al-Rana ran east of the village.

Hulayqat Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Hulayqat was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine. It was located 20.5 km northeast of Gaza.

Niilya Village in Gaza, Mandatory Palestine

Ni'ilya was a Palestinian village in the Gaza Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War on November 4, 1948, under Operation Yo'av. It was located 19 km northeast of Gaza in the city territory of modern Ashkelon. The village was defended by the Egyptian Army.

Barqusya Village in Hebron, Mandatory Palestine

Barqusya was a Palestinian Arab village in the Hebron Subdistrict, depopulated in the 1948 Palestine War. It was located 31 km northwest of Hebron.

Sufla Village in Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine

Sufla was a Palestinian Arab village in the Jerusalem Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War on October 19, 1948 by the Sixth Battalion of the Harel Brigade under Operation Ha-Har. It was located 18.5 km west of Jerusalem.

Al-Qubayba, Ramle Village in Ramle, Mandatory Palestine

Al-Qubayba was a Palestinian Arab village in the Ramle Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War on May 27, 1948, by the Givati Brigade as part of the Second stage of Operation Barak. It was located 10.5 km southeast of Ramla near the Rubin River which provided the village with water and irrigation for agriculture. Al-Qubayba was mostly destroyed with the exception of a few houses, and Kfar Gevirol was built in its place, now a suburb in the west of Rehovot.

Nazla Town in North Governorate, Palestine

Nazla is a Palestinian town in the North Governorate of the Gaza Strip. It was formerly a municipality but was merged with the nearby city of Jabalia. Nazla is located a few kilometers north of Gaza City.

References

  1. Karmon, 1960, p. 173
  2. Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Second Appendix, p. 118
  3. Guérin, 1869, p. 251
  4. Socin, 1879, p. 144
  5. Hartmann, 1883, p. 129
  6. Schumacher, 1886, p. 192
  7. Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Gaza, p. 8
  8. Mills, 1932, p. 2
  9. Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 31
  10. Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 45
  11. Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 86
  12. Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 136
  13. al-Sayyid Muḥammad ʻAlī Nawfal (1965) Israel's crime record Information Dept. p. 28
  14. Morris, 1993, p. 388
  15. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Projected Mid -Year Population for Khan Yunis Governorate by Locality 2004- 2006
  16. A Survey of Palestine: Prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry By Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Jewish Problems in Palestine and Europe, United Nations General Assembly. Special Committee on Palestine Published by Institute for Palestine Studies, 1991 ISBN   0-88728-211-3 p 132

Bibliography