Cordia

Last updated

Cordia
Cordia boisseri flowers.jpg
Cordia boissieri in bloom
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Boraginales
Family: Boraginaceae
Subfamily: Cordioideae
Genus: Cordia
L.
Type species
Cordia myxa
L. [1]
Species

See text

Synonyms

Cerdana Ruiz & Pav.
CordiadaVell.
CordiopsisDesv.
LithocardiumKuntze
RhabdocalyxLindl.
SebestenAdans.
SebestenaBoehm. [2]

Contents

Cordia is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It contains about 300 species of shrubs and trees, that are found worldwide, mostly in warmer regions. Many of the species are commonly called manjack, while bocote may refer to several Central American species in Spanish. The generic name honours German botanist and pharmacist Valerius Cordus (1515–1544). [3] Like most other Boraginaceae, the majority have trichomes (hairs) on the leaves.

Taxonomy

The taxonomy of Cordia is complex and controversial. Gottschling et al. (2005) say this is partly due to "extraordinarily high intraspecific variability" in some groups of species, making identification difficult, and partly due to new taxa having been "airily described on the basis of poorly preserved herbarium specimens". [4]

Selected species

laylay, white manjack, wild clammy cherry

Formerly placed here

Ecology

Cordia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, such as Endoclita malabaricus , Bucculatrix caribbea , and Bucculatrix cordiaella . [11] The wild olive tortoise beetle ( Physonota alutacea ) feeds on C. boissieri , C. dentata , C. inermis , and C. macrostachya . [12]

Uses

Ornamental

Many members of this genus have fragrant, showy flowers and are popular in gardens, although they are not especially hardy. [13]

As food

A number of the tropical species have edible fruits, known by a wide variety of names including clammy cherries, glue berries, sebesten, or snotty gobbles. In India, the fruits of local species are used as a vegetable, raw, cooked, or pickled, and are known by many names, including lasora in Hindi. One such species is fragrant manjack ( C. dichotoma ), which is called gunda or tenti dela in Hindi and lasura in Nepali. The fruit of the Fragrant Manjack is called phoà-pò·-chí (破布子), 樹子仔, or 樹子(Pe̍h-ōe-jī: chhiū-chí) in Taiwan where they are eaten pickled.

Glue

The white, gooey inner pulp of the fruits is traditionally used to make glue.[ citation needed ]

Wood

The wood of several Cordia species is commercially harvested. Ecuador laurel ( C. alliodora ), ziricote ( C. dodecandra ), Spanish elm ( C. gerascanthus ), and C. goeldiana are used to make furniture and doors in Central and South America. [13]

Ziricote [14] and bocote [15] are sometimes used as tonewoods for making the backs and sides of high-end acoustic guitars such as the Richard Thompson signature model from Lowden. [16] Similarly, drums are made from C. abyssinica , C. millenii , and C. platythyrsa due to the resonance of the wood. [17]

Smoking

Cordia leaves can be dried and used to smoke marijuana with. [18]

Related Research Articles

Boraginaceae Family of flowering plants

Boraginaceae, the borage or forget-me-notfamily, includes about 2,000 species of shrubs, trees and herbs in 146 genera with a worldwide distribution.

<i>Cordia alliodora</i> Species of tree

Cordia alliodora is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, that is native to the American tropics. It is commonly known as Spanish elm, Ecuador laurel, cypre or salmwood. It can reach 35 m in height.

Rosewood One of several types of wood from tropical trees

Rosewood refers to any of a number of richly hued timbers, often brownish with darker veining, but found in many different hues.

<i>Cordia sebestena</i> Species of tree

Cordia sebestena is a shrubby tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, native to the American tropics. It ranges from southern Florida in the United States and the Bahamas, southwards throughout Central America and the Greater Antilles. Common names have included siricote or kopté (Mayan) in 19th Century northern Yucatán, scarlet cordia in Jamaica, and Geiger tree in Florida.

Hesperetin Chemical compound

Hesperetin is the 4'-methoxy derivative of eriodictyol, a flavanone. Hesperetin's 7-O-glycoside, hesperidin, is a naturally occurring flavanon-glycoside, the main flavonoid in lemons and sweet oranges. Hesperetin are not found to a significant extent in Citrus spp.

<i>Bourreria</i> Genus of flowering plants in the borage family Boraginaceae

Bourreria is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as strongbark or strongback. The generic name was chosen by Patrick Browne to honour German pharmacist Johann Ambrosius Beurer. The genus is native to the Americas, where species are distributed from Mexico to northern South America, and in the Caribbean and Florida in the United States. The center of diversity is in the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico.

<i>Cordia myxa</i> Species of tree

Cordia myxa is a species of flowering plant in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized broad-leaved deciduous tree. Common names include Assyrian plum, lasura, pidar, panugeri, naruvilli, geduri, spistan, burgund dulu wanan and ntege. It is found growing primarily in Asia, as well as, across the globe especially in tropical regions having the right type of geophysical environment. It is seen coming up naturally and growing abundantly from Myanmar in the east to Lebanon and Syria in the west. Its habitat starts at about 200 m above mean sea level in the plains and ascends to an altitude around 1,500 m in the hills.

<i>Cordia boissieri</i> Species of tree

Cordia boissieri is a species of flowering shrub or small tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae. Its native range extends from southern Texas in the United States south to central Mexico. Common names include anacahuita, Mexican olive, white cordia, and Texas wild olive. It is named after botanist Pierre Edmond Boissier.

<i>Ehretia</i> Genus of flowering plants in the borage family Boraginaceae

Ehretia is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. It contains about 50 species. The generic name honors German botanical illustrator Georg Dionysius Ehret (1708–1770).

<i>Ehretia anacua</i> Species of tree

Ehretia anacua is medium-sized tree found in eastern Mexico and southern Texas in the United States. It is a member of the borage family, Boraginaceae. One of its common names, anacua, is derived from the Mexican Spanish word anacahuite, as is that of the related Cordia boissieri, the anacahuita. That word in turn is derived from the Nahuatl words āmatl, meaning "paper," and cuahuitl, meaning "tree," possibly referring to the bark. It is also known as knockaway, a corruption of anacua, and sandpaper tree. Alternate spellings are anaqua and anachua.

C. domestica may refer to:

<i>Cordia dichotoma</i> Species of plant

Cordia dichotoma is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae, that is native to the Indomalayan realm, northern Australia, and western Melanesia.

C. dichotoma may refer to:

<i>Ehretia microphylla</i> Species of flowering plant

Ehretia microphylla, synonym Carmona retusa, also known as the Fukien tea tree or Philippine tea tree, is a species of flowering plant in the borage family, Boraginaceae.

<i>Cordia sinensis</i> Species of tree

Cordia sinensis is a species of flowering tree in the borage family, Boraginaceae. The species’ range extend from South Africa, through East Africa, Madagascar, West Africa and the Middle East to the Indian Subcontinent and Eastern Indochina. There is also a disjunct native population in Senegal. The species has become naturalised in Eastern Australia. Common names include grey-leaved saucer berry, grey-leaved cordia, marer, mnya mate, mkamasi and tadana.

<i>Cordia sulcata</i> Species of tree

Cordia sulcata is known commonly as moral, white manjack, or mucilage manjack. It is a tree that can be found throughout the Caribbean islands from Cuba to Trinidad.

<i>Cordia lutea</i> Species of plant

Cordia lutea, known as yellow cordia or in Spanish muyuyo, is a shrubby plant in the borage family (Boraginaceae), native to the Galápagos Islands, mainland Ecuador, Peru, and the Marquesas Islands in Polynesia. Common in the arid lowlands of the Galápagos, its relatively large yellow flowers make it easy to identify.

<i>Coldenia</i> Genus of flowering plants

Coldenia, named after C. Colden, is a monotypic genus of flowering plants traditionally included in the borage family, Boraginaceae sensu lato. It was assigned to the subfamily Ehretioideae, but molecular data revealed it to be more closely related to the genus Cordia, so that other authors placed in Cordioideae. Subsequently, it was placed in its own family, Coldeniaceae, within the Boraginales order, by the Boraginales Working Group.

<i>Cordia dodecandra</i> Species of flowering plant

Cordia dodecandra is a small tree in the borage family (Boraginaceae) native to southern Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.

References

  1. "Cordia L." TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  2. "Cordia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  3. Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: A-C. CRC Press. pp. 612–613. ISBN   978-0-8493-2675-2.
  4. Gottschling, Marc; Miller, James S.; Weigend, Maximilian & Hilger, Hartmut H. (2005-10-01). "Congruence of a Phylogeny of Cordiaceae (Boraginales) Inferred from ITS1 Sequence Data with Morphology, Ecology, and Biogeography". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 92 (3): 425–437. JSTOR   40035480.
  5. Grandtner, Miroslav M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees. 1. Elsevier. pp. 252–260. ISBN   978-0-444-51784-5.
  6. "Cordia dichotoma Forst. f." Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Plant Growth Facilities. University of Connecticut. 2009-10-06. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  7. "Cordia domestica". The Plant List. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  8. "Cordia obliqua". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  9. "Cordia obliqua". The Plant List. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  10. "Species Records of Cordia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  11. Davis, Donald R.; Bernard Landry; Lazaro Roque-albelo (2002). "Two new Neotropical species of Bucculatrix leaf miners (Lepidoptera: Bucculatricidae) reared from Cordia (Boraginaceae)". Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 109 (2): 277–294. doi: 10.5962/bhl.part.79591 .
  12. Quinn, Mike. "Wild Olive Tortoise Beetle Physonota alutacea Boheman, 1854". Texas Beetle Information. Texas Entomology. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  13. 1 2 Bennett, Masha (2003). Pulmonarias and the Borage Family . Timber Press. pp.  196–198. ISBN   978-0-88192-589-0.
  14. http://www.lmii.com/CartTwo/thirdproducts.asp?CategoryName=+Backs+and+Sides&NameProdHeader=Ziricote Luthiers Mercantile page about Ziricote
  15. http://www.lmii.com/CartTwo/thirdproducts.asp?CategoryName=+Backs+and+Sides&NameProdHeader=Bocote Luthiers Mercantile page about Ziricote
  16. Presad, Anil (October 2009). "Richard Thompson" (PDF). Guitar Player: 50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10.
  17. Tudge, Colin (2007). The Tree. Random House. p. 237. ISBN   978-0-307-39539-9.
  18. "Why leaf pre-rolled cones make the cleanest, tobacco-free blunts". Leafly. 2021-01-13. Retrieved 2021-01-14.