Montenegrin Cup

Last updated
Montenegrin Cup
Founded2006
RegionFlag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro
Number of teams30
Qualifier for UEFA Europa Conference League
Current champions Budućnost (3rd title)
Most successful club(s) Rudar (4 titles)
Website Kup Crne Gore
Soccerball current event.svg 2021–22 Montenegrin Cup

The Montenegrin Cup (Montenegrin and Serbian: Kup Crne Gore) is the national football cup played in Montenegro, established in 2006. The winner of the cup is awarded a spot in the second qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League if they have not already gained a spot in the UEFA Champions League.
Most successful participant until now was FK Rudar with four titles, followed by FK Budućnost with three and OFK Titograd who won it twice.

Contents

History

Before independence

Since 1946, Montenegrin football clubs played in the SFR Yugoslavia football system, so in the period 1947-1992 they participated in Yugoslav Cup. From 1992 to 2006, teams from Montenegro played in the Cup competition of FR Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro. Most successful participant was FK Budućnost, who played twice in the finals of Yugoslav Cup (1964-65 and 1976-77).

First stage of Yugoslav Cup was Montenegrin Republic Cup, in which played clubs from lower-leagues. Competition was held from 1947 to 2006, and the winner qualified for Yugoslav Cup first stage. In Montenegrin Republic Cup played all non-First League clubs from the territory of Montenegro.

After independence

Following independence of Montenegro, Football Association of Montenegro founded Montenegrin Cup as a national football competition, with its first season 2006-07. Direct participation are gaining the clubs from Montenegrin First League and Montenegrin Second League, while the clubs from the Montenegrin Third League played qualifiers for Montenegrin Cup through Regional Cups (northern, central, southern). [1] [2] [3]
From its first season, winner of Montenegrin Cup participate in UEFA Europa League.

Period 2006-2016

First winner of competition was FK Rudar, who won the title on season 2006–07 without any defeat in eight matches. In the final game, FK Rudar defeated FK Sutjeska - 2-1. That was the very first official trophy won in Montenegrin football since independence. On previous phases, FK Rudar eliminated FK Mornar (1-0), FK Berane (1-1, 2-0), OFK Titograd (2-0, 0-0) and OFK Grbalj (0-0, 2-0). Notable games also came in Round of 16, with matches between two strongest sides during that season - FK Budućnost and FK Zeta. First game, attended by 10,000 spectators, won FK Budućnost (2-0), but FK Zeta made biggest win in second game in Golubovci (3-0).
Next season, trophy won FK Mogren, who won the final match against FK Budućnost on penalties (1-1; 6-5). Game for trophy was attended by 10,000 spectators and that was the highest audience on Montenegrin Cup finals. Previously, FK Mogren eliminated FK Pljevlja (5-0), FK Sutjeska (1-1, 1-0), OFK Petrovac (0-0, 1-0) and title-holder side FK Rudar (1-0, 0-0). During that season, FK Berane became first Second League side to reach the semifinals of Montenegrin Cup.
On season 2008–09, the trophy won OFK Petrovac, defeating Lovćen in extra-time (0-0; 1-0). Meeting of two teams in final was surprise, as they in semifinals eliminated strongest teams as FK Budućnost and FK Rudar. During the season, before the final, OFK Petrovac previously eliminated FK Pljevlja (1-0), FK Otrant (2-0, 3-0), FK Mogren (1-0, 2-1) and FK Rudar (0-0, 0-0; penalties: 5-3).
FK Rudar was the first, and until now the only club which won two trophies in a row. They won the title on season 2009–10 with win against FK Budućnost in final (2-1). During that Cup campaign, team from Pljevlja previously eliminated FK Sloga Bar (7-0), FK Jedinstvo (1-1, 2-0), FK Mornar (6-1, 0-0) and OFK Petrovac (2-1, 0-0)
Next year, FK Rudar defended the title after penalties in the final game against FK Mogren. After the 90 minutes, game finished with result 2-2, which was the biggest number of goals in the final until then. That was the third title for FK Rudar since establishing of Montenegrin Cup. Except they defended the trophy, coach of FK Rudar Nebojša Vignjević became the first manager who won two editions of Montenegrin Cup. Before the final, FK Rudar eliminated FK Crvena Stijena (2-0, 2-1), FK Sutjeska (0-0, 2-1) and FK Zeta (1-0, 2-2).
Season 2011–12 is remembered by the fact that one team from Montenegrin Second League won the Cup trophy. Big surprise made FK Čelik from Nikšić, who defeated Rudar in the final match - 2:1. That was the very first defeat of FK Rudar in Montenegrin Cup after the season 2008-09 and 28 consecutive wins and draws. After the victory in the Cup finals, FK Čelik became first Second League side who gained participation in European competitions. Except that, striker Veselin Bojić became the first player who scored two goals in two different Montenegrin Cup finals for two different teams (2010-11 for FK Rudar; 2011-12 for FK Čelik). In previous rounds, team from Nikšić eliminated FK Blue Star (2-0), FK Lovćen (1-0, 1-0), FK Bokelj (1-1, 1-0) and FK Jedinstvo (3-0, 0-1).
Year later, FK Čelik again played in the finals, but as a member of Montenegrin First League. Team from Nikšić was defeated by FK Budućnost (1:0), who held the first trophy after their third performance in final. The only goal was scored in additional time, by FK Budućnost striker Mitar Peković. In previous games, FK Budućnost eliminated FK Bratstvo (3-0), FK Jedinstvo (2-0, 1-0), FK Zeta (2-0, 2-0) and OFK Titograd (3-2, 1-1). During the first leg of competition, OFK Titograd defeated FK Pljevlja 10-1 and that's among the highest home wins in the history of Montenegrin Cup. During the same game, striker Luka Rotković scored seven goals, which is another all-time record of competition.
On season 2013–14, Lovćen won the trophy for the first time in the club's history. Team from Cetinje won the final game against OFK Titograd - 1-0. Before the final match, FK Lovćen eliminated FK Zora (1-0), FK Crvena Stijena (8-0, 1-2), FK Zeta (1-0, 1-2) and OFK Petrovac (3-0, 0-0).
OFK Titograd succeeded to hold the trophy for season 2014–15. In the finals, they defeated OFK Petrovac in extra-time (2-1). In previous rounds, OFK Titograd defeated FK Mogren (1-2, 5-1), FK Zeta (0-0, 0-0; penalties: 4-3) and FK Sutjeska (2-0, 2-0). During the same season, in first leg, FK Budućnost defeated FK Pljevlja 9-0, which is another game among the highest home wins in history of Montenegrin Cup.
Rudar won their fourth Cup trophy on season 2015–16. In final match, team from Pljevlja won the penalties against Budućnost (4-3) after the goalless 120 minutes. With that game, FK Rudar became the first team to participate in five Montenegrin Cup finals. Before the game for trophy, they eliminated FK Radnički (1-0), FK Sutjeska (1-0, 3-0), FK Dečić (2-1, 2-2) and FK Bokelj (2-0, 1-0).

Period 2016-

For the first time in their history, FK Sutjeska became a title-holder on season 2016–17, winning the finals against Grbalj (1-0). That was the second performance of FK Sutjeska in Montenegrin Cup final. In previous rounds, they defeated FK Radnički (5-0), FK Zeta (2-2, 1-0), OFK Petrovac (1-0, 1-2) and FK Iskra (4-3, 5-0).
In 2017–18 Montenegrin Cup, for the second time in history, one team from Second League participated in the finals. That was FK Igalo, which played against OFK Titograd who won the game with 2-0. That was the second trophy for OFK Titograd. On that game, striker Admir Adrović became the first player who scored twice on one final match. Except that, coach Aleksandar Miljenović became the first manager who won two Cup trophies with two different clubs (2008-09 with OFK Petrovac, 2017-18 with OFK Titograd). On their road to final, OFK Titograd eliminated FK Čelik (9-1), FK Zeta (4-0, 2-1), FK Mornar (3-0, 2-0) and FK Budućnost (1-2, 2-1; penalties: 4-3).
Season 2018-19 finished with the second title won by FK Budućnost. Team from Podgorica in the finals won against FK Lovćen - 4:0. That was the biggest win in the history of Montenegrin Cup finals. Except that, FK Budućnost player Mihailo Perović scored a first ever hattrick [4] in the finals. Before the game for trophy, FK Budućnost eliminated FK Rudar (1-0, 0-0), FK Podgorica (1-1, 1-0) and, in the semifinals, FK Sutjeska (0-0, 1-1).
On season 2019-20, Montenegrin Cup was interrupted in March 2020, before the semifinals, due to the coronavirus pandemic. Semifinalists were FK Budućnost, FK Sutjeska, FK Podgorica and OFK Petrovac. Three months after that, Football Association of Montenegro decided that Montenegrin Cup for the season 2019-20 won't be continued. [5]
Due to pandemic, edition 2020-21 was played with different format. Only 16 teams participated and, until the semifinals, in previous rounds teams played only one game. At the end, Football Association of Montenegro decided that the finals will be played in front of limited audience on Podgorica City Stadium. That was the very first football match in Montenegro with spectators after nearly 15 months of COVID-19 pandemic. Once again, the Cup won FK Budućnost, which defeated Dečić in the finals (3-1). That was first 'double' for FK Budućnost, who previously won fifth title in Montenegrin First League, but the second 'double' in the history of Montenegrin football, too. For FK Dečić, that was the very first participance in Cup finals.

Format

Since the inaugural season, Montenegrin Cup had the same format in every edition. In competition participate 30 teams. The 20 clubs from First and Second League are automatically qualified for the tournament. Other participants are Third League members - semifinalists of three regional cups - Northern region Cup, Central region Cup and Southern Region Cup.
The Montenegrin Cup begins with the round of 28 clubs, while the winner and finalist of previous-year Cup are starting from second phase (round of 16).
In the all phases, extra time will be played if the scores are level after 90 minutes with a penalty shootout following if needed.

Winners and finals

Winners by season

Key to list of winners
Double-dagger-14-plain.pngWinning team won The Double
Dagger-14-plain.pngTeam from Montenegrin Second League

The finals played so far are: [6]

YearWinnerResultRunners-upVenueAttendance
2006–07 FK Rudar
2–1
FK Sutjeska
Podgorica City Stadium
8,000
2007–08 FK Mogren
1–1 a.e.t. (6–5 pen.)
FK Budućnost
Podgorica City Stadium
10,000
2008–09 OFK Petrovac
1–0 a.e.t.
FK Lovćen
Podgorica City Stadium
4,000
2009–10 FK Rudar
2–1
FK Budućnost
Podgorica City Stadium
6,000
2010–11 FK Rudar
2–2 a.e.t. (5–4 pen.)
FK Mogren
Podgorica City Stadium
5,000
2011–12 FK Čelik
2–1
FK Rudar
Podgorica City Stadium
6,000
2012–13 FK Budućnost
1–0
FK Čelik Podgorica City Stadium
6,000
2013–14 FK Lovćen
1–0
OFK Titograd
Podgorica City Stadium
6,000
2014–15 OFK Titograd
2–1 a.e.t.
OFK Petrovac
Podgorica City Stadium
5,000
2015–16 FK Rudar
0–0 a.e.t. (4–3 pen.)
FK Budućnost
Podgorica City Stadium
6,000
2016–17 FK Sutjeska
1–0
OFK Grbalj
Podgorica City Stadium
4,000
2017–18 OFK Titograd
2–0
FK Igalo
Podgorica City Stadium
4,500
2018–19 FK Budućnost
4–0
FK Lovćen
Podgorica City Stadium
9,000
2019–20 Interrupted due to the coronavirus pandemic
2020–21 FK Budućnost
3–1
FK Dečić
Podgorica City Stadium
1,200 [7]

Trophies by club

Three teams which won more than one trophy are Rudar who hold four trophies, Budućnost with three and OFK Titograd with two. Other teams which won trophy are Sutjeska, Lovćen, Čelik, Mogren and OFK Petrovac.
Teams which played in the finals, but never won the trophy are Dečić, Grbalj and Igalo
Two clubs which played in Cup final as members of Montenegrin Second League were Čelik (2011–12) and Igalo (2017-18). Čelik was the only Second League member which won the Cup.

ClubWinnersRunners-upWinning Years
Rudar
4
1
2006–07, 2009–10, 2010–11, 2015–16
Budućnost
3
3
2012–13, 2018–19, 2020–21
OFK Titograd
2
1
2014–15, 2017–18
Lovćen
1
2
2013–14
Čelik
1
1
2011–12
Mogren
1
1
2007–08
Petrovac
1
1
2008–09
Sutjeska
1
1
2016–17
Grbalj
0
1
Igalo
0
1
Dečić
0
1

Venues

Matches of the first round are played at the home ground of one of the two teams. The round of 16, quarterfinals and semi-finals (two games on each round) are playing on the home ground of both teams. Final match is played at a neutral venue.
Traditionally, since the first season of Montenegrin Cup, final match has been played at the Podgorica City Stadium in Podgorica, whose seating capacity of 15,230. Every final game is starting at 20:00 by local time.
In 2016, Football Association of Montenegro and the Old Royal Capital Cetinje revealed that final match venue will be moved in perspective, after the building of new stadium in Cetinje. [8]

Participants

Montenegrin Cup all time table

Since establishing (2006), in Montenegrin Cup played 52 different teams. Among them are members of all official leagues in Montenegro.
Most successful on all-time table are FK Budućnost and FK Rudar, who are the only teams which participated in the Cup final more than three times.
Below is the list of all participants, with their scores in the all seasons of Montenegrin Cup.

ClubSsnWinRunSFPldWDLGDPts
FK Budućnost Podgorica
15
3
3
9
63
56
17
10
164-43
185
FK Rudar Pljevlja
15
4
1
8
74
35
30
9
102-42
135
OFK Petrovac
15
1
1
7
76
35
22
19
90-54
127
OFK Titograd
15
2
1
4
69
34
15
19
142-66
120
FK Zeta Golubovci
15
0
0
3
70
33
17
20
112-68
116
FK Sutjeska Nikšić
15
1
1
4
67
34
13
20
107-49
115
OFK Grbalj Radanovići
15
0
1
5
64
33
13
18
115-66
112
FK Lovćen Cetinje
14
1
2
4
62
28
12
22
91-61
96
FK Mornar Bar
14
0
0
0
48
24
5
19
81-60
77
FK Mogren Budva
9
1
1
3
39
20
12
7
64-32
72
FK Dečić Tuzi
15
0
1
1
48
19
12
17
72-62
69
FK Bokelj Kotor
15
0
0
1
42
15
7
20
49-52
52
FK Jedinstvo Bijelo Polje
15
0
0
1
33
11
8
16
30-55
41
FK Iskra Danilovgrad
12
0
0
2
32
12
4
16
40-54
40
FK Čelik Nikšić
11
1
1
2
29
9
11
9
22-35
38
FK Berane
13
0
0
1
29
7
10
12
32-55
31
FK Podgorica
6
0
0
0
18
8
5
5
28-18
29
FK Igalo
8
0
1
1
20
6
4
10
27-35
22
FK Kom Podgorica
15
0
0
0
25
5
4
16
28-46
19
FK Ibar Rožaje
14
0
0
0
25
5
4
16
21-56
19
FK Crvena Stijena Podgorica
8
0
0
0
19
5
3
11
12-36
18
FK Jezero Plav
15
0
0
0
23
5
2
16
20-49
17
FK Otrant Ulcinj
10
0
0
0
18
4
4
10
14-33
16
OFK Bar
5
0
0
0
15
4
4
7
11-21
16
FK Arsenal Tivat
13
0
0
0
22
4
4
14
18-44
16
FK Bratstvo Cijevna
11
0
0
0
17
4
1
12
15-33
13
FK Brskovo Mojkovac
4
0
0
0
10
3
2
5
8-16
11
FK Zora Spuž
5
0
0
0
9
2
2
5
9-9
8
FK Drezga
3
0
0
0
7
2
1
4
7-14
7
FK Pljevlja
7
0
0
0
13
2
1
10
10-43
7
FK Cetinje
9
0
0
0
11
1
2
8
4-22
5
FK Komovi Andrijevica
3
0
0
0
5
1
1
3
2-16
4
FK Gorštak Kolašin
3
0
0
0
5
1
1
3
2-11
4
FK Ribnica Podgorica
6
0
0
0
8
1
1
6
7-25
4
FK Zabjelo Podgorica
9
0
0
0
11
0
4
7
7-20
4
FK Petnjica
6
0
0
0
7
1
0
6
6-17
3
FK Blue Star Podgorica
2
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
0-2
1
FK Gornja Zeta
1
0
0
0
3
0
1
2
1-11
1
FK Tekstilac Bijelo Polje
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
1-11
0
FK Gusinje
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0-8
0
FK Radnički Berane
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0-8
0
OFK Bijela
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0-4
0
FK Grafičar Podgorica
4
0
0
0
4
0
0
4
1-10
0
FK Prvijenac Bijelo Polje
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
0-4
0
OFK Borac Bijelo Polje
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
0-8
0
FK Napredak Berane
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0-3
0
FK Fair Play Bijelo Polje
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0-7
0
FK Polimlje Murino
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
1-9
0
FK Sloga Radovići
6
0
0
0
6
0
0
6
2-25
0
FK Sloga Bar
4
0
0
0
4
0
0
4
0-16
0
FK Hajduk Bar
5
0
0
0
5
0
0
5
1-32
0
OFK Mladost Donja Gorica
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
2-4
0

Ssn = seasons played in Montenegrin Cup; Win = Winners; Run = Runner-up; SF = Semifinalists; Pld = Matches played; W = Wins; D = Draws; L = Losses; GD = Goal difference; Pts = Points (3 for win, 1 for draw).
Including the results from 2020–21 season. Results from season 2019–20, which was interrupted due to COVID-19 pandemic after the quarterfinals, are included, too.

Montenegrin clubs in Yugoslav Cup (1947-2006)

Before the independence of Montenegro, football clubs from that country played in Yugoslav Cup, and also in the Cup of Serbia and Montenegro. In the Cups of SFR Yugoslavia, FR Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro participated 17 different Montenegrin clubs.
Most successful participant was FK Budućnost who played twice in the finals of Yugoslav Cup (1964-65 and 1976-77).

ClubSsnWinRunPldWDLGDPts
FK Budućnost Podgorica
44
0
2
109
48
17
44
145-162
161
FK Sutjeska Nikšić
35
0
0
54
15
9
30
53-93
54
FK Rudar Pljevlja
11
0
0
20
4
5
11
26-40
17
FK Zeta Golubovci
7
0
0
13
5
2
6
18-18
17
FK Lovćen Cetinje
11
0
0
14
3
0
11
12-41
9
FK Mogren Budva
6
0
0
10
2
3
5
8-14
9
FK Crvena Stijena Podgorica
3
0
0
5
2
1
2
5-13
7
OFK Titograd
7
0
0
9
2
1
6
7-23
7
FK Bokelj Kotor
3
0
0
5
2
0
3
6-8
6
FK Kom Podgorica
5
0
0
8
2
0
6
4-16
6
FK Iskra Danilovgrad
2
0
0
4
1
0
3
2-16
3
FK Čelik Nikšić
3
0
0
5
0
2
3
7-15
2
FK Jedinstvo Bijelo Polje
5
0
0
5
0
0
5
1-9
0
FK Berane
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1-3
0
OFK Igalo
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
2-3
0
FK Mornar Bar
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0-2
0
FK Tekstilac Bijelo Polje
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0-7
0

Source: [9]

Players and managers

Scorers (final games)

Since first edition of Montenegrin Cup (2006–07), 27 different players scored a goal in the final game. Among them, one player scored three goals (Mihailo Perović) and two players scored two goals - Veselin Bojić and Admir Adrović. Mihailo Perović is the only player who scored three goals on a single final game. Bojić is the only player who scored goals for two different teams.
One player scored an own-goal.

GoalsPlayerClub(s)Final(s)
3 Flag of Montenegro.svg Mihailo Perović Budućnost 2018–19
2 Flag of Montenegro.svg Veselin Bojić Rudar, Čelik 2010–11, 2011-12
2 Flag of Montenegro.svg Admir Adrović OFK Titograd 2017–18
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Mitar Peković Budućnost 2012–13
1 Flag of Serbia.svg Ilija Stolica Budućnost 2009–10
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Petar Vukčević Budućnost 2007–08
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Marko Vučić Budućnost 2020–21
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Lazar Mijović Budućnost 2020–21
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Igor Ivanović Budućnost 2020–21
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Danilo Pešukić Dečić 2020–21
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Aleksandar Dubljević Čelik 2011–12
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Draško Božović Lovćen 2013–14
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Marko Šćepanović OFK Titograd 2014–15
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Ardian Đokaj Mogren 2010–11
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Marko Ćetković Mogren 2010–11
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Ratko Zec Mogren 2007–08
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Ivan Knežević Petrovac 2014–15
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Luka Rotković Petrovac 2008–09
1 Flag of Serbia.svg Ivica Jovanović Rudar 2011–12
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Neđeljko Vlahović Rudar 2010–11
1 Flag of Serbia.svg Predrag Ranđelović Rudar 2009–10
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Blažo Igumanović Rudar 2009–10
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Ramiz Lukovac Rudar 2006–07
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Miloš Vraneš Rudar 2006–07
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Miljan Vlaisavljević Sutjeska 2016–17
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Dražen Međedović Sutjeska 2006–07
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Dejan Zarubica Budućnost 2018–19
Own goal Flag of Montenegro.svg Marko Marković Petrovac 2014–15

Managers

During the history, 12 different managers won the title of Montenegrin First League champions. Among them, Nebojša Vignjević and Aleksandar Miljenović did it twice. Vignjević is the only manager which won more than one title with the same team (FK Rudar).

WinsManagerClub(s)Winning years
2 Flag of Serbia.svg Nebojša Vignjević Rudar 2009–10, 2010-11
2 Flag of Montenegro.svg Aleksandar Miljenović Petrovac, OFK Titograd 2008–09, 2017-18
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Branko Brnović Budućnost 2018–19
1 Flag of Serbia.svg Mladen Milinković Budućnost 2020–21
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Mirko Marić Rudar 2006–07
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Dejan Vukićević Mogren 2007–08
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Slavoljub Bubanja Čelik 2011–12
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Radislav Dragićević Budućnost 2012–13
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Mojaš Radonjić Lovćen 2013–14
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Aleksandar Nedović OFK Titograd 2014–15
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Dragan Radojičić Rudar 2015–16
1 Flag of Montenegro.svg Nikola Rakojević Sutjeska 2016–17

Records and statistics

Final

All rounds

Attendances

SeasonAvgOverallMHF
2006–07 1,12648,4004310,0008,000
2007–08 1,14249,100436,00010,000
2008–09 67228,900433,0004,000
2009–10 84336,250433,0006,000
2010–11 60926,800442,5005,000
2011–12 88137,900436,0006,000
2012–13 63527,300432,2006,000
2013–14 49020,100411,5006,000
2014–15 66726,650402,0005,000
2015–16 56824,400431,5006,000
2016–17 55523,850432,0005,000
2017–18 65326,100402,5005,500
2018–19 75627,200363,0009,000
2019–20 Interrupted due to the coronavirus pandemic
2020–21 1,2001,2001-1,200

M = Number of matches; H = Highest attendance on one game before the final; F = Final game attendance; Games played without spectators not included
Including the 2020–21 season.

See also

Related Research Articles

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  7. Limited audience due to coronavirus pandemic
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