Timeline of Douala

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Douala, Cameroon.


Prior to 20th century

20th century

21st century

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Duala is a dialect cluster spoken by the Duala and Mungo peoples of Cameroon. Douala belongs to the Bantu language family, in a subgroup called Sawabantu. It is a tonal language with subject–verb–object word order. Maho (2009) treats Douala as a cluster of five languages: Douala proper, Bodiman, Oli, Pongo and Mongo. He also notes a Douala-based pidgin named Jo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bafoussam</span> Communauté Urbaine in West, Cameroon

Bafoussam is the capital and largest city of the West Region of Cameroon, in the Bamboutos Mountains. It is the 3rd most important (financially) city in Cameroon, after Yaoundé and Douala. The communauté urbaine of Bafoussam, is a decentralized territorial collectivity. Originally called Urban Commune of Bafoussam, the communauté urbaine of Bafoussam, was born after the Presidential Decree N ° 2008/022 of January 17, 2008 and composed of three communes, namely: the Commune of Bafoussam I, the Commune of Bafoussam II (Baleng) and the Commune of Bafoussam III (Bamougoum).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duala people</span> Ethnic group in Cameroon

The Duala are a Bantu ethnic group of Cameroon. They primarily inhabit the littoral and southwest region of Cameroon and form a portion of the Sawabantu or "coastal people" of Cameroon. The Dualas readily welcomed German and French colonial policies. The number of German-speaking Africans increased in central African German colonies prior to 1914. The Duala leadership in 1884 placed the tribe under German rule. Most converted to Protestantism and were schooled along German lines. Colonial officials and businessmen preferred them as inexpensive clerks to German government offices and firms in Africa. They have historically played a highly influential role in Cameroon due to their long contact with Europeans, high rate of education, and wealth gained over centuries as slave traders and landowners.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Douala</span> Largest city and economic capital of Cameroon

Douala is the largest city in Cameroon and its economic capital. It is also the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region. Home to Central Africa's largest port and its major international airport, Douala International Airport (DLA), it is the commercial and economic capital of Cameroon and the entire CEMAC region comprising Gabon, Congo, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic and Cameroon. Consequently, it handles most of the country's major exports, such as oil, cocoa and coffee, timber, metals and fruits. As of 2015, the city and its surrounding area had an estimated population of 5,768,400. The city sits on the estuary of Wouri River and its climate is tropical.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Tunis, Tunisia.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Dakar, Senegal.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lomé, Togo.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Casablanca, Morocco.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Rabat, Morocco.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Oran, Algeria.

The following is a timeline of the history of Djibouti, Djibouti.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bamako, Mali.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Niamey, Niger.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Windhoek, Namibia.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bujumbura, Burundi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ginette Daleu</span> Cameroonian artist (1977–2018)

Ginette Daleu was an artist from Cameroon.


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This article incorporates information from the French Wikipedia and the German Wikipedia.


in English

  • D. Gardinier (1969). "Urban Politics in Douala, Cameroun". African Urban Notes. 4.
  • Joyce Sween; Remi Clignet (1969). "Urban Unemployment as a Determinant of Political Unrest: The Case Study of Douala, Cameroon". Canadian Journal of African Studies. 3.
  • Remi Clignet; Frank Jordan (1971). "Urbanization and Social Differentiation in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Ecological Structures of Douala and Yaoundé". Cahiers d'Études africaines . 11 (42): 261–297. doi:10.3406/cea.1971.2803 via Persee.fr. Lock-green.svg
  • Richard A. Joseph (1974). "Settlers, Strikers and Sans-Travail: The Douala Riots of September 1945". Journal of African History. 15 (4): 669–687. doi:10.1017/S0021853700013931. JSTOR   180996. S2CID   161114929.
  • Jonathan Derrick (1980). "The 'Germanophone' Elite of Douala under the French Mandate". Journal of African History. 21 (2): 255–267. doi:10.1017/S002185370001820X. JSTOR   182138. S2CID   163003718.
  • Lynn Schler (2002). "Looking through a Glass of Beer: Alcohol in the Cultural Spaces of Colonial Douala, 1910-1945". International Journal of African Historical Studies. 35 (2/3): 315–334. doi:10.2307/3097616. JSTOR   3097616. PMID   17494231.
  • Lynn Schler (2003). "Ambiguous Spaces: The Struggle over African Identities and Urban Communities in Colonial Douala, 1914-45". Journal of African History. 44.
  • Lynn Schler (2003). "Bridewealth, Guns and Other Status Symbols: Immigration and Consumption in Colonial Douala". Journal of African Cultural Studies. 16.
  • Paul Tiyambe Zeleza; Dickson Eyoh, eds. (2003). "Douala, Cameroon". Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century African History. Routledge. ISBN   0415234794.
  • Poverty and Urban Mobility in Douala, World Bank, 2004
  • Abdou Maliqalim Simone (2004), "The Spectral: Assembling Douala, Cameroon", For the City Yet to Come: Changing African Life in Four Cities , Duke University Press, ISBN   9780822334347
  • Lynn Schler (2005). "History, the Nation-State, and Alternative Narratives: An Example from Colonial Douala". African Studies Review. 48.
  • Kevin Shillington, ed. (2005). "Douala". Encyclopedia of African History. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN   978-1-57958-245-6.
  • Lucia Babina and Marilyn Douala Bell, ed. (2007). Douala in Translation: A View of the City and its Creative Transformative Potentials. Rotterdam: Episode.
  • Marta Dorenda-Zaborowicz (2011). "Douala: A City of Lost Hopes? Consequences of Decolonisation in Africa Versus Sustainable Development". Problemy Ekorozwoju - Problems of Sustainable Development. 6.
  • Michaela Alejandra Oberhofer (2012), "Fashioning African Cities: The Case of Johannesburg, Lagos and Douala", Streetnotes, 20 (20), doi: 10.5070/S5201012052 via California Digital Library

in French

in German

  • Ernst Vollbehr (1912), "Duala", Mit Pinsel und Palette durch Kamerun (in German), Leipzig: List & von Bressensdorf, OCLC   9352214
  • "Duala". Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon (in German). Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer. 1920. hdl:2027/wu.89005273230.
  • Andreas Eckert (1999). Grundbesitz, Landkonflikte und kolonialer Wandel: Douala 1880 bis 1960 (in German). Stuttgart: Steiner.