Timeline of Khartoum

Last updated

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Khartoum, Sudan.


Prehistoric times

19th century

20th century

Aerial view of Khartoum, 1936 Sudan Khartoum from air with Nile 1936.jpg
Aerial view of Khartoum, 1936

21st century

Aerial view of the cities of Omdurman (top left), Khartoum (lower half), and Bahri (top right), 2005 Khartoum ISS010E23451 lrg.jpg
Aerial view of the cities of Omdurman (top left), Khartoum (lower half), and Bahri (top right), 2005



See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khartoum</span> Capital of Sudan

Khartoum or Khartum is the capital and largest city of Sudan. With a population of 5,274,321, its metropolitan area is the largest in Sudan. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The place where the two Niles meet is known as al-Mogran or al-Muqran. From there, the Nile continues north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nile</span> Major river in northeastern Africa

The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile is the longest river in Africa and has historically been considered the longest river in the world, though this has been contested by research suggesting that the Amazon River is slightly longer. Of the world's major rivers, the Nile is one of the smallest, as measured by annual flow in cubic metres of water. About 6,650 km (4,130 mi) long, its drainage basin covers eleven countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan. Additionally, the Nile is an important economic river, supporting agriculture and fishing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sudan</span> Country in East Africa

Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It borders the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Egypt to the north, Eritrea to the northeast, Ethiopia to the southeast, Libya to the northwest, South Sudan to the south, and the Red Sea. It has a population of 45.7 million people as of 2022 and occupies 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it Africa's third-largest country by area and the third-largest by area in the Arab League. It was the largest country by area in Africa and the Arab League until the secession of South Sudan in 2011; since then both titles have been held by Algeria. Its capital city is Khartoum, and its most populous city is Omdurman.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Omdurman</span> Largest city in Khartoum State, Sudan

Omdurmán is a major city in Sudan. It is the second most populous city in the country, and thus also in the State of Khartoum. Omdurman lies on the west bank of the River Nile, opposite and northwest of the capital city of Khartoum. It is on the Nile river and acts as an important road hub, with the Nile boosting transportation even further.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Omdurman</span> 1898 battle of the Mahdist War

The Battle of Omdurman was fought during the Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan between a British–Egyptian expeditionary force commanded by British Commander-in-Chief (sirdar) major general Horatio Herbert Kitchener and a Sudanese army of the Mahdist Islamic State, led by Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad. The battle took place on 2 September 1898, at Kerreri, 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) north of Omdurman in Sudan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khartoum (state)</span> State of Sudan

Khartoum State is one of the eighteen states of Sudan. Although it is the smallest state by area (22,142 km2), it is the most populous - 5,274,321 in the 2008 census, and officially estimated at 7,993,900 in 2018. It contains the country's largest city by population, Omdurman, together with the cities of North Khartoum and Khartoum; the City of Khartoum is the capital of the state as well as the national capital of Sudan. The capital city contains offices of the state, governmental and non-governmental organizations, cultural institutions, and the main airport.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahdist State</span> 1885–1899 Sudanese state

The Mahdist State, also known as Mahdist Sudan or the Sudanese Mahdiyya, was a state based on a religious and political movement launched in 1881 by Muhammad Ahmad bin Abdullah against the Khedivate of Egypt, which had ruled the Sudan since 1821. After four years of struggle, the Mahdist rebels overthrew the Ottoman-Egyptian administration and established their own "Islamic and national" government with its capital in Omdurman. Thus, from 1885 the Mahdist government maintained sovereignty and control over the Sudanese territories until its existence was terminated by the Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1898.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khartoum North</span> Neighborhood in Sudan

Khartoum North, or Khartoum Bahri, is a city in Khartoum State, lying to the north of Khartoum city, the capital of Sudan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ja'alin tribe</span> Arab tribe in northern Sudan

The Ja'alin, Ja'aliya, Ja'aliyin or Ja'al are a tribal confederation and an Arab or Arabised Nubian tribe in Sudan. The Ja'alin constitute a large portion of the Sudanese Arabs and are one of the three prominent Sudanese Arab tribes in northern Sudan - the others being the Shaigiya and Danagla. They trace their origin to Ibrahim Ja'al, an Abbasid noble, whose clan originally hailed from the Hejaz in the Arabian Peninsula and married into the local Nubian population. Ja'al was a descendant of al-Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad. The Ja'alin formerly occupied the country on both banks of the Nile from Khartoum to Abu Hamad. According to a source, the tribe allegedly once spoke a now extinct dialect of Nubian as late as the nineteenth century. Many Sudanese politicians have come from the Ja'alin tribal coalition.

The Mahas are a sub-group of the Nubian people located in Sudan along the banks of the Nile. They are further split into the Mahas of the North and Mahas of the Center. Some Mahas villages are intermixed with remnants of the largely extinct Qamhat Bishari tribe, and as a result today the Qamhat Mahas are ethnic Beja who speak a Nubian language. In the Butana area some Mahas have intermarried with the Rashaida people.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Darfur</span>

Throughout its history, Darfur has been the home to several cultures and kingdoms, like the mythical Tora or the Daju and Tunjur kingdoms. The recorded history of Darfur begins in the seventeenth century, with the foundation of the Fur Sultanate by the Keira dynasty. In 1875, the Anglo-Egyptian Co-dominion in Khartoum ended the dynasty. The British allowed Darfur a measure of autonomy until formal annexation in 1916. However, the region remained underdeveloped through the period of colonial rule and after independence in 1956. The majority of national resources were directed toward the riverine Arabs clustered along the Nile near Khartoum. This pattern of structural inequality and overly underdevelopment resulted in increasing restiveness among Darfuris. The influence of regional geopolitics and war by proxy, coupled with economic hardship and environmental degradation, from soon after independence led to sporadic armed resistance from the mid-1980s. The continued violence culminated in an armed resistance movement around 2003.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Cairo, Egypt.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Alexandria, Egypt.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Port Said, Egypt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sudanese Greeks</span> Ethnic group in Sudan

The Sudanese Greeks, or Greeks in Sudan, are ethnic Greeks from modern-day Sudan; they are small in number, but still a very prominent community in the country. Historically, this diverse group has played a significant role in the political, economic, cultural, and sporting life of Sudan, as they have been the only European immigrant community of considerable size and economic power.

Sudanese society was very much in flux in the 2000s. Various factors included:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Architecture of Sudan</span> History and present of architecture in Sudan

The architecture of Sudan mirrors the geographical, ethnic and cultural diversity of the country and its historical periods. The lifestyles and material culture expressed in human settlements, their architecture and economic activities have been shaped by different regional and environmental conditions. In its long documented history, Sudan has been a land of changing and diverse forms of human civilization with important influences from foreign cultures.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khalil Farah</span> Sudanese singer, composer and poet (1894–1932)

Khalil Farah was a Sudanese singer, composer and poet, who wrote his lyrics both in Sudanese colloquial as well as in Modern Standard Arabic. He is considered as one of the most prominent pioneers of the early 20th century renewal in singing and poetry in Sudan.


  1. Arkell, A. J. (1945). "The Excavation of an Ancient Site at Khartoum". Sudan Notes and Records. 26 (2): 329–331. ISSN   0375-2984. JSTOR   41716489.
  2. Addison, F. (September 1950). "Early Khartoum. An account of the excavation of an early occupation site carried out by the Sudan Government Antiquities Service in 1944–5. By A. J. Arkell". Antiquity. 24 (95): 151–154. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00023176. ISSN   0003-598X via https://www.cambridge.org.{{cite journal}}: External link in |via= (help)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abdel Salam Sidahmed; Alsir Sidahmed (2004). "Chronology". Sudan. Routledge. ISBN   978-1-134-47947-4.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Robert S. Kramer; et al. (2013). "Khartoum". Historical Dictionary of the Sudan (4th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 247+. ISBN   978-0-8108-6180-0.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Britannica 1910.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Davies 1994.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Walsh 1994.
  8. Sudan Gazette. WorldCat. OCLC   503943049.
  9. "Henry Wellcome's tropical medicine laboratories". London: Wellcome Trust. 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Eltayeb 2003.
  11. Heather J. Sharkey (2003), Living with Colonialism: Nationalism and Culture in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, University of California Press, ISBN   9780520235588
  12. "International Coalition on Newspapers". Chicago, US: Center for Research Libraries. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  13. Baedeker 1914.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Stanley 2008.
  15. E. N. Corbyn (1944). "The Kitchener School of Medicine at Khartoum, Sudan". Journal of the Royal African Society. 43 (171): 66–68. JSTOR   717807.
  16. "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 1965. New York: Statistical Office of the United Nations. 1966.
  17. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Office (1976). "Population of capital city and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 1975. New York. pp. 253–279.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  18. ArchNet. "Khartoum". MIT School of Architecture and Planning. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012.
  19. "Sudan: A Historical Perspective". Georgia, US: Sudan.Net. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  20. 1 2 "Khartoum". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The State of African Cities 2014. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. 10 September 2015. ISBN   978-92-1-132598-0. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014.
  22. Barry M. Rubin (2010). Guide to Islamist Movements. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN   978-0-7656-4138-0.
  23. United Nations Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistics Division (1997). "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants". 1995 Demographic Yearbook. New York. pp. 262–321.{{cite book}}: |author= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  24. Regional Integration in Africa. OECD and African Development Bank. 2002.
  25. 1 2 Karen Fung, African Studies Association (ed.). "Sudan Newspapers". Africa South of the Sahara: Selected Internet Resources. Retrieved 28 January 2013 via Stanford University, US.
  26. "Sudan Profile: Timeline". BBC News. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  27. Andreas Mehler; et al., eds. (2013). "Sudan". Africa Yearbook: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2012. Vol. 9. Koninklijke Brill. p. 398+. ISBN   978-90-04-25600-2.


Published in 20th century
Published in 21st century

15°38′00″N32°32′00″E / 15.633333°N 32.533333°E / 15.633333; 32.533333