Battle of Camden

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Battle of Camden
Part of the American Revolutionary War
Battle of Camden.jpg
Battle of Camden—Death of De Kalb
DateAugust 16, 1780
Location
34°21′52.39″N80°36′50.04″W / 34.3645528°N 80.6139000°W / 34.3645528; -80.6139000 Coordinates: 34°21′52.39″N80°36′50.04″W / 34.3645528°N 80.6139000°W / 34.3645528; -80.6139000
Result Decisive British victory
Belligerents

Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Great Britain

Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg  United States
Commanders and leaders
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Lord Cornwallis
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Lord Rawdon
Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg Horatio Gates
Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg Johann de Kalb  
Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg Marquis de La Rouërie
Strength
2,100
1,500 regulars
600 militia
4 guns
4,000
1,500 regulars
2,500 militia
7-8 guns
Casualties and losses
68 killed
245 wounded
11 missing [1]
900 killed and wounded
1,000 captured [2]
8 guns captured
200+ wagons captured
The Great Wagon Road along which advance forces of both armies met on the night before the battle Great Wagon Road at Camden Battlefield.jpg
The Great Wagon Road along which advance forces of both armies met on the night before the battle

The Battle of Camden was a major victory for the British in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War (American War of Independence). On August 16, 1780, British forces under Lieutenant General Charles, Lord Cornwallis routed the American forces of Major General Horatio Gates about five miles north of Camden, South Carolina, strengthening the British hold on the Carolinas following the capture of Charleston.

Kingdom of Great Britain constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707–1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War

The Southern theatre of the American Revolutionary War was the central area of operations in North America in the second half of the American Revolutionary War. During the first three years of the conflict, the largest military encounters were in the north, focused on campaigns around the cities of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. After the failure of the Saratoga campaign, the British largely abandoned operations in the Middle Colonies and pursued peace through subjugation in the Southern Colonies.

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

Contents

The rout was a humiliating defeat for Gates, the American general best known for commanding the Americans at the British defeat of Saratoga, whose army had possessed a large numerical superiority over the British force. Following the battle, he never held a field command again. His political connections, however, helped him avoid inquiries and courts martial into the debacle.

Battles of Saratoga major turning point of the American Revolutionary War

The Battles of Saratoga marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War. British General John Burgoyne led a large invasion army southward from Canada in the Champlain Valley, hoping to meet a similar British force marching northward from New York City and another British force marching eastward from Lake Ontario; the southern and western forces never arrived, and Burgoyne was surrounded by American forces in upstate New York. He fought two small battles to break out which took place 18 days apart on the same ground, 9 miles (14 km) south of Saratoga, New York. They both failed.

Background

Following the British defeat at Saratoga in 1777, and the Battle of Monmouth in 1778, the French entered the American Revolutionary War in June 1778, followed by the Spanish in June 1779. With the war at a stalemate in the north, the British decided to renew their "southern strategy" to win back their rebellious North American colonies. The strategy relied on the Loyalists joining forces with British regulars to roll northward through North Carolina and Virginia, besieging the rebels in the north on all sides. This campaign repeated the successful December 1778 Capture of Savannah, with Sir Henry Clinton's successful Siege of Charleston in May 1780. British forces then campaigned in the Back Country, capturing the key towns of Georgetown, Cheraw, Camden, Ninety Six, and Augusta. Clinton returned to New York on 5 June 1780, after the southern remnants of the Continental Army were defeated in May 1780 at the Battle of Waxhaws, tasking Lord Cornwallis with the pacification of the remaining portions of the state. [3]

Battle of Monmouth American Revolutionary War battle fought on June 28, 1778

The Battle of Monmouth was fought near Monmouth Court House on June 28, 1778, during the American Revolutionary War. It pitted the Continental Army, commanded by General George Washington, against the British Army in North America, commanded by General Sir Henry Clinton. It was the last battle of the Philadelphia campaign, begun the previous year, during which the British had inflicted two major defeats on Washington and occupied Philadelphia. Washington had spent the winter at Valley Forge rebuilding his army and defending his position against political enemies who favored his replacement as commander-in-chief. In February 1778, the Franco-American alliance tilted the strategic balance in favor of the Americans, forcing the British to abandon hopes of a military victory and adopt a defensive strategy. Clinton was ordered to evacuate Philadelphia and consolidate his army. The Continental Army shadowed the British as they marched across New Jersey to Sandy Hook, from where the Royal Navy would ferry them to New York. Washington's senior officers urged varying degrees of caution, but it was politically important for him not to allow the British to withdraw unscathed. Washington detached around a third of his army and sent it ahead under the command of Major General Charles Lee, hoping to land a heavy blow on the British without becoming embroiled in a major engagement. The battle began badly for the Americans when Lee botched an attack on the British rearguard at Monmouth Court House. A counter-attack by the main British column forced Lee to retreat until Washington arrived with the main body. Clinton disengaged when he found Washington in an unassailable defensive position and resumed the march to Sandy Hook.

Loyalist (American Revolution) Colonists loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolution

Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time. They were opposed by the Patriots, who supported the revolution, and called them "persons inimical to the liberties of America". Prominent Loyalists repeatedly assured the British government that many thousands of them would spring to arms and fight for the crown. The British government acted in expectation of that, especially in the southern campaigns in 1780-81. In practice, the number of Loyalists in military service was far lower than expected since Britain could not effectively protect them except in those areas where Britain had military control. The British were often suspicious of them, not knowing whom they could fully trust in such a conflicted situation; they were often looked down upon. Patriots watched suspected Loyalists very closely and would not tolerate any organized Loyalist opposition. Many outspoken or militarily active Loyalists were forced to flee, especially to their stronghold of New York City. William Franklin, the royal governor of New Jersey and son of Patriot leader Benjamin Franklin, became the leader of the Loyalists after his release from a Patriot prison in 1778. He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected.

Capture of Savannah Battle of the American War of Independence

The Capture of Savannah, or sometimes the First Battle of Savannah, was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on December 29, 1778 pitting local American Patriot militia and Continental Army units, holding the city, against a British invasion force under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell. The British seizure of the city led to an extended occupation and was the opening move in the British southern strategy to regain control of the rebellious Southern provinces by appealing to the relatively strong Loyalist sentiment there.

The Patriot resistance remaining in South Carolina consisted of militia under commanders such as Thomas Sumter, William Davie, and Francis Marion. Washington sent Continental Army regiments south, consisting of the Maryland Line and Delaware Line, under the temporary command of Major General Jean, Baron de Kalb. Departing New Jersey on 16 April 1780, they arrived at the Buffalo Ford on the Deep River, 30 miles south of Greensboro, in July. Horatio Gates, the "Hero of Saratoga" arrived in camp on 25 July 1780, to take command. Two days later, Gates ordered his army to take the direct road to Camden, against the advice of his officers, including Otho Holland Williams. Williams noted the country they were marching through "was by nature barren, abounding with sandy plains, intersected by swamps, and very thinly inhabited," and what few inhabitants they may come across were most likely hostile. All of the troops had been short of food since arrival at the Deep River. [3] :127,129,131,141,151–153

Patriot (American Revolution) American colonist who rejected British rule in the American Revolution

Patriots were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776. Their decision was based on the political philosophy of republicanism as expressed by spokesmen such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Thomas Paine. They were opposed by the Loyalists who supported continued British rule.

Militia (United States) National military force of citizens used in emergencies

The militia of the United States, as defined by the U.S. Congress, has changed over time.

Thomas Sumter American Revolutionary War hero, US Representative from South Carolina

Thomas Sumter was a soldier in the Colony of Virginia militia; a brigadier general in the South Carolina militia during the American War of Independence, a planter, and a politician. After the United States gained independence, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives and to the United States Senate, where he served from 1801 to 1810, when he retired. Sumter was nicknamed the "Carolina Gamecock" for his fierce fighting style against British soldiers after they burned down his house during the Revolution.

On 7 Aug., Gates was joined by 2,100 North Carolina militiamen under the command of General Richard Caswell. At Rugeley's Mill, 15 miles north of Camden, 700 Virginia Militia under the command of General Edward Stevens joined Gates' "Grand Army". In addition, Gates had Armand's Legion. However, at this stage, Gates no longer had the help of Marion's or Sumter's men, and in fact had sent 400 of his Continentals to help Sumter with a planned attack on a British supply convoy. Gates also refused the help of Col. William Washington's cavalry. Apparently Gates planned on building defensive works 5.5 miles north of Camden in an effort to force British abandonment of that important town. Gates told his aide Thomas Pinckney he had no intention of attacking the British with an army consisting mostly of militia. [3] :154–156,161

Richard Caswell American general

Richard Caswell was the first and fifth governor of the U.S. State of North Carolina, serving from 1776 to 1780 and from 1785 to 1787. He was also major general over all North Carolina militia in 1780 and from 1781 to 1783.

Edward Stevens was an officer in the American Revolutionary War and later a state legislator for Virginia, serving in the Virginia Senate.

Armand's Legion was formed on June 25, 1778 at Boston, Massachusetts under the command of Colonel Charles Armand Tuffin of France, for service with the Continental Army.

Camden was garrisoned by about 1,000 men under Lord Rawdon. [4] General Cornwallis, alerted to Gates' movement on August 9, marched from Charleston with reinforcements, arriving at Camden on August 13, increasing the effective British troop strength to 2,239 men. [3] :157

Gates ordered a night march to commence at 10 PM on the 15th Aug., despite his army of 3,052, of which two-thirds were militia, having never maneuvered together. Unfortunately, their evening meal acted as a purgative while they marched, with Armand's horse in the lead. On a collision course was Cornwallis' army, also on a 10 PM night march, with Tarleton's dragoons in the lead. A short period of confusion ensued when both forces collided around 2 AM, but both sides soon separated, not wanting a night battle. [3] :161–162

Deployments

Battle of Camden initial dispositions and movements, 16 August 1780 Battle of Camden.Dean.USMA.edu.history.gif
Battle of Camden initial dispositions and movements, 16 August 1780

Gates formed up before first light. On his right flank he placed Mordecai Gist's 2nd Maryland (three regiments) and the Delaware Regiment, with Baron de Kalb in overall command of the right wing. On his left flank, he placed Caswell's 1,800 North Carolina militia; to the left of them were Stevens' 700 Virginians, and behind the Virginians were 120 men of Armand's Legion. Gates and staff stayed behind the reserve force, Smallwood's 1st Maryland Regiment, about 200 yards behind the battle line. Thus, the total number of Continentals on the field numbered 900. Gates placed seven guns along the line, manned by about 100 men. Also present, but whose disposition was unknown, were 70 mounted volunteer South Carolinians. Gates' formation, though a typical British practice of the time, placed his weakest troops against the most experienced British regiments, while his best troops would face only the weaker elements of the British forces. [3] :162–163

Cornwallis had roughly 2,239 men, including Loyalist militia and Volunteers of Ireland. Cornwallis also had the infamous and highly experienced Tarleton's Legion, who were formidable in a pursuit situation. Cornwallis formed his army into two brigades. On the right was Lt. Col James Webster, facing the inexperienced militia with the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers and the 33rd Regiment of Foot. Lord Rawdon was in command of the left, facing the Continental Infantry with the Irish Volunteers, Banastre Tarleton's infantry and the Loyalist troops. In reserve, Cornwallis had two battalions of the 71st Regiment of Foot and Tarleton's cavalry force. He also placed four guns in the British center. [3] :163–165 As Gates had done, Cornwallis placed his more experienced units on the right flank, and his less experienced units on the left flank.

Battle

General Horatio Gates, portrait by Gilbert Stuart HoratioGatesByStuart.jpeg
General Horatio Gates, portrait by Gilbert Stuart

Gates ordered Stevens and de Kalb to attack, while Cornwallis issued the same order to Webster. The 800 strong 33rd Fusiliers advanced with bayonets towards the 2,500 soldiers in the Virginia and North Carolina militia. The militia, however, had never used bayonets before. The American left wing collapsed as the Virginians and then the North Carolinians fled. The Virginians fled so fast that they only suffered 3 wounded. The North Carolinians fled all the way back to Hillsborough, North Carolina. [3] :166–167,170

According to Williams, referring to the British charge, "the impetuosity with which they advanced, firing and huzzaing, threw the whole body of militia into such a panic that they generally threw down their loaded arms and fled in the utmost consternation. The unworthy example of the Virginians was almost instantly followed by the North Carolinians." [3] :166 [5] :31

Furthermore, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson, then governor of Virginia, "picture it as bad as you possibly can and it will not be as bad as it really is." [3] :167

A member of the North Carolina militia, Garret Watts, later confessed, "It was instantaneous. There was no effort to rally, no encouragement to fight. Officers and men joined in the flight. I threw away my gun..." [3] :167

Rawdon's troops advanced in two charges, but heavy fire repulsed his regiments. The Continental troops then launched a counterattack which came close to breaking Rawdon's line, which began to falter. Cornwallis rode to his left flank and steadied Rawdon's men. Instead of pursuing the fleeing militia, Webster wheeled to the left, into the Continentals. One of the North Carolina militia brigades that had been stationed next to the Delaware Line held its ground, the only militia unit to do so. [3] :168

De Kalb called up the reserve 1st Maryland Brigade to support the 2nd, but they could get no closer than several hundred feet. However, as Lt. Col. Benjamin Ford of the 6th Maryland Regiment stated to Williams' entreaties, "We are outnumbered and outflanked. See the enemy charge with bayonets." With the British closing in on three sides, Cornwallis ordered Tarleton's cavalry to charge into the rear of the Continental line. The cavalry charge broke up the formation of the Continental troops, who finally broke and fled. However, Gist was able to move 100 Continentals in good order through a swamp, where the cavalry could not follow. Additionally, about 50 to 60 Maryland Line Continentals, under the leadership of Maj. Archibald Anderson, Lt. Col. John Eager Howard, and Capt. Robert Kirkwood, were able to retreat in good order. [3] :168–169

According to Tarleton, "rout and slaughter ensued in every quarter." [3] :169 [5] :64

De Kalb, attempting to rally his men, was unhorsed, and would die of his numerous wounds (11 in total; 8 by bayonet and 3 by musket balls) two days later as a British prisoner. [5] :46 After just one hour of combat, the American troops had been utterly defeated, suffering over 2,000 casualties. Tarleton's cavalry pursued and harried the retreating Continental troops for some 22 miles (35 km) before drawing rein. By that evening, Gates, mounted on a swift horse, had taken refuge 60 miles (97 km) away in Charlotte, North Carolina. [4] [3] :168–172

According to Charles Stedman, one of Cornwallis' officers, "The road for some miles was strewn with the wounded and killed who had been overtaken by the legion in their pursuit. The numbers of dead horses, broken wagons, and baggage scattered on the road formed a perfect scene of horror and confusion: Arms, knapsacks, and accoutrements found were innumerable; such was the terror and dismay of the Americans." [3] :170

Casualties

The British casualties were 68 killed, 245 wounded and 11 missing. [1] Hugh Rankin says, "of the known dead, 162 were Continentals, 12 were South Carolina militiamen, 3 were Virginia militiamen and 63 were North Carolina militiamen". [6] David Ramsay says, "290 American wounded prisoners were carried into Camden after this action. Of this number, 206 were Continentals, 82 were North Carolina militia and 2 were Virginia militia. The resistance made by each corps may in some degree be estimated from the number of wounded. The Americans lost the whole of their artillery - 8 field pieces, upwards of 200 wagons and the greatest part of their baggage." [7] A letter from Cornwallis to Lord George Germain, dated 21 August 1780, says that his army took "about one thousand Prisoners, many of whom wounded" on August 18. [8] The website Documentary History of the Battle of Camden, 16 August 1780 details on its Officer Casualties at Camden page the fates of 48 Continental officers at Camden: 5 were killed, 4 died of wounds, 4 were wounded without being captured, 11 were wounded and captured and 24 were captured without being wounded. These ratios would suggest that a significant number of the Americans wounded in the battle escaped capture.

Analysis

There are many reasons given for Gates' defeat. The most prominent are the following:

Tactical evaluation

Gates, as a former British officer, was accustomed to the traditional British deployment of the most experienced regiments on the place of honor: the right flank of the battle line. Gates had therefore placed the Continental regiments on his right flank, and the mass of militia which had joined him—of whom nearly all of the Virginians had never been in a battle—on the left flank, facing the most experienced British regiments. Gates was also too far behind his troops to observe the battle or see what the British were doing. [3] :162–163,165 Tarleton claims Gates made four errors, including not taking a stronger position on Saunders' Creek before Cornwallis arrived, moving his army at night, the placement of his militia, and the adjustment of his disposition just before battle. [5] :65

Strategic evaluation

Aside from tactics on the battlefield, Gates had made several strategic errors before joining the battle:

Aftermath

Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds Banastre-Tarleton-by-Joshua-Reynolds.jpg
Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds

Gates proceeded onwards to Hillsborough, a distance of 180 miles, where he arrived on the 19th and then composed his report to Congress on 20 Aug. [3] :170–171 The report to the President of the Continental Congress, Samuel Huntington, began, "In deepest Distress and Anxiety of Mind, I am obliged to acquaint your Excellency with the Total Defeat of the Troops under my Command." [5] :19 In a 30 Aug. letter to George Washington, Gates wrote,

But if being unfortunate is solely a Reason sufficient for removing me from Command I shall most cheerfully submit to the Orders of Congress; and resign an office few Generals would be anxious to possess..." [5] :22

Gates lost control of the southern army. However, Daniel Morgan and Nathanael Greene defended Gates' actions, but not his decision to fight. Major General Greene, George Washington's original preference, was subsequently given command of the southern army. [3] :150,171

Gates, who had strong political connections in the Continental Congress, successfully avoided inquiries into the debacle.

Legacy

The Camden Battlefield is located about 5.5 miles (8.9 km) north of Camden. Approximately 479 acres of the core of the battlefield is owned by the Palmetto Conservation Foundation, and is undergoing preservation in private-public partnership. The original five acres were owned by the Hobkirk Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution who gave their portion over to the current owners. The site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961, and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.

Aspects of the battle were included in the 2000 movie The Patriot , in which Ben and Gabriel Martin are seen watching a similar battle. Ben comments at the stupidity of Gates fighting "muzzle to muzzle with Redcoats". The film is not historically accurate, depicting too many Continental troops relative to the number of militia, and showing the Continentals and militia retreating at the same time.

Order of battle

Notes

  1. 1 2 Boatner, p. 169
  2. Sava, Dameron p.252
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Buchanan, John (1997). The Road to Guilford Courthouse. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 26,71,80. ISBN   9780471327165.
  4. 1 2 "The Battle of Camden". Revolutionarywar101.com. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Piecuch, Jim (2006). The Battle of Camden. Charleston: The History Press. ISBN   9781596291447.
  6. Rankin, p. 244
  7. Ramsay, p. 169
  8. ‘Letter from Charles, the Earl, Cornwallis to Lord George Germain, dated 21 August 1780, State Records of North Carolina XV:269-273.
  9. 1 2 Lewis, J.D. "The American Revolution in North Carolina, Battle of Camden" . Retrieved March 24, 2019.

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References