Protocol I

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Protocol I is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international conflicts, where "armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination, alien occupation or racist regimes" are to be considered international conflicts. [1] It reaffirms the international laws of the original Geneva Conventions of 1949, but adds clarifications and new provisions to accommodate developments in modern international warfare that have taken place since the Second World War.

Contents

As of June 2013, it had been ratified by 174 states, [2] with the United States, Israel, Iran, Pakistan, India, and Turkey being notable exceptions. However, the United States, Iran, and Pakistan signed it on 12 December 1977, which signifies an intention to work towards ratifying it.

Summary of provisions

Protocol I is an extensive document, containing 102 articles. Following is a basic overview of the protocol. [3] For a comprehensive listing of all provisions, consult the text [4] and the commentary. [5] In general, the protocol reaffirms the provisions of the original four Geneva Conventions. However, the following additional protections are added.

See also

References

  1. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977, ICRC; International Committee of the Red Cross
  2. "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977". International Committee of the Red Cross.
  3. "A Summary of the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols" (PDF). The American National Red Cross.
  4. "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977". The American National Red Cross.
  5. 1 2 3 "Commentary on the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions" (PDF). International Committee of the Red Cross.
  6. "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977". International Committee of the Red Cross . Retrieved 2013-07-22.