Timeline of Fez

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Fez, Morocco.


Prior to 20th century

20th century

21st century

Satellite view of Fez, 2016 Fez, Morocco by Planet Labs.jpg
Satellite view of Fez, 2016

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A mellah is a Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco. Starting in the 15th century and especially since the beginning of the 19th century, Jewish communities in Morocco were constrained to live in mellah districts in many Moroccan cities. The name mellah derives from a local toponym in Fez which became the name of the first separate Jewish district in Morocco created in that city during the 15th century.

Marinid Sultanate 1244–1465 Berber empire in Morocco

The Marinid Sultanate was a Berber Muslim empire from the mid-13th to the 15th century which controlled present-day Morocco and, intermittently, other parts of North Africa and of the southern Iberian Peninsula (Spain) around Gibraltar. It was named after the Banu Marin, a Zenata Berber tribe. The sultanate was ruled by the Marinid dynasty, founded by Abd al-Haqq I.

Moulay Idriss Zerhoun Place in Fès-Meknès, Morocco

Moulay Idriss, Moulay Driss Zerhoun or simply Zerhoun is a town in the Fès-Meknès region of northern Morocco, spread over two hills at the base of Mount Zerhoun. It is famous for being the site of the tomb of Idris I, the first major Islamic ruler of Morocco, after whom the town is named. It is located near Meknes and overlooks the ruins of Volubilis a few kilometers away.

Fes el Bali UNESCO World Heritage Site in Fez, Morocco

Fes el Bali is the oldest walled part of Fez, Morocco. Fes el Bali was founded as the capital of the Idrisid dynasty between 789 and 808 AD. UNESCO listed Fes el Bali, along with Fes Jdid, as a World Heritage Site in 1981 under the name Medina of Fez. The World Heritage Site includes Fes el Bali's urban fabric and walls as well as a buffer zone outside of the walls that is intended to preserve the visual integrity of the location. Fes el Bali is, along with Fes Jdid and the French-created Ville Nouvelle or “New Town”, one of the three main districts in Fez.

Fes Jdid

Fes Jdid or Fes el-Jdid is one of the three parts of Fez, Morocco. It was founded by the Marinids in 1276 as an extension of Fes el Bali and as a royal citadel and capital. It is occupied in large part by the historic Royal Palace, which was once the center of government in Morocco and which is still used on occasion by the King of Morocco today. The district also contains the historic Mellah of the city. Since 1981 it has been classified, along with Fes el-Bali, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Kasbah of the Udayas Historical neighborhood in Rabat, Morocco

The Kasbah of the Udayas, also spelled Kasbah of the Oudaias or of the Oudayas, is a kasbah (citadel) in Rabat, Morocco. It is located on a hill at the mouth of the Bou Regreg river, opposite Salé, and adjacent to the old medina of Rabat. It is listed, along with other sites in Rabat, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Bou Inania Madrasa Madrasa and mosque in Fes, Morocco

The Madrasa Bou Inania is a madrasa in Fes, Morocco, built in 1350–55 CE by Abu Inan Faris. It is the only madrasa in Morocco which also functioned as a congregational mosque. It is widely acknowledged as a high point of Marinid architecture and of historic Moroccan architecture generally.

Zawiya of Moulay Idris II Religious site and building in Fez, Morocco

The Zawiya of Moulay Idris II is a zawiya in Fez, Morocco. It contains the tomb of Idris II, who ruled Morocco from 807 to 828 and is considered the main founder of the city of Fez. It is located in the heart of Fes el-Bali, the UNESCO-listed old medina of Fez, and is considered one of the holiest shrines in Morocco.

Dar al-Magana Building in Fes, Morocco

Dar al-Magana is a 14th-century building in Fes, Morocco, built by the Marinid Sultan Abu Inan Faris which houses a weight-powered water clock. It is located opposite the Bou Inania Madrasa on Tala'a Kebira street and was created to serve that madrasa and its mosque, which was also built by Abu Inan around the same time.

Al-Attarine Madrasa Historic madrasa in Fez, Morocco

The Al-Attarine Madrasa or Medersa al-Attarine is a madrasa in Fes, Morocco, near the Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque. It was built by the Marinid sultan Uthman II Abu Said in 1323-5. The madrasa takes its name from the Souk al-Attarine, the spice and perfume market. It is considered one of the highest achievements of Marinid architecture due to its rich and harmonious decoration and its efficient use of limited space.

Marinid Tombs Historic site in Fez, Morocco

The Marinid Tombs or Merenid Tombs are a set of ruined monumental tombs on a hill above and north of Fes al-Bali, the old city of Fez, Morocco. They were originally a royal necropolis for the Marinid dynasty which ruled over Morocco in the 13th to 15th centuries. Today, they are a popular lookout point over the historic city.

Fez, Morocco City in Fès-Meknès, Morocco

Fez or Fes is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative region. It is the second largest city in Morocco, with a population of 1.11 million according to the 2014 census. Located to the north west of the Atlas Mountains, Fez is linked to several important cities of different regions; it is 206 km (128 mi) from Tangier to the northwest, 246 km (153 mi) from Casablanca, 189 km (117 mi) from Rabat to the west. The Trans-Saharan trade route may be accessed via Marrakesh, 387 km (240 mi) to the southwest of Fez. It is surrounded by hills and the old city is centered around the Fez River flowing from west to east.

Dar Batha Palace, riad in Fes, Morocco

Dar Batḥa, or Qasr al-Batḥa, is a former royal palace in the city of Fez, Morocco. The palace was commissioned by the Alaouite Sultan Hassan I in the late 19th century and finished under his successor Abdelaziz. It was converted into a museum of historical arts and crafts in 1915 with a collection that now comprises over 6,500 objects. The palace is located near Bab Bou Jeloud at the western edge of Fes el-Bali, the old medina quarter of the city, and close to Fes el-Jdid, the new medina quarter.

Saffarin Madrasa

Saffarin Madrasa is a madrasa in Fes el-Bali, the old medina quarter of Fez, Morocco. It was built in 1271 CE by the Marinid Sultan Abu Ya'qub Yusuf and was the first of many madrasas built by the Marinid dynasty during their reign. It is located just south of the 9th-century Qarawiyyin Mosque on Saffarin Square, which is named after the coppersmiths who work in the square.

Bab Oudaya Gate in Rabat, Morocco

Bab Oudaya, also known as Bab Lakbir or Bab al-Kabir, is the monumental gate of the Kasbah of the Udayas in Rabat, Morocco. The gate, built in the late 12th century, is located at the northwest corner of the Kasbah, uphill from the medina of Rabat. It is often cited as one of most beautiful gates of Almohad and Moroccan architecture.

Mellah of Fez Jewish quarter of Fez, Morocco

The Mellah of Fez is the historic Jewish quarter (Mellah) of Fez, Morocco. It is located in Fes el-Jdid, the part of Fez which contains the Royal Palace, and is believed to date from the mid-15th century. While the district is no longer home to any significant Jewish population, it still contains a number of monuments and landmarks from the Jewish community's historical heritage in the city.

Grand Mosque of Oujda

The Grand Mosque of Oujda is the historic main Friday mosque of Oujda, Morocco. The mosque was founded by the Marinid sultan Abu Ya'qub Yusuf in 1296.

Place Seffarine Public square in Fez, Morocco

Place Seffarine is a small square in the medina of Fes, Morocco. It is located on the south side of the Qarawiyyin Mosque, close to the Bou Khrareb River which runs through the heart of the medina. The square dates back to the Middle Ages but has also undergone renovations in modern times. It is adjoined by the Qarawiyyin's library to the northwest, by the Saffarin Madrasa to the east, and by the Saffarin Hammam (bathhouse) to the southwest. It is named after the coppersmiths who have had their workshops here for centuries.

History of Fez

The History of Fez begins with its foundation by Idris I and Idris II at the end of the 8th century and the beginning of the 9th century CE. It initially consisted of two autonomous and competing settlements on opposing shores of what is now known as the Oued Fes. Initially inhabited by a largely Berber (Amazigh) population, successive waves of mainly Arab immigrants from Ifriqiya (Tunisia) and al-Andalus (Spain/Portugal) over time gave the nascent city an Arab character as well. After the downfall of the Idrisid dynasty, it was contested between different Zenata groups allied with either the Fatimid Caliphate or the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba. In the 11th century the Almoravid sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin conquered the region and united its two settlements into what is today the Fes el-Bali quarter. Under the rule of the Almoravids and of the Almohads after them, despite losing the status of capital to Marrakesh, the city remained the economic and political center of northern Morocco and gained a reputation for religious scholarship and mercantile activity.

Judaism in Fez was a community that existed in the city of Fez in Morocco for the last thousand years. Throughout the years, there were rabbis, poets and famous linguists in this community, who greatly influenced the Jewish diaspora in Morocco and the Jewish world.


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in English

Published in 19th century
Published in 20th century
Published in 21st century
  • Mark Ellingham (2001), "Fes", Rough Guide to Morocco (6th ed.), London: Rough Guides, p. 198+, OL   24218635M
  • Josef W. Meri, ed. (2006). "Fez". Medieval Islamic Civilization. Routledge. p. 257+. ISBN   978-0-415-96691-7.
  • C. Edmund Bosworth, ed. (2007). "Fez". Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. pp. 137+. ISBN   978-9004153882.
  • Simon O'Meara (2007). "Foundation Legend of Fez". In Amira K. Bennison and Alison L. Gascoigne (ed.). Cities in the Pre-Modern Islamic World. Routledge. p. 27+. ISBN   978-1-134-09650-3.
  • Michael R.T. Dumper; Bruce E. Stanley, eds. (2008), "Fez", Cities of the Middle East and North Africa, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO, pp. 151–153
  • "Fez". Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2009.
  • Rachel Newcomb (2009). Women of Fes: Ambiguities of Urban Life in Morocco. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN   978-0-8122-4124-2.

in French