Hydrangea macrophylla

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Hydrangea macrophylla
Hydrangea macrophylla - Hortensia hydrangea.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Cornales
Family: Hydrangeaceae
Genus: Hydrangea
Species:
H. macrophylla
Binomial name
Hydrangea macrophylla
(Thunb.) Ser.
Synonyms
  • Hortensia opuloides Lam.
  • Hydrangea chungii Rehder
  • Hydrangea hortensia Siebold
  • Hydrangea hortensis Sm.
  • Hydrangea maritima Haw.-Booth
  • Hydrangea opuloides (Lam.) K.Koch
  • Hydrangea otaksa Siebold & Zucc.
  • Viburnum macrophyllum Thunb.
Hydrangea macrophylla by Abraham Jacobus Wendel, 1868 Afbeelding-057-Hydrangea macrophylla.tif
Hydrangea macrophylla by Abraham Jacobus Wendel, 1868

Hydrangea macrophylla is a species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to Japan. It is a deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (7 ft) tall by 2.5 m (8 ft) broad with large heads of pink or blue flowers in summer and autumn. [1] Common names include bigleaf hydrangea, French hydrangea, lacecap hydrangea, mophead hydrangea, penny mac and hortensia. It is widely cultivated in many parts of the world in many climates. It is not to be confused with H. aspera 'Macrophylla'.

Contents

Description

Close-up on a flower showing coloured sepals around the five petals. Hydrangea macrophylla HC2.jpg
Close-up on a flower showing coloured sepals around the five petals.

The term macrophylla means large- or long-leaved. [2] The opposite leaves can grow to 15 cm (6 in) in length. They are simple, membranous, orbicular to elliptic and acuminate. They are generally serrated.

The inflorescence of Hydrangea macrophylla is a corymb, with all flowers placed in a plane or hemisphere, or even a whole sphere in cultivated forms. Two distinct types of flowers can be identified: central, non-ornamental, pentamerous ones, and peripheral, ornamental, tetramerous ones. The latter have sterile pistils with fertile stamen. The four sepals of decorative flowers have colors ranging from pale pink to red fuchsia purple to blue. The non-decorative flowers have five small greenish sepals and five small petals. Flowering lasts from early summer to early winter. The fruit is a subglobose capsule.

Distribution and habitat

Hydrangea macrophylla is native to Japan and possibly Korea. [3] [4] It is reported from seaside habitats as well as mountains in Japan, from Honshu southwards. [4] This species has naturalized in China, New Zealand and the Americas. [5]

Colors and soil acidity

Hydrangea macrophylla blooms can be blue, red, pink, light purple, or dark purple. The color is affected by soil pH. [6] [7] An acidic soil (pH below 7) will usually produce flower color closer to blue, whereas an alkaline soil (pH above 7) will produce flowers more pink.[ citation needed ]This is caused by a color change of the flower pigments in the presence of aluminium ions which can be taken up into hyperaccumulating plants.

Landscaping

In climates where Hydrangea macrophylla flowers, place in a mixed shrub border or at the back of a flower bed. Its rich foliage and large size make it a wonderful background for white or light colored flowers, even tall growing perennials and annuals. In warm climates H. macrophylla is good for adding a splash of early summer color to shady areas and woodland gardens. Minimal pruning is recommended for most prolific flowering. Flowers are easily air dried and are long lasting.

While Hydrangea macrophylla is not considered a particularly difficult plant to grow, it may fail to flower. This may be due to cold winter damage to the flower buds, not getting enough sunlight, too much nitrogen fertilizer, or pruning at the wrong time of year. H. macrophylla forms flower buds in late summer. As a result, pruning in late summer, fall or winter could remove potential flowers. [8]

Chemistry

Phyllodulcin, hydrangenol, and their 8-O-glucosides, and thunberginols A and F can be found in H. macrophylla. [9] Thunberginol B, [10] the dihydroisocoumarins thunberginol C, D and E, the dihydroisocoumarin glycosides thunberginol G 3'-O-glucoside and (−)-hydrangenol 4'-O-glucoside [11] and four kaempferol and quercetin oligoglycosides [12] can be found in Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium, the processed leaves of H. macrophylla var. thunbergii. The leaves also contain the stilbenoid hydrangeic acid. [13]

The various colors, such as red, mauve, purple, violet and blue, in H. macrophylla are developed from one simple anthocyanin, delphinidin 3-glucoside (myrtillin), which forms complexes with metal ions called metalloanthocyanins. [14] [15]

Lunularic acid, lunularin, 3,4′-dihydroxystilbene and a glycoside of lunularic acid have been found in the roots of H. macrophylla. [16]

Hydrangine is another name for the coumarin umbelliferone, and may be responsible for the possible toxicity of the plant.

Possible uses

Bud and leaves Hortensia-1.jpg
Bud and leaves

Amacha is a Japanese beverage made from fermented leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii.

Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium is a drug made from the fermented and dried leaves of H. macrophylla var. thunbergii with possible antiallergic and antimicrobial properties. [17] It also has a hepatoprotective activity by suppression of D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in vitro and in vivo. [18]

Hydrangea macrophylla is included in the Tasmanian Fire Service's list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone. [19]

Leaf extracts of Hydrangea macrophylla are being investigated as a possible source of new chemical compounds with antimalarial activity. [20] [21] Hydrangeic acid from the leaves is being investigated as a possible anti-diabetic drug as it significantly lowered blood glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in laboratory animals. [13]

Cultivars

The two main types of H. macrophylla cultivars are called "mophead" and "lacecap". [22]

Some popular hydrangea cultivars (those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit) include: [23]

Related Research Articles

<i>Hydrangea</i> genus of flowering plants in the family Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangea common names hydrangea or hortensia, is a genus of 70–75 species of flowering plants native to Asia and the Americas. By far the greatest species diversity is in eastern Asia, notably Korea, China, and Japan. Most are shrubs 1 to 3 meters tall, but some are small trees, and others lianas reaching up to 30 m (98 ft) by climbing up trees. They can be either deciduous or evergreen, though the widely cultivated temperate species are all deciduous.

<i>Schizophragma</i> Genus of flowering plants in the hydrangea family Hydrangeaceae

Schizophragma is a genus of four species of flowering plants in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to moist woodland in Asia, from the Himalayas east to Taiwan and Japan. They are vigorous, hardy deciduous lianas growing to 12 m (39 ft), cultivated for their showy flower heads borne in mid- to late summer, resembling those of the related lacecap hydrangeas.

<i>Osteospermum</i> genus of plants

Osteospermum, is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Calenduleae, one of the smaller tribes of the sunflower/daisy family Asteraceae. They are known as the daisybushes or African daisies.

<i>Cistus</i> Genus of flowering plants in the rock rose family Cistaceae

Cistus is a genus of flowering plants in the rockrose family Cistaceae, containing about 20 species. They are perennial shrubs found on dry or rocky soils throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal through to the Middle East, and also on the Canary Islands.

<i>Hydrangea quercifolia</i> species of plant

Hydrangea quercifolia, commonly known by its translation oakleaf hydrangea or oak-leaved hydrangea, is a species of flowering plant native to the Southeastern United States, in woodland habitats from North Carolina west to Tennessee, and south to Florida and Louisiana. A deciduous shrub with white showy flower heads, it is a commonly grown garden plant. Numerous cultivars are available commercially.

<i>Astilbe</i> Genus of flowering plants in the family Saxifragaceae

Astilbe is a genus of 18 species of rhizomatous flowering plants within the family Saxifragaceae, native to mountain ravines and woodlands in Asia and North America. Some species are known by the common names false goat's beard and false spirea.

<i>Paeonia lactiflora</i> species of plant

Paeonia lactiflora is a species of herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Paeoniaceae, native to central and eastern Asia from eastern Tibet across northern China to eastern Siberia.

<i>Spiraea thunbergii</i> Species of plant

Spiraea thunbergii (珍珠绣线菊), Thunberg spiraea or Thunberg's meadowsweet, is a species of flowering plant in the rose family, native to East China and Japan, and widely cultivated elsewhere.

<i>Hydrangea aspera</i> Species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangea aspera is a species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangaceae, native to the region between the Himalayas, across southern China, to Taiwan. It is a large, erect deciduous shrub growing to 3 m (10 ft) tall and wide, with broadly oval leaves. The flowers are typically borne in large flat heads in late summer, and are in variable shades of pale blue and pink, fringed by white or pale pink sterile florets.

<i>Hydrangea serrata</i> species of plant

Hydrangea serrata is a species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to mountainous regions of Korea and Japan. Common names include mountain hydrangea and tea of heaven. Growing to 1.2 m (4 ft) tall and broad, it is a deciduous shrub with oval leaves and panicles of blue and pink flowers in summer and autumn (fall). It is widely cultivated as an attractive ornamental shrub throughout the world in areas with suitable climate and soil.

Hydrangenol chemical compound

Hydrangenol is a dihydroisocoumarin. It can be found in Hydrangea macrophylla, as well as its 8-O-glucoside. (-)-hydrangenol 4'-O-glucoside and (+)-hydrangenol 4'-O-glucoside can be found in Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium, the processed leaves of H. macrophylla var. thunbergii.

Phyllodulcin chemical compound

Phyllodulcin is a dihydroisocoumarin found in Hydrangea macrophylla and Hydrangea serrata. It is a sweetener 400-800 times sweeter than sugar.

Thunberginol A chemical compound

Thunberginol A is an isocoumarin found in Hydrangea macrophylla and the herbal preparation hydrangeae dulcis folium which is produced from its leaves.

Thunberginol B chemical compound

Thunberginol B is an isocoumarin found in Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium, the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii.

Thunberginol C chemical compound

Thunberginol C is a dihydroisocoumarin found in Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium, the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii.

Thunberginol D chemical compound

Thunberginol D is a dihydroisocoumarin found in Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium, the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii.

Thunberginol E chemical compound

Thunberginol E is a dihydroisocoumarin found in Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium, the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii.

Thunberginol F chemical compound

Thunberginol F is a phthalide found in Hydrangea macrophylla.

Thunberginol G chemical compound

Thunberginol G is a dihydroisocoumarin found in Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium, the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii.

References

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