Coronet large cent

Last updated

Coronet large cent
United States
Value0.01 U.S. Dollar
Mass10.89 g
Diameter29 (1836–1839) or 27 (1839–1857 and 1868) mm
Composition100% Cu
Years of minting1816–1857 and 1868
Mint marksNone; all large cents were minted at the Philadelphia Mint.
1819 cent obv.jpg
Design Liberty
Designer Robert Scot
Design date1816
1837 cent obv.jpg
Design Liberty
Designer Robert Scot (original design), Christian Gobrecht (modified design)
Design date1836
1839 Braided Hair cent obverse.jpg
Design Liberty, Braided Hair, Petite Head
Designer Robert Scot (original design), Christian Gobrecht (modified design)
Design date1839
1855 cent obv.jpg
Design Liberty, Braided Hair, Mature Head
Designer Robert Scot (original design), Christian Gobrecht (modified design)
Design date1843
1819 cent rev.jpg
Designer Robert Scot
Design date1816
1855 cent rev.jpg
Designer Robert Scot (original design), Christian Gobrecht (modified design)
Design date1839

The Coronet large cent was a type of large cent issued by the United States Mint at the Philadelphia Mint from 1816 until 1839.


There are two similar designs of the Coronet large cent, the Matron Head and the Braided Hair, the latter with a slightly altered profile. This was the last large cent produced by the mint, being replaced by the reduced diameter Flying Eagle cent in 1857.


During the War of 1812, a trade embargo was imposed between the United States and England, which had supplied the US Mint with copper planchets. [1] The mint's supply was exhausted in 1814, and no Classic Head cents were produced dated 1815. It has often been written that no cents at all were struck that year, but coinage did resume in December of 1815 using an 1814 or 1816-dated die. [2]

Once the embargo was lifted and the mint received new planchets, large cent production resumed, this time with a new design of the goddess Liberty by Robert Scot. The design change was made because the Classic Head cents received much criticism.

The new cents, known as Matron Head cents, were not much better, however, and numismatist Walter H. Breen called the design "a spectacularly ugly head of Ms. Liberty". [3] In 1836, Christian Gobrecht made several modifications to the design, giving the bust of Liberty a younger appearance.

Gobrecht made further changes in 1839, creating the "Petite Head" Braided Hair cent. In 1843, the bust was enlarged and tilted upward, this design is known as the "Mature Head".


Matron Head varieties

Matron Head varieties (1816–1839)
181713 stars3,948,400
15 stars errorLikely to have been caused by Robert Scot's poor eyesight due to age
1819Standard date2,671,000
9 over 8 error
1820Small date4,407,550
Large date
20 over 19 errorBoth small date and large date known [4]
1823Standard date
3 over 2 error
RestrikeAn estimated 240 examples exist [5] Believed to have been created around the same time as the 1804 restrike large cent [6]
Silver restrike>2
1824Standard date1,262,000
4 over 2 error
1826Standard date1,517,425
6 over 5 error
1828Large date2,260,624
Small date
1829Large lettering1,414,500
Small lettering
1830Large lettering1,711,500
Small lettering
1831Large lettering3,359,260
Small lettering
1832Large lettering2,362,000
Small lettering
1834Small 8, large stars1,855,100
Large 8, small stars
Large 8, large stars, small lettering
Large 8, large stars, large lettering
1835Small 8, small stars3,878,400
Large 8, large stars
Type of 1836
1837Type of 1837, large lettering5,558,300
Type of 1837, small lettering
Type of 1838
1839Head of 18383,128,661
Head of 1838, 9 over 6 error
"Silly Head"
"Booby Head"

Braided Hair varieties

Braided Hair varieties (1839–1857; 1868)
1840Small date2,462,700
Large date
Small over large date error
1842Large date2,383,390
Small date
1843Small head, small lettering2,425,342
Small head, large lettering
Large head
1844Standard date2,398,752
44 over 81 errorIn reality, the date was punched into the die upside-down, but was corrected by punching the date correctly [7] [8]
1846Small date4,120,800
Medium date
Tall date
1847Standard date6,183,669
Large over small 47
1848Standard date6,415,799
Small date (counterfeit)>10-12Although this coin is a counterfeit, many numismatists include this coin in coin catalogs
1851Standard date9,889,707
51 over 81This error is similar to the 44 over 81 error, and inverted date was corrected by punching the date correctly into the die [9]
1855Upright 551,574,829
Slanted 55
Slanted 55, knob on earError caused by a die break
1856Upright 52,690,463
Slanted 5
1857Large date333,456
Small date
1868Nickel>7Pattern coins struck for collectors


An 1868 dime pattern struck with the Coronet large cent obverse. 1868 nickel dime pattern.jpg
An 1868 dime pattern struck with the Coronet large cent obverse.

The price of copper rose dramatically in the late-1840s, and the cost of producing large cents rose as a result. The US Mint started seeking an alternative that used less copper. The first attempt was to perforate the coin, resulting in the ring cents of 1850 and 1851. The standard composition of these coins was billon, an alloy of 90% copper and 10% silver. This coin was not placed into production as it was expensive to extract the silver from the alloy, and the coins were difficult to eject from the dies. Additionally, a drop in the price of copper temporarily eliminated the need to replace the large cent.

The price of copper rose again in the mid-1850s, and the mint again looked for an alternative cent. This time, the cent was reduced in size, only a little larger than a dime. Patterns for the Flying Eagle cent were struck in 1854, and proved to be a suitable replacement for the large cent. The small cent was approved for production in 1856, and several thousand 1856 Flying Eagle cents were sold to collectors. Full-scale production commenced in mid-1857, replacing the large cent last struck earlier that year. [10]

In 1868, eleven years after the last large cent was produced, a mint employee struck around a dozen and a half large cents dated 1868. These coins were struck in both copper and nickel planchets. [11] [12] Also produced that year were about 2 dozen dime patterns were minted in nickel with the obverse die of the 1868 large cent, plus an additional 2 dozen pieces struck in copper. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Penny (United States coin) Lowest-value physical American currency

The United States one-cent coin, often called the "penny", is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar. It has been the lowest face-value physical unit of U.S. currency since the abolition of the half-cent in 1857. The first U.S. cent was produced in 1787, and the cent has been issued primarily as a copper or copper-plated coin throughout its history.

1943 steel cent U.S. currency

1943 steel cents are U.S. one-cent coins that were struck in steel due to wartime shortages of copper. The Philadelphia, Denver, and San Francisco mints each produced these 1943 Lincoln cents. The unique composition of the coin has led to various nicknames, such as wartime cent, steel war penny, zinc cent and steelie. The 1943 steel cent features the same Victor David Brenner design for the Lincoln cent which had been in use since 1909.

Dime (United States coin) Current denomination of United States currency

The dime, in United States usage, is a ten-cent coin, one tenth of a United States dollar, labeled formally as "one dime". The denomination was first authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792.

Christian Gobrecht

Christian Gobrecht was the third Chief Engraver of the United States Mint from 1840 until his death in 1844. He was responsible for designing the famous "Seated Liberty" designs, which were in turn the direct inspiration for the design of the Trade Dollar. He also designed the Gobrecht Dollar, which was struck in small quantities from 1836 to 1838 and later inspired the Flying Eagle cent. He also designed the obverse sides for the Liberty head Quarter Eagle, Half Eagle, and Eagle gold coins, as well as the "braided hair" type Half cent and Large cent coins.

Half cent (United States coin) Copper coin issued by the United States (1793–1857)

The half cent was the smallest denomination of United States coin ever minted. It was first minted in 1793 and last minted in 1857. It was minted with five different designs.

Gobrecht dollar US silver dollar coin (1836–1839)

The Gobrecht dollar, minted from 1836 to 1839, was the first silver dollar struck for circulation by the United States Mint since production of that denomination was officially halted in 1806. The coin was struck in small numbers to determine whether the reintroduced silver dollar would be well received by the public.

Flowing Hair dollar Coin minted by the United States from 1794 to 1795

The Flowing Hair dollar was the first dollar coin issued by the United States federal government. The coin was minted in 1794 and 1795; its size and weight were based on the Spanish dollar, which was popular in trade throughout the Americas.

Large cent One-cent coin in the United States from 1793 to 1957

The United States large cent was a coin with a face value of 1/100 of a United States dollar. Its nominal diameter was 118 inch (28.57 mm). The first official mintage of the large cent was in 1793, and its production continued until 1857, when it was officially replaced by the modern-size one-cent coin.

Flying Eagle cent One-cent piece struck by the Mint of the United States

The Flying Eagle cent is a one-cent piece struck by the Mint of the United States as a pattern coin in 1856 and for circulation in 1857 and 1858. The coin was designed by Mint Chief Engraver James B. Longacre, with the eagle in flight based on the work of Longacre's predecessor, Christian Gobrecht.

Quarter eagle Gold coin issued by the United States

The quarter eagle was a gold coin issued by the United States with a denomination of two hundred and fifty cents, or two dollars and fifty cents. It was given its name in the Coinage Act of 1792, as a derivation from the US ten-dollar eagle coin.

Silver center cent American bimetallic pattern coin

The Silver center cent is an American pattern coin produced by the United States Mint in 1792. As a precursor to the large cent it was one of the first coins of the United States and an early example of a bimetallic coin. Only 12 original examples are known to exist, of which one is located in the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institution. Two more specimens exist but contain fabricated plugs added after minting.

Half eagle Gold coin issued by the United States face valued at five dollars

The half eagle is a United States coin that was produced for circulation from 1795 to 1929 and in commemorative and bullion coins since 1983. Composed almost entirely of gold, its face value of five dollars is half that of the eagle coin. Production of the half eagle was authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792, and it was the first gold coin minted by the United States.

1974 aluminum cent Proposed American coin

The 1974 aluminum cent was a one-cent coin proposed by the United States Mint in 1973. It was composed of an alloy of aluminum and trace metals, and intended to replace the predominantly copper–zinc cent due to the rising costs of coin production in the traditional bronze alloy. Of the 1,571,167 coins struck in anticipation of release, none were released into circulation. To encourage congressional support for the new alloy, the Mint distributed several examples to US Congressmen. When the proposed aluminum cent was rejected, the Mint recalled and destroyed those coins. However, despite the recall, a few aluminum cents were not returned to the Mint, and those coins may remain at large. One example was donated to the Smithsonian Institution, while another was alleged to have been found by Albert P. Toven, a US Capitol Police Officer. A 1974-D specimen was found in January 2014 by Randall Lawrence, who said it was a retirement gift to his father, Harry Edmond Lawrence, who was Deputy Superintendent at the Denver Mint. Randall planned on selling it in a public auction, but the Mint demanded its return, saying that the coin was never authorized for release and therefore remains U.S. Government property. Lawrence ultimately surrendered the coin when the Mint showed that the aluminum cent had never been authorized to be struck in Denver, and there was no evidence that the coin had been a gift of any kind.

Classic Head 19th century American coin design

The Classic Head was a coin design issued by the United States Mint in the early 19th century. It was introduced for copper coinage in 1808 by engraver John Reich and later redesigned and improved by Chief Engraver William Kneass.

James B. Longacre American portraitist and engraver (1794–1869)

James Barton Longacre was an American portraitist and engraver, and the fourth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint from 1844 until his death. Longacre is best known for designing the Indian Head cent, which entered commerce in 1859, and for the designs of the Shield nickel, Flying Eagle cent and other coins of the mid-19th century.

Capped Bust Former design used on United States coinage

The Capped Bust coinage of the United States consisted of a half dime, dime, quarter and half dollar.

Liberty dollar Index of articles associated with the same name

Liberty dollar may refer to:

Three-cent bronze

The three-cent bronze was a pattern coin struck in 1863 by George Eckfeldt. The coin shares its obverse design, thickness, and diameter with that of the Braided Hair large cent, but was made of bronze rather than pure copper. Weighing 140 grains, it weighted nearly three times that of the bronze Indian Head cent. About 50 to 60 examples are known.

Ring cent

The ring cent or holey cent was a one-cent pattern coin first struck in various compositions and designs between 1850 and 1851 as part of an experiment on producing a cent with a reduced weight and diameter, as the rising price of copper had caused cents to cost more than their face value to produce. Many varieties exist, with differing designs as well as differing compositions, including billon (standard), aluminum, copper, cupronickel, nickel silver, nickel, silver, and white metal.

Below are the mintage figures for the United States quarter.


  1. "Classic Head Large Cents (1808–1814)" . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  2. Julian, R.W. (May 3, 2022). "Matron Head Cents 1816-1835". Numismatic News. No. Volume 71, Number 11. Active Interest Media.
  3. "Coronet Head Large Cents (1816-1839)" . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  4. "1817 Coronet Head Large Cent, 15 Stars". June 21, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  5. "1823 1C Private Restrike, BN (Regular Strike) Coronet Head Cent - PCGS CoinFacts". PCGS. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  6. "1823 Coronet Head Large Cent". June 21, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  7. "1844/81 1C, BN (Regular Strike) Braided Hair Cent - PCGS CoinFacts". PCGS. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  8. "1844/81 "Blundered Date" Braided Hair Large Cent". October 15, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  9. "1851/81 1C, BN (Regular Strike) Braided Hair Cent - PCGS CoinFacts". PCGS. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  10. "1857 Flying Eagle Cent". July 20, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  11. "J610/P675". Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  12. "J611/P676". Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  13. "J647/P720". Retrieved May 10, 2019.
Preceded by United States one-cent coin
Succeeded by