Hexagonal prism

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Uniform hexagonal prism
Hexagonal prism.png
Type Prismatic uniform polyhedron
Elements F = 8, E = 18, V = 12 (χ = 2)
Faces by sides6{4}+2{6}
Schläfli symbol t{2,6} or {6}×{}
Wythoff symbol 2 6 | 2
2 2 3 |
Coxeter diagrams CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.png
CDel node h.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.png
Symmetry D6h, [6,2], (*622), order 24
Rotation group D6, [6,2]+, (622), order 12
References U 76(d)
Dual Hexagonal dipyramid
Properties convex, zonohedron
Hexagonal prism vertfig.png
Vertex figure
4.4.6
3D model of a uniform hexagonal prism. Prisma hexagonal 3D.stl
3D model of a uniform hexagonal prism.

In geometry, the hexagonal prism is a prism with hexagonal base. This polyhedron has 8 faces, 18 edges, and 12 vertices. [1]

Contents

Since it has 8 faces, it is an octahedron. However, the term octahedron is primarily used to refer to the regular octahedron, which has eight triangular faces. Because of the ambiguity of the term octahedron and tilarity of the various eight-sided figures, the term is rarely used without clarification.

Before sharpening, many pencils take the shape of a long hexagonal prism. [2]

As a semiregular (or uniform) polyhedron

If faces are all regular, the hexagonal prism is a semiregular polyhedron, more generally, a uniform polyhedron, and the fourth in an infinite set of prisms formed by square sides and two regular polygon caps. It can be seen as a truncated hexagonal hosohedron , represented by Schläfli symbol t{2,6}. Alternately it can be seen as the Cartesian product of a regular hexagon and a line segment, and represented by the product {6}×{}. The dual of a hexagonal prism is a hexagonal bipyramid.

The symmetry group of a right hexagonal prism is D6h of order 24. The rotation group is D6 of order 12.

Volume

As in most prisms, the volume is found by taking the area of the base, with a side length of , and multiplying it by the height , giving the formula: [3]

and it's surface area can be .

Symmetry

The topology of a uniform hexagonal prism can have geometric variations of lower symmetry, including:

NameRegular-hexagonal prismHexagonal frustumDitrigonal prismTriambic prismDitrigonal trapezoprism
Symmetry D6h, [2,6], (*622)C6v, [6], (*66)D3h, [2,3], (*322)D3d, [2+,6], (2*3)
Construction{6}×{}, CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngt{3}×{}, CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.pngs2{2,6}, CDel node h.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.png
Image Hexagonal Prism.svg Hexagonal frustum.png Truncated triangle prism.png Cantic snub hexagonal hosohedron.png
Distortion Hexagonal frustum2.png Truncated triangle prism2.png Isohedral hexagon prism.png
Isohedral hexagon prism2.png
Cantic snub hexagonal hosohedron2.png

As part of spatial tesselations

It exists as cells of four prismatic uniform convex honeycombs in 3 dimensions:

Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb [1]
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
Triangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb
CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
Snub triangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb
CDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
Rhombitriangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png Triangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png Snub triangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png Rhombitriangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png

It also exists as cells of a number of four-dimensional uniform 4-polytopes, including:

truncated tetrahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
truncated octahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Truncated cuboctahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Truncated icosahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Truncated icosidodecahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Truncated tetrahedral prism.png Truncated octahedral prism.png Truncated cuboctahedral prism.png Truncated icosahedral prism.png Truncated icosidodecahedral prism.png
runcitruncated 5-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
omnitruncated 5-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
runcitruncated 16-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
omnitruncated tesseract
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
4-simplex t013.svg 4-simplex t0123.svg 4-cube t023.svg 4-cube t0123.svg
runcitruncated 24-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
omnitruncated 24-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
runcitruncated 600-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
omnitruncated 120-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
24-cell t0123 F4.svg 24-cell t013 F4.svg 120-cell t023 H3.png 120-cell t0123 H3.png
Uniform hexagonal dihedral spherical polyhedra
Symmetry: [6,2], (*622)[6,2]+, (622)[6,2+], (2*3)
Hexagonal dihedron.png Dodecagonal dihedron.png Hexagonal dihedron.png Spherical hexagonal prism.png Spherical hexagonal hosohedron.png Spherical truncated trigonal prism.png Spherical dodecagonal prism2.png Spherical hexagonal antiprism.png Spherical trigonal antiprism.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node h.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node h.png
{6,2} t{6,2} r{6,2} t{2,6} {2,6} rr{6,2} tr{6,2} sr{6,2} s{2,6}
Duals to uniforms
Spherical hexagonal hosohedron.png Spherical dodecagonal hosohedron.png Spherical hexagonal hosohedron.png Spherical hexagonal bipyramid.png Hexagonal dihedron.png Spherical hexagonal bipyramid.png Spherical dodecagonal bipyramid.png Spherical hexagonal trapezohedron.png Spherical trigonal trapezohedron.png
V62 V122 V62 V4.4.6 V26 V4.4.6 V4.4.12 V3.3.3.6 V3.3.3.3

This polyhedron can be considered a member of a sequence of uniform patterns with vertex figure (4.6.2p) and Coxeter-Dynkin diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel p.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png. For p< 6, the members of the sequence are omnitruncated polyhedra (zonohedrons), shown below as spherical tilings. For p> 6, they are tilings of the hyperbolic plane, starting with the truncated triheptagonal tiling.

*n32 symmetry mutations of omnitruncated tilings: 4.6.2n
Sym.
*n32
[n,3]
Spherical Euclid. Compact hyperb.Paraco.Noncompact hyperbolic
*232
[2,3]
*332
[3,3]
*432
[4,3]
*532
[5,3]
*632
[6,3]
*732
[7,3]
*832
[8,3]
*32
[,3]
 
[12i,3]
 
[9i,3]
 
[6i,3]
 
[3i,3]
Figures Spherical truncated trigonal prism.png Uniform tiling 332-t012.png Uniform tiling 432-t012.png Uniform tiling 532-t012.png Uniform polyhedron-63-t012.png Truncated triheptagonal tiling.svg H2-8-3-omnitruncated.svg H2 tiling 23i-7.png H2 tiling 23j12-7.png H2 tiling 23j9-7.png H2 tiling 23j6-7.png H2 tiling 23j3-7.png
Config. 4.6.4 4.6.6 4.6.8 4.6.10 4.6.12 4.6.14 4.6.16 4.6. 4.6.24i4.6.18i4.6.12i4.6.6i
Duals Spherical hexagonal bipyramid.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png Spherical disdyakis dodecahedron.png Spherical disdyakis triacontahedron.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V4-6-12 Bisected Hexagonal.svg H2checkers 237.png H2checkers 238.png H2checkers 23i.png H2 checkers 23j12.png H2 checkers 23j9.png H2 checkers 23j6.png H2 checkers 23j3.png
Config. V4.6.4 V4.6.6 V4.6.8 V4.6.10 V4.6.12 V4.6.14 V4.6.16 V4.6.V4.6.24iV4.6.18iV4.6.12iV4.6.6i

See also

Family of uniform n-gonal prisms
Prism name Digonal prism (Trigonal)
Triangular prism
(Tetragonal)
Square prism
Pentagonal prism Hexagonal prism Heptagonal prism Octagonal prism Enneagonal prism Decagonal prism Hendecagonal prism Dodecagonal prism ... Apeirogonal prism
Polyhedron image Yellow square.gif Triangular prism.png Tetragonal prism.png Pentagonal prism.png Hexagonal prism.png Prism 7.png Octagonal prism.png Prism 9.png Decagonal prism.png Hendecagonal prism.png Dodecagonal prism.png ...
Spherical tiling image Tetragonal dihedron.png Spherical triangular prism.png Spherical square prism.png Spherical pentagonal prism.png Spherical hexagonal prism.png Spherical heptagonal prism.png Spherical octagonal prism.png Spherical decagonal prism.png Plane tiling image Infinite prism.svg
Vertex config. 2.4.43.4.44.4.45.4.46.4.47.4.48.4.49.4.410.4.411.4.412.4.4...∞.4.4
Coxeter diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 7.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 8.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 9.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 10.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 11.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 12.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png...CDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png

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Truncated cube

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Alternation (geometry) Operation on a polyhedron or tiling that removes alternate vertices

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Snub (geometry) Geometric operation applied to a polyhedron

In geometry, a snub is an operation applied to a polyhedron. The term originates from Kepler's names of two Archimedean solids, for the snub cube and snub dodecahedron. In general, snubs have chiral symmetry with two forms: with clockwise or counterclockwise orientation. By Kepler's names, a snub can be seen as an expansion of a regular polyhedron: moving the faces apart, twisting them about their centers, adding new polygons centered on the original vertices, and adding pairs of triangles fitting between the original edges.

Parallelohedron Polyhedron that tiles space by translation

In geometry, a parallelohedron is a polyhedron that can be translated without rotations in 3-dimensional Euclidean space to fill space with a honeycomb in which all copies of the polyhedron meet face-to-face. There are five types of parallelohedron, first identified by Evgraf Fedorov in 1885 in his studies of crystallographic systems: the cube, hexagonal prism, rhombic dodecahedron, elongated dodecahedron, and truncated octahedron.

Chamfer (geometry) Geometric operation which truncates the edges of polyhedra

In geometry, chamfering or edge-truncation is a topological operator that modifies one polyhedron into another. It is similar to expansion, moving faces apart and outward, but also maintains the original vertices. For polyhedra, this operation adds a new hexagonal face in place of each original edge.

In geometry, a plesiohedron is a special kind of space-filling polyhedron, defined as the Voronoi cell of a symmetric Delone set. Three-dimensional Euclidean space can be completely filled by copies of any one of these shapes, with no overlaps. The resulting honeycomb will have symmetries that take any copy of the plesiohedron to any other copy.

References

  1. 1 2 Pugh, Anthony (1976), Polyhedra: A Visual Approach, University of California Press, pp. 21, 27, 62, ISBN   9780520030565 .
  2. Simpson, Audrey (2011), Core Mathematics for Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge University Press, pp. 266–267, ISBN   9780521727921 .
  3. Wheater, Carolyn C. (2007), Geometry, Career Press, pp. 236–237, ISBN   9781564149367 .