Mundaka and Izaro Island
|• Mayor||Aitor Egurrola Mendiola (EAJ-PNV)|
|• Total||4.15 km2 (1.60 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
|• Density||440/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Official language(s)|| Basque |
Mundaka (Spanish : Mundaca) is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. On the coast, Mundaka is internationally renowned for its surfing scene.
Mundaka is accessible from Bilbao by EuskoTren on the Bermeo line.
Mundaka is known as one of the most important places of the Lordship of Biscay, it was the birthplace of Jaun Zuria, the first Lord of Biscay, son of the Scottish princess who arrived in Mundaka escaping from an English King. The name of the town has Danish origin, it has been proven that the Vikings arrived there 900 years ago. According to the history of the Lordship, Mundaka has the oldest temple of Biscay, as a result, it has the first seat of the General Parliament.
The port is in the center point of the town, from there the old part of the town grew. All the houses are medieval, fishermen's houses, always looking to the sea.
The anteiglesia of Mundaka was already mentioned in the year 1051 in the donation of the Dominion of Biscay to the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla and in 1070 in the donation of the aforementioned church to the Monastery of San Juan de la Peña.
There is a well-known legend that attributes the name "Mundaca" to the Latin phrase "munda aqua" ('clean water'). This legend appears in the Chronicle of Biscay written by Lope García de Salazar in the 15th century. According to this story, a ship from Scotland carrying a princess who had been banished from her homeland arrived on the coast of Mundaka. The Scots called the place "in their Latin language" (sic) "Munda aqua" since there they had found a source of very clean water that contrasted with the murky waters of the estuary of Urdaibai. This princess would have a son who would come to be called Jaun Zuria and would become, according to legend, the first Lordship of Vizcaya. This legend may also explain why Mundaca is ranked "first" among the anteiglesias of Biscay.
Apart from legendary explanations, the etymology of Mundaka is uncertain. The first written mention of Mundaka dates from 1070, when it was referred to as "Mondaka".
Ego Mome Nunnuç placuit in animis meis mitto in Sancti Johannis de Orioli de Aragone uno monasterio in Bickaga (Vizcaga) in locum quae dicitur Mondaka (Mondacha)
Some[ who? ] have sought a Norse origin for the name, based on the likely presence of a medieval Viking settlement in the area. In Danish, "mund" means "mouth", and "haka" means "promontory, cape". Mundaka lies precisely at the mouth of the estuary of the same Oka river .
Others have related the name "Mundaca" to a stock of Basque toponyms with the endings "-aka", "-eka", "-ika", which are especially abundant in Biscay and which can be linked with the Celto-Italic suffix "-aka". To some the origin of the name would be much older and it could be traced back to an era in which Vizcaya could have been populated by a Celtic people.
Traditionally the name was written as "'Mundaca"', but nowadays it is more commonly written as "'Mundaka"', which is an adaptation to the modern rules of spelling of the Basque language. Mundaka is usually regarded as the formal name in Castilian and Mundaka in Basque. Since 1982 the official name of the municipality has been Mundaka. The new denomination was published in Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) in 1989.
The demonym is "mundaqués / a" in Spanish and "'mundakarra"' Basque.
Mundaca, like Munitibar (Munditibar), stem Munio, Mundio (Muniozguren, Munitiz) which means Hill, hillock. Aka is a suffix known as slope, slope, as also is Ika and Eka. And seeing where Mundaca is located this is very logical: slope of the entangled or the Hill. Note the similarity of Mundi and Mendi, as well meaning a hill and a mountain.
Mundaca borders to the West with the town of Bermeo, to the South with Pedernales, and to the East and North with the Cantabrian Sea. The island of Ízaro (Bermeo) and the extensive Laida arenal are located off its coast. The municipal area is concentrated around the port, at the feet of Mount Katillotxu (337 m) and the alto de Betrocol.
On the beach in Laidatxu flows the stream Errekatxu.
Its coastal location allows you to enjoy a mild climate both in summer and in winter, with infrequent frost.
The area has been populated since the lower Paleolithic, as attest the caves of Santimamiñe on the other side of the estuary and deposits found in Portuondo.
There are speculations with the arrival in the area of Vikings, who according to some authors justify the presence of blond types of blue eyes on the Basque coast, unlike the Basque type of interior. Anton Erkoreka asserts its presence in the 9th century based on Arabic chronicles, medieval stories and other anthropological data, while Jon Juaristi believed to have actually been a few exiled Saxons dethroned by the Vikings.
Before them the Romans arrived attracted by the marble of Ereño and whose presence bears witness to a branch of Roman roads in Balmaseda that reaches Bermeo.
Since the first census that has news until the 1900s (decade), the population increased reaching 2284 residents in 1910, with different ups and downs due to various avatars of the time. In the 1950s, the population had already dropped to 1500 residents, stabilizing the successive censuses around 1650 inhabitants. Since 1990 the town shows a slight positive trend.
The municipal power while the "immunity of Vizcaya" continued was exercised by the inhabitants. These were the only ones who could adopt ordinances, usages and customs that were to govern themselves, due to their nature of autonomous community and without having to submit to the terms for the granting of the Charter puebla, as happened to the villas. Thus, all mundaqueses, including the widows who were head of the family and could vote, gathered in Assembly or "stop cross" to achieve their agreements, chairing the "' faithful Alderman"'. Between the faculties of the faithful was the representation of the autonomous community in the County Councils of Biscay until they ceased to meet due to the abolition of immunity in 1876. Since then, the post became known as Mayor. Since the transition, the Basque Nationalist Party governs the Town Hall with an absolute majority.
Four parties stood in the 2011 municipal elections; EAJ-PNV, Bildu, PSE-EE and PP. These were the results:
This gave PNV control of the council. Bildu, a pro-Basque independence coalition, won 3 seats, while PSE-EE and popular failed to achieve representation due to the low number of votes obtained.
The main dish of its kitchen is, by maritime tradition, fish, and especially the bass of Mundaka.
Mundaka is well renowned world wide for its quality of surf. Huge swells roll in from the Bay of Biscay and slam into the rocky coastline of the Basque Country. The estuary at Mundaka has created a perfect sandbar which forms hollow waves that can be watched from the town's harbor wall. Mundaka was formerly one of the sites of the World Championship Tour of Surfing.
Some great surfers have marked their legacy on Mundaka such as Andy Irons, Taj Burrow, Bobby Martinez, Kelly Slater, Mark Occilupo and Joel Parkinson.
Guernica, official and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain. The town of Guernica is united in one municipality with neighbouring Lumo, as Gernika-Lumo. The population of the municipality is 16,224 as of 2009.
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is also the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015. The Bilbao metropolitan area has 1,037,847 inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain; with a population of 875,552 the comarca of Greater Bilbao is the fifth-largest urban area in Spain. Bilbao is also the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region.
Biscay is a province of Spain, lying on the south shore of the eponymous bay. The name also refers to a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Biscay. Its capital city is Bilbao. It is one of the most prosperous and important provinces of Spain as a result of the massive industrialization in the last years of the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Since the deep deindustrialization of the 1970s, the economy has come to rely more on the services sector.
In Basque mythology, Sugaar is the male half of a pre-Christian Basque deity associated with storms and thunder. He is normally imagined as a dragon or serpent. Unlike his female consort, Mari, there are very few remaining legends about Sugaar. The basic purpose of his existence is to periodically join with Mari in the mountains to generate the storms.
Durango is a town and municipality of the historical territory and province of Biscay, located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the main town of Durangaldea, one of the comarcas of Biscay. Because of its economical activities and population, Durango is considered one of the largest towns in Biscay after the ones that compose the conurbation of Greater Bilbao.
Alonsotegi is a municipality in the province of Biscay, Basque Country, Spain. The current name of Alonsotegui was manifest in the 1990s when it separated it from the Baracaldo municipality to which was attached since the end of the 19th century. Alonsotegui is approximately 8 kilometres from the center of Bilbao. The village is situated in the valley of the River Cadagua.
Bakio is a municipality in the province of Biscay.
Bermeo is a town and municipality in the comarca of Busturialdea. It is in the province of Biscay, which is part of the autonomous region of the Basque Country in northern Spain.
Jaun Zuria is the mythical first Lord, and founder, of the Lordship of Biscay, who defeated the Leonese and Asturian troops in the also-mythical Battle of Padura, in which he chased off the invaders to the Malato Tree, establishing there the borders of Biscay. There are three accounts of its legend, one by the Portuguese count Pedro Barcelos and two by the chronicler Lope García de Salazar. According to the legend, Jaun Zuria had been born from a Scottish or English princess who had been visited by the Basque deity Sugaar in the village of Mundaka.
Mount Oiz, is one of the most popular summits of Biscay in the Basque Country (Spain). Its summits form part of a long range that feeds several rivers: Ibaizabal, Artibai, Lea, Oka and Deba in Gipuzkoa all of them running to the Bay of Biscay.
Busturialdea, also named Busturialde - Urdaibai is a comarca of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the heir of "Busturia", one of the original merindades that used to compose the province of Biscay, which should not be confused with Busturia, which is a municipality located in this region. Busturialdea is a diminished portion of the same original subregion and has two capital cities; Bermeo and Gernika-Lumo. It is one of the seven comarcas that compose the province of Biscay.
The Urdaibai estuary is a natural region and a Biosphere Reserve of Biscay, Basque Country, Spain. It is also referred as Mundaka or Gernika estuary.
An elizate, is an early form of local government in the Basque Country which was particularly common in Biscay but also existed in the other provinces. The terms elizate and elexate literally translate as "church door". The Spanish term anteiglesia translates as "before [the] church" or "parvise".
The Basque Country, officially the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava, Biscay, and Gipuzkoa.
The Juntas Generales are representative assemblies in the Southern Basque Country that go back to the 14th century. They are the Foral Parliament of the Basque Country were - and are - Foral Parliament of Biscay, Foral Parliament of Gipuzkoa, Foral Parliament of Alava, Foral Parliament of Navarre and Parliament of Navarre and Béarn. The equivalent in Navarre was the Cortes—or The Three States, roughly House of the Commons—to become the present-day Parliament of Navarre.
The Lordship of Biscay was a region under feudal rule in the region of Biscay in the Iberian Peninsula between c.1040 and 1876, ruled by a political figure known as the Lord of Biscay. One of the Basque señoríos, it was a territory with its own political organization, with its own naval ensign, consulate in Bruges and customs offices in Balmaseda and Urduña, from the 11th Century until 1876, when the Juntas Generales were abolished. Since 1379, when John I of Castile became the Lord of Biscay, the lordship got integrated into the Crown of Castile, and eventually the Kingdom of Spain.
The Mundaka wave, at Mundaka in the Basque Country, northern Spain, is a surfing location considered one of the best lefts of the world.
The Biscay Campaign was an offensive of the Spanish Civil War which lasted from 31 March to 1 July 1937. 50,000 men of the Eusko Gudarostea met 65,000 men of the insurgent forces. After heavy combats the Nationalist forces with a crushing material superiority managed to occupy the city of Bilbao and the Biscay province.
The 2012 Basque regional election was held on Sunday, 21 October 2012, to elect the 10th Parliament of the Basque Autonomous Community. All 75 seats in the Parliament were up for election. The election was held simultaneously with a regional election in Galicia.