Chapman Stick

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Chapman Stick
10 string Chapman Stick.jpg
Ten-stringed Chapman Stick
String instrument
Classification String
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 321.322
(Composite chordophone)
Inventor(s) Emmett Chapman
Developed1970s
Related instruments

The Chapman Stick is an electric musical instrument devised by Emmett Chapman in the early 1970s. A member of the guitar family, the Chapman Stick usually has ten or twelve individually tuned strings and is used to play bass lines, melody lines, chords, or textures. Designed as a fully polyphonic chordal instrument, it can also cover several of these musical parts simultaneously. [1]

Contents

The Stick is available with passive or active pickup modules that are plugged into a separate instrument amplifier. With a special synthesizer pickup, it can be used to trigger synthesizers and send MIDI messages to electronic instruments.

Description and playing position

Saltatio Mortis bandmember Bruder Frank. Saltatio Mortis, member "Bruder Frank", 2009.JPG
Saltatio Mortis bandmember Bruder Frank.
Imagine creating music on a stringed instrument that is simultaneously a guitar, a bass, a piano, and percussion. Add unlimited electronic capabilities and forward-thinking playing techniques for ultimate expression. Now, design a tuning to make navigation of the instrument amazingly simple, and streamline the look and feel for optimal accessibility. This instrument already exists as the Chapman Stick.

Steve Adelson describing the Chapman Stick in Guitar Player magazine [1]

A Stick looks like a wide version of the fretboard of an electric guitar, but with 8, 10, or 12 strings. It is, however, considerably longer and wider than a guitar fretboard. Unlike the electric guitar, it is usually played by tapping or fretting the strings, rather than plucking them. Instead of one hand fretting and the other hand plucking, both hands sound notes by striking the strings against the fingerboard "behind" (in guitar parlance, this means a short distance towards the tuning machines) on the appropriate frets for the desired notes.

For this reason, it can sound many more notes at once than some other stringed instruments, making it more comparable to a keyboard instrument than to other stringed instruments. This arrangement lends itself to playing many lines at once, and many Stick players have mastered performing bass, chords, and melody lines simultaneously. [2]

Typically, the Chapman Stick is held via a belt-hook and a shoulder strap. The player hooks the instrument onto the belt and places the head and dominant arm through the shoulder strap. The instrument then settles into a position approximately 30 to 40 degrees from vertical, which allows both of the player's hands to naturally and comfortably address the fretboard. The player then hammers onto the strings with the fingertips in the same way that one would strike a piano key. The technique is very similar to that of the piano inasmuch as the player covers both bass and melody notes together with both hands, and each note is struck with one finger of one hand. Typically, one hand plays the melody on the treble strings and the other plays rhythm on the bass strings.

A musician bowing the Stick. Michael bowing the stick (2941862898).jpg
A musician bowing the Stick.

A seated playing position (which keeps the stick in a similar playing position relative to the player as the standing position) is also popular, wherein a cross-member is laid upon the knees of the seated player and the stick's belthook rests upon the crossmember. [3] [4]

The first Stick prototype Chapman-prototype.jpg
The first Stick prototype

In 1969, jazz guitarist Emmett Chapman developed the two-handed tapping technique (in which both hands play parallel to the frets) and applied it to his playing. At the time, Chapman was playing a 9-string long-scale guitar, but decided to develop a new instrument for use with "free hands" to use the method's full potential. The Chapman Stick took five years to develop, during which Chapman also opted to set up a business to sell it. The first production model of the Stick was launched in 1974. On October 10 of the same year, Chapman brought his instrument to public attention by demonstrating it on the game show What's My Line? [5]

Former Weather Report bassist Alphonso Johnson was among the first musicians to introduce the Chapman Stick to the public. Session player Tony Levin was also an early user and was playing the instrument from the mid-1970s: he would bring it to sessions and tours with Peter Gabriel, and featured it in his work as a member of King Crimson from 1981 onwards. He would also use it with Liquid Tension Experiment and in sessions for bands including Pink Floyd and Yes. Levin formed the band Stick Men, consisting of one drummer and two Stick players.

Emmett Chapman playing an early Stick in 1969. Emmett chapman 1969.jpg
Emmett Chapman playing an early Stick in 1969.

Recordings that have been influential on Stick players, because of the prominent role the Stick plays, include the 1981 King Crimson album Discipline (played by Tony Levin) and Emmett Chapman's own album Parallel Galaxy . Amy Grant's hit single "Angels" also featured a Stick solo (played by Andy Widders-Ellis).

The Stick made a disguised appearance in David Lynch's film Dune as Gurney Halleck's baliset, although the scene where Halleck (played by Patrick Stewart) plays the instrument was removed from the theatrical version and can only be seen in the extended versions. The piece being played in the scene is from Emmett Chapman's recording of his original song "Back Yard" from a cassette recording.

Wayne Lytle, creator of Animusic, commented that on his piece "Stick Figures", his inspiration for the semi-anthropomorphic bass guitar was the Chapman Stick.

Technical details

Construction

Brazilian pau ferro (ironwood) Stick manufactured in the 1980s Pauferro chapman stick.JPG
Brazilian pau ferro (ironwood) Stick manufactured in the 1980s

Chapman Sticks have been made from many materials. [6] The first were made from hardwoods, most from ironwood, but some from ebony and other exotic woods, until the early 1980s. The next group was made from an injection-molded polycarbonate resin through 1989. These were followed by one-piece hardwood structures with an adjustable truss rod, and for a time from 2001 to the mid-to-late 2000s (although not currently available), the "Stick XG" (Extended Graphite) was made of structural graphite, continuous strand carbon fiber. Today, they are made from laminated hardwoods (including padauk, Indian rosewood, tarara, maple, wenge, and mahogany), and laminated bamboo, as well as graphite.

A close-up of the headstock. Chapman stick head.JPG
A close-up of the headstock.

In contrast to the guitar or bass, the Stick is set up with very little relief in the fretboard. It is very flat compared to a guitar, which has a slight bow. Combined with a long scale length, stainless steel pyramidal fret rails, very low string action, and very sensitive pickups, this setup is advantageous to the tapping style of play. The rear surface of the instrument is not curved like a guitar neck, but has deep-beveled edges (also a design trademark of the Stick).

Tuning

Tony Levin live at Toad's Place Tony Levin at Toad's Place, New Haven, CT 2006.jpg
Tony Levin live at Toad's Place

The original (now called "Classic") tuning consists of five bass strings (six on the Grand Sticks), tuned upwards in all-fifths tuning, with the low string in the middle of the fretboard, and five melody strings (6 on Grand Stick), tuned upwards (this means from lowest-pitched string to highest-pitched string) in all-fourths tuning, again with the low string in the middle of the fretboard.

The hardware is fully adjustable to accommodate any gauge string at any position. On the 36"-scale instrument, notes can range from low C (above B on a 5-string bass) to high D (a whole step below the high E string on guitar). On the two guitar-scale models (Alto Stick and Stick Guitar), the notes range from F below guitar low E to F# above guitar high E.

A variety of Sticks. Chapman Sticks.jpg
A variety of Sticks.

Tuning configurations may change depending on the player's style: a player playing as a lead instrument will choose an overall higher pitch tuning, with more separation or overlap between the melody and bass courses.

The stringing/tuning configuration of the Chapman Stick is advantageous to the player who wishes to play large, fully voiced chords with close inner-note relationships. In contrast to a standard guitar, where one tends to "run out of options" within a particular fingering, the Stick tuning results in up to four or even five octaves of note choices under each hand's fretting position.

The classic tuning shows another advantage as well: The regular tunings in fourths and fifths remain consistent in each of the two parts of the instrument; regular tunings facilitate learning by beginners, as well as transposition and improvisation by advanced players. Also, the bass/melody division allows microtonal tunings.

The manufacturer's website has more detailed information on tunings. [7]

Electronics

The Stick is available with passive or active pickup modules. Customized Roland GK-3 pickups are available for the treble or bass side of the instrument, allowing the instrument to trigger or control one or two guitar synthesizers such as the Roland GR-20 or Axon AX-100, and also to drive other MIDI instruments or sequencers chained to the guitar synthesizer. The hammer-on style of playing produces a rising waveform transient that is easily tracked by this type of device.

Standard output is two-channel, through a TRS 1/4" phone connector, with bass and melody courses output separately. There are separate volume controls for bass and melody. The ACTV-2 and PASV-4 pickup modules also have mono operation modes.

The Stick can be plugged into any standard guitar amp or bass amplifier, to good effect. However, because of the very high impedance of the passive pickups, an instrument preamp is often employed, especially for full-range amplification systems (PA system, keyboard amps, etc.).

British musician Nick Beggs uses a Grand Stick, fully MIDI-capable of triggering from both bass and melody strings. He has named this modified instrument the "Virtual Stick".

Models

Currently, there are eight models of the Chapman Stick. Some string configurations are mentioned below, but current production models offer any tuning within physical limitations of stringing:

Currently, the Stick, Grand Stick, and Stick Bass are 36"-scale, but the older production models were 34" scale.

Stick Enterprises has also manufactured some custom and limited-run instruments:

List of notable players and ensembles

See also

Related Research Articles

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The classical guitar is a member of the guitar family used in classical music. An acoustic wooden string instrument with strings made of gut or nylon, it is a precursor of the modern acoustic and electric guitars, both of which use metal strings. Classical guitars are derived from the Spanish vihuela and gittern in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, which later evolved into the seventeenth and eighteenth-century Baroque guitar and later the modern classical guitar in the mid-nineteenth century.

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The Megatar is a stringed musical instrument designed to be played using a two-handed tapping technique. It is manufactured by the American company Mobius Megatar.

Dingwall Designer Guitars

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References

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  2. "Chapman Stick Performance by Guillaume Estace" . Retrieved 2009-07-07.
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-08. Retrieved 2014-09-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  6. Chapman, Emmett. "timeline of Stick advancements". www.stick.com. Stick Enterprises, Inc. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  7. "Stick Tunings". www.stick.com. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  8. N/A, N/A. "Chapman Stick StickBass SB7". Bass Guitar Museum. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
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  13. "StickXBL Offers Extended Scale". HarmonyCentral.com, Inc. 2003-07-19. Archived from the original on 2008-12-07. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
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