Cordia

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Cordia
Cordia boisseri flowers.jpg
Cordia boissieri in bloom
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Boraginales
Family: Boraginaceae
Subfamily: Cordioideae
Genus:Cordia
L.
Type species
Cordia myxa
L. [1]
Species

See text

Synonyms

Cerdana Ruiz & Pav.
CordiadaVell.
CordiopsisDesv.
LithocardiumKuntze
RhabdocalyxLindl.
SebestenAdans.
SebestenaBoehm. [2]

Contents

Cordia is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It contains about 300 species of shrubs and trees, that are found worldwide, mostly in warmer regions. Many of the species are commonly called manjack, while bocote may refer to several Central American species in Spanish. The generic name honours German botanist and pharmacist Valerius Cordus (1515-1544). [3] Like most other Boraginaceae, the majority have trichomes (hairs) on the leaves.

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Flowering plant clade of flowering plants (in APG I-III)

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion and sperma ("seed").

Borage species of plant

Borage, also known as a starflower, is an annual herb in the flowering plant family Boraginaceae. It is native to the Mediterranean region and has naturalized in many other locales. It grows satisfactorily in gardens in the UK climate, remaining in the garden from year to year by self-seeding. The leaves are edible and the plant is grown in gardens for that purpose in some parts of Europe. The plant is also commercially cultivated for borage seed oil extracted from its seeds. The plant contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, some of which are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic.

Taxonomy

The taxonomy of Cordia is complex and controversial. Gottschling et al. (2005) say this is partly due to "extraordinarily high intraspecific variability" in some groups of species, making identification difficult, and partly due to new taxa having been "airily described on the basis of poorly preserved herbarium specimens". [4]

Selected species

<i>Cordia africana</i> Cordia africana

Cordia africana is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, that is native to Africa.

<i>Cordia alliodora</i> species of plant

Cordia alliodora is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, that is native to the American tropics. It is commonly known as Spanish elm, Ecuador laurel, cypre or salmwood. It can reach 35 m in height.

Lorenz Oken German naturalist

Lorenz Oken was a German naturalist, botanist, biologist, and ornithologist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach, Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. He went on to the University of Göttingen, where he became a Privatdozent, and shortened his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken, he published a small work entitled Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, mit der darauf gegründeten Classification der Thiere (1802). This was the first of a series of works which established him as a leader of the movement of "Naturphilosophie" in Germany.

laylay, white manjack, wild clammy cherry

Formerly placed here

Ecology

Cordia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, such as Endoclita malabaricus , Bucculatrix caribbea , and Bucculatrix cordiaella . [11] The wild olive tortoise beetle ( Physonota alutacea ) feeds on C. boissieri , C. dentata , C. inermis , and C. macrostachya . [12]

Caterpillar Larva of a butterfly

Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera.

Lepidoptera Order of insects including moths and butterflies

Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera.

Endoclita malabaricus is a species of moth of the family Hepialidae. It is known from India.

Uses

Ornamental

Many cordias have fragrant, showy flowers and are popular in gardens, although they are not especially hardy. [13]

Garden planned space set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants

A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which display wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden. Some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all.

As food

A number of the tropical species have edible fruits, known by a wide variety of names including clammy cherries, glue berries, sebesten, or snotty gobbles. In India, the fruits of local species are used as a vegetable, raw, cooked, or pickled, and are known by many names, including lasora in Hindi. One such species is fragrant manjack ( C. dichotoma ), which is called gunda or tenti dela in Hindi and lasura in Nepali. The fruit of the Fragrant Manjack is called phoà-pò·-chí (破布子), 樹子仔, or 樹子(Pe̍h-ōe-jī: chhiū-chí) in Taiwan where they are eaten pickled.

Glue

The white, gooey inner pulp of the fruits is traditionally used to make glue.[ citation needed ]

Wood

The wood of several Cordia species is commercially harvested. Ecuador laurel ( C. alliodora ), ziricote ( C. dodecandra ), Spanish elm ( C. gerascanthus ), and C. goeldiana are used to make furniture and doors in Central and South America. [13]

Ziricote [14] and bocote [15] are sometimes used as wood for making acoustic guitar backs and sides. Well-known guitarist Richard Thompson currently plays a Lowden F-35C RT Richard Thompson Signature Model with ziricote back and sides. [16] Similarly, drums are made from C. abyssinica , C. millenii , and C. platythrysa due to the resonance of the wood. [17]

Related Research Articles

Boraginaceae Family of plants

Boraginaceae, the borage- or forget-me-notfamily, includes a variety of shrubs, trees, and herbs, totaling about 2,000 species in 146 genera found worldwide.

<i>Bombax</i> genus of plants

Bombax is a genus of mainly tropical trees in the mallow family. They are native to western Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and the subtropical regions of East Asia and northern Australia. It is distinguished from the genus Ceiba, which has whiter flowers.

<i>Cordia sebestena</i> species of plant

Cordia sebestena is a shrubby tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, native to the American tropics. It ranges from southern Florida in the United States and the Bahamas, southwards throughout Central America and the Greater Antilles. Common names have included siricote or kopté (Mayan) in 19th Century northern Yucatán, scarlet cordia in Jamaica, and Geiger tree in Florida.

Hesperetin chemical compound

Hesperetin is the 4'-methoxy derivative of eriodictyol, a flavanone. Hesperetin's 7-O-glycoside, hesperidin, is a naturally occurring flavanon-glycoside, the main flavonoid in lemons and sweet oranges. Hesperetin are not found to a significant extent in Citrus spp.

<i>Carmona</i> (plant) genus of plants

Carmona is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as scorpionbush.

<i>Cordia subcordata</i> species of plant

Cordia subcordata is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, that occurs in eastern Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific Islands. The plant is known by a variety of names including beach cordia, sea trumpet, and kerosene wood, among others.

<i>Bourreria</i> genus of plants

Bourreria is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as strongbark or strongback. The generic name was chosen by Patrick Browne to honour German pharmacist Johann Ambrosius Beurer. The genus is native to the Americas, where species are distributed from Mexico to northern South America, and in the Caribbean and Florida in the United States. The center of diversity is in the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico.

<i>Cordia myxa</i> species of plant

Cordia myxa is a species of flowering plant in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized broad-leaved deciduous tree. Common names include Assyrian plum, lasura, pidar, panugeri, naruvilli, geduri, spistan, burgund dulu wanan and ntege. It is found growing primarily in Asia, as well as, across the globe especially in tropical regions having the right type of geophysical environment. In the Indian subcontinent, it is seen coming up naturally and growing abundantly from Myanmar in the east to Afghanistan in the west. Its habitat starts at about 200 m above mean sea level in the plains and ascends to an altitude around 1,500 m in the hills.

<i>Cordia boissieri</i> species of plant

Cordia boissieri is a species of flowering shrub or small tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae. Its native range extends from southern Texas in the United States south to central Mexico. Common names include anacahuita, Mexican olive, white cordia, and Texas wild olive. It is named after botanist Pierre Edmond Boissier.

<i>Ehretia</i> genus of plants

Ehretia is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It contains about 50 species. The generic name honors German botanical illustrator Georg Dionysius Ehret (1708–1770).

<i>Ehretia anacua</i> species of plant

Ehretia anacua is medium-sized tree found in eastern Mexico and southern Texas in the United States. It is a member of the borage family, Boraginaceae. One of its common names, anacua, is derived from the Mexican Spanish word anacahuite, as is that of the related Cordia boissieri, the anacahuita. That word in turn is derived from the Nahuatl words āmatl, meaning "paper," and quatitl, meaning "tree," possibly referring to the bark. It is also known as knockaway, a corruption of anacua, and sandpaper tree. Alternate spellings are anaqua and anachua.

C. domestica may refer to:

<i>Cordia dichotoma</i> species of plant

Cordia dichotoma is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, that is native to the Indomalaya ecozone, northern Australia, and western Melanesia. Common names include fragrant manjack, snotty gobbles, cummingcordia, glue berry, anonang, pink pearl, bird lime tree, Indian cherry, Booch (Hindi), लसोड़ा LasodaTenti टेंटी, Dela डेला or Gunda (Hindi), Lasura (Nepali) and Bhokarभोकर (Marathi). The fruit is known as phoà-pò·-chí (破布子), 樹子仔, or 樹子 in Taiwan. गुंदा (Gunda) Gujarati

C. dichotoma may refer to:

<i>Cordia sinensis</i> species of plant

Cordia sinensis is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae. The species’ range extend from South Africa, through East Africa Madagascar and the Middle East to the Indian Subcontinent and Eastern Indochina. There is also a disjunct native population in Senegal. The species has become naturalised in Eastern Australia. Common names include grey-leaved saucer berry, grey-leaved cordia, marer, mnya mate and mkamasi.

Cordia platythyrsa is a species of flowering plant in the borage family, Boraginaceae, found in Africa and is native to Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The tree grows to over 30 m in height and 1 m in diameter. The wood is pale yellow to almost white in color and used mainly for furniture making, interior joinery, domestic items, canoes, and musical instruments. It has low density (0.5 g/cm3) and is very soft, with a spongy, fibrous texture.

<i>Cordia sulcata</i> species of plant

Cordia sulcata is known commonly as moral, white manjack, or mucilage manjack. It is a tree that can be found throughout the Caribbean islands from Cuba to Trinidad.

<i>Cordia lutea</i> species of plant

Cordia lutea, known as yellow cordia or in Spanish muyuyo, is a shrubby plant in the borage family (Boraginaceae), native to the Galápagos Islands, mainland Ecuador, Peru, and the Marquesas Islands in Polynesia. Common in the arid lowlands of the Galápagos, its relatively large yellow flowers make it easy to identify.

References

  1. "Cordia L." TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  2. "Cordia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  3. Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: A-C. CRC Press. pp. 612–613. ISBN   978-0-8493-2675-2.
  4. Gottschling, Marc; Miller, James S.; Weigend, Maximilian & Hilger, Hartmut H. (2005-10-01). "Congruence of a Phylogeny of Cordiaceae (Boraginales) Inferred from ITS1 Sequence Data with Morphology, Ecology, and Biogeography". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 92 (3): 425–437. JSTOR   40035480.
  5. Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees. 1. Elsevier. pp. 252–260. ISBN   978-0-444-51784-5.
  6. "Cordia dichotoma Forst. f." Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Plant Growth Facilities. University of Connecticut. 2009-10-06. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  7. "Cordia domestica". The Plant List. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  8. "Cordia obliqua". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  9. "Cordia obliqua". The Plant List. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  10. "Species Records of Cordia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  11. Davis, Donald R.; Bernard Landry; Lazaro Roque-albelo (2002). "Two new Neotropical species of Bucculatrix leaf miners (Lepidoptera: Bucculatricidae) reared from Cordia (Boraginaceae)". Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 109 (2): 277–294. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.79591.
  12. Quinn, Mike. "Wild Olive Tortoise Beetle Physonota alutacea Boheman, 1854". Texas Beetle Information. Texas Entomology. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  13. 1 2 Bennett, Masha (2003). Pulmonarias and the Borage Family. Timber Press. pp. 196–198. ISBN   978-0-88192-589-0.
  14. http://www.lmii.com/CartTwo/thirdproducts.asp?CategoryName=+Backs+and+Sides&NameProdHeader=Ziricote Luthiers Mercantile page about Ziricote
  15. http://www.lmii.com/CartTwo/thirdproducts.asp?CategoryName=+Backs+and+Sides&NameProdHeader=Bocote Luthiers Mercantile page about Ziricote
  16. Presad, Anil (October 2009). "Richard Thompson" (PDF). Guitar Player: 50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10.
  17. Tudge, Colin (2007). The Tree. Random House. p. 237. ISBN   978-0-307-39539-9.