Too Much Too Soon (album)

Last updated

Too Much Too Soon
Too Much Too Soon - The New York Dolls.jpg
Studio album by
ReleasedMay 10, 1974
Recorded1974
Studio A&R (New York)
Genre
Length36:44
Label Mercury
Producer Shadow Morton
New York Dolls chronology
New York Dolls
(1973)
Too Much Too Soon
(1974)
Lipstick Killers
(1981)
Singles from Too Much Too Soon
  1. "Stranded in the Jungle" / "Who Are the Mystery Girls?"
    Released: July 1974
  2. "(There's Gonna Be A) Showdown" / "Puss 'n' Boots"
    Released: September 1974

Too Much Too Soon is the second album by the American hard rock band New York Dolls. It was released on May 10, 1974, by Mercury Records. The Dolls recorded the album earlier that year at A&R Studios in New York City with veteran producer Shadow Morton, who was enlisted by the band's lead singer David Johansen after they felt dissatisfied with the recording of their 1973 self-titled debut album. Morton had been disenchanted by the music industry, but the band's energy motivated him to undertake the project as a challenge.

Contents

Although the Dolls shared an affinity for Morton, they produced little original material with him. To complete Too Much Too Soon, they covered older songs and re-recorded their past demos. Johansen impersonated different characters while singing some of the novelty covers, and Morton incorporated many studio sound effects and female backing vocals in his production. For the album, lead guitarist Johnny Thunders wrote and recorded "Chatterbox", his first recorded performance singing lead.

Too Much Too Soon sold poorly and only charted at number 167 on the Billboard 200. After a problem-ridden national tour, the New York Dolls were dropped by Mercury and disbanded a few years later. The album received positive reviews from most critics, some of whom felt Morton's production highlighted the group's raw sound and made it a better record than their first. Like their debut album, Too Much Too Soon became one of the most popular cult records in rock music and has since been viewed by music journalists as a precursor to punk rock.

Background

The New York Dolls in 1973 New York Dolls - TopPop 1973 03.png
The New York Dolls in 1973

After being signed by Mercury Records, the New York Dolls released their self-titled debut album in 1973 to poor sales. [1] Although it was praised by critics, the band was not satisfied with producer Todd Rundgren's sound for the album and had disagreements with him before choosing not to retain him. Songwriting and production partners Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller were originally enlisted to produce their next album, while the band's guitarist Johnny Thunders wanted to produce it himself. However, Leiber and Stoller withdrew shortly before recording was to begin. [2] The group held a single session with Mercury A&R executive Paul Nelson at Media Sound Recording Studios, where they recorded 14 songs, most of which were covers. [3]

At Leiber and Stoller's recommendation, frontman David Johansen asked veteran producer Shadow Morton to work on the album. [4] Morton was best known for his work with the Shangri-Las, of whom the New York Dolls were fans, and had also been Johansen's first choice to produce their debut album. [5] Morton had become disenchanted with the music industry and wanted to challenge himself by producing the band's second album: "The Dolls had energy, sort of a disciplined weirdness. I took them into the room as a challenge. I was bored with the music and the business. The Dolls can certainly snap you out of boredom." [6]

Recording and production

With Morton, the New York Dolls recorded Too Much Too Soon in 1974 at A&R Studios in New York City. [7] The album was later mastered at Sterling Sound and Masterdisk. [8] During the sessions, Morton had Johansen record his vocals several times and incorporated sound effects such as gongs, gunshots, and feminine choruses. [9] In a report on the album's progress for Melody Maker , journalist Lenny Kaye wrote that they were taking more time than they had on their first record, "bringing in occasional strings and horns, following Shadow's advice not 'to settle'." [10] Morton and the band shared an affinity for each other, as he found the group's energy in the studio refreshing, while Johansen was fond of Morton and the "looser" feel he provided for their music. "That man is completely unpretentious", Johansen said of the producer. "He doesn't think he ever did a marvellous thing in his life." [11]

We were pushing it. We were running twenty-six hours each day. They had an incredible amount of energy. God, I remember the scenes in the studio ... the word intense is not intense enough! I let them do what they naturally did and merely tried to catch some of it on tape.

Shadow Morton [6]

The New York Dolls and Morton produced little original material together. To complete the album, they had to record cover songs and re-record some of the band's earlier demos; "Babylon", "Who Are the Mystery Girls?", "It's Too Late" and "Human Being" had been recorded by the band in March 1973 as demos for Mercury before the label signed them. [3] They had also recorded demos of two songs written by guitarist Sylvain Sylvain, "Teenage News" and "Too Much Too Soon", before working with Morton, but neither was considered for the album. Sylvain said he confronted Morton about this decision, recalling he had been in a rush: "He was too quick with me and said that he'd been told only to listen to David Johansen and Johnny Thunders. He didn't want to tell me who had told him that but obviously it was the managers. I just walked out, it was all driving me nuts." [12]

According to journalist Tony Fletcher, Morton would have been more productive on Too Much Too Soon had it not been for his alcoholism and the lifestyles of the band members—bassist Arthur Kane was also an alcoholic, while Thunders and drummer Jerry Nolan had heroin addictions. [13] Robert Christgau believed the New York Dolls relied more on cover songs for the album because, "like so many cocky songwriters, David Johansen overloaded his debut with originals and then found that record promotion wasn't a life activity that inspired new ones." [9] English writer Clinton Heylin said their inability to sell enough records before may have discouraged them from writing original songs. [3]

Music and lyrics

According to Billboard magazine, Too Much Too Soon is another hard rock record by the New York Dolls but with more "sophisticated" production. [14] Music journalist Nina Antonia wrote that because of the group's "untamable wildness", the record still sounds eccentric despite Morton's attempts to "polish" their sound, such as by subduing their otherwise unrefined guitar playing. [15] The album features covers of the Cadets' 1956 hit "Stranded in the Jungle", Archie Bell's 1969 hit "There's Gonna Be a Showdown", and Sonny Boy Williamson's "Don't Start Me Talkin'". [16] On the novelty cover songs, Johansen impersonates characters such as the high-stepper in "(There's Gonna Be A) Showdown" and Charlie Chan in "Bad Detective", which has lyrics describing a nonsensical narrative set in China. [17] On "Stranded in the Jungle", he alternates between a comical reject and a lecherous man at lover's lane. [18] Journalist Ellen Willis remarked that, like the band's 1973 song "Personality Crisis", "Stranded in the Jungle" suggests a theme of "clashing cultures and the dilemma of preserving one's uniqueness while reaching out to others". [19]

"Chatterbox" was written and sung by lead guitarist Johnny Thunders (pictured in 1979). NLN Johnny Thunders (cropped).jpg
"Chatterbox" was written and sung by lead guitarist Johnny Thunders (pictured in 1979).

For "Babylon", Johansen wrote the lyrics as a tribute to the New York Dolls' following from outside New York City: "[The song] is about people who live in Babylon, Long Island, New York, who go into the city every night dressed to kill. These people have to get home before sun-up, you know, like vampires that can't get caught by the sun." [20] By contrast, Spin magazine's Eric Weisbard and Craig Marks interpreted "Babylon" as a reference to the Biblical city of the same name because of how the song portrays "the symbol of decadence as a sanctuary". [21] The song's subject leaves Babylon for Manhattan, where she is then hired to work in a massage parlor. [20]

"It's Too Late" is a commentary on nostalgic fashions and makes reference to actress Diana Dors in a lyric rebuking drug use. [22] According to Antonia, the song criticizes indifferent, decadent people who cannot, as Johansen sings, "parlez New York français". [23] On "Who Are the Mystery Girls?", he scolds those who abuse love, wanting to "kick it on the floor" and "beat it like a scatter rug". [24] "Puss 'n' Boots" is titled after an illustrated, podo-erotic magazine sold in adult book stores. [10] Johansen said the song is about shoe fetishism, "or as Arthur [Kane] observed, it's about 'the woofers in relationship with the woofee'." [25] Its lyrics depict adversities faced by the protagonist, "Little Rhinestone Target", as he tries to change his name in pursuit of his shoe fetish, before the music ends with a gunshot, a sound effect inspired by the Olympics' 1958 song "Western Movies". [10] Willis interpreted a feminist subtext in the song, citing the lyrics "sometimes you gotta get away someway / and now you're walkin' just like you're ten feet tall ... I hope you don't get shot for tryin'." [19]

"Chatterbox" is written and sung by Thunders, whom Willis felt "uses his voice as a wailing instrument" in a manner similar to rock singer Robert Plant. [26] The song is Thunders's first time singing lead and features vocals Weisbard and Marks said are delivered in a quavering but proud New York accent. [21] His lyrics describe the narrator's growing frustration over a crossed-wire phone connection with a female subject. [27] On "Human Being", an ode to self-respect and personal liberty, Thunders introduces his guitar playing with a roughly performed variation on Bill Doggett's 1956 song "Honky Tonk". [28] Johansen addresses critics of the band in the song, telling them if they find him objectionable they should instead find themselves "a saint", "a boy who's gonna be what I ain't", and a "plastic doll with a fresh coat of paint who's gonna sit through the madness and always act so quaint". [29]

Title and packaging

Too Much Too Soon was titled after the biography on actress Diana Barrymore. According to music journalist Jon Savage, the title was "more than applicable to the Dolls themselves" because of alcoholism and other issues among the band members, including Thunders's heroin use and Nolan's contraction of hepatitis. [30] A dedication to Barrymore was printed in the album's gatefold. [8] For its front cover, the group eschewed the drag image that their first album had presented, and that they had developed a reputation for, in favor of a fake concert shot. During the shoot, Thunders held a doll in his arm as if to strike it against his guitar to add shock value. [16]

Marketing and sales

The album was first released on May 10, 1974, in the United States. [16] Two double A-sided, 7" singles were released to promote the album—"Stranded in the Jungle" / "Who Are the Mystery Girls?" in July and "(There's Gonna Be A) Showdown" / "Puss 'n' Boots" in September 1974—but neither charted. [31] According to Antonia, the selected singles demonstrated how "the Dolls were in need of a hit single and their current producer wanted to see them attain it" by accommodating radio audiences with toned-down studio versions of songs the band had performed more rowdily in concert. [15] "Stranded in the Jungle", originally a rowdy concert staple for the band, had been produced by Morton with a more polished sound and feminine vocals; according to popular music academic Nick Talevski, it became the New York Dolls' most successful single. [32]

Too Much Too Soon was another commercial failure for the New York Dolls, however, as it only charted at number 167 on the Billboard 200. [33] It performed well below Mercury's expectations and sold less than 100,000 copies. [34] Joe Gross later wrote in The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (2004) that the band's attempt to garner more airplay by enlisting Morton did not work because, "with a slicker sound, background choruses, and cleaner riffs, the Dolls just sounded skankier". [35]

When the album was released in Europe in July, the New York Dolls performed at the Buxton Festival in Derbyshire and the Rock Prom Festival at Olympia in London. [36] They also embarked on their second tour of the United States, which lasted only a few months. It was marred by cancelled shows and conflicts between the band members stemming from their escalating addictions to alcohol and other drugs. Because of their alcoholism, they failed to set up a recording session for a scheduled third album after the tour had ended, and by 1975, they were dropped by Mercury before disbanding a few years later. [37]

Critical reception

Too Much Too Soon received positive reviews from contemporary critics. [38] Reviewing for Rolling Stone in June 1974, Dave Marsh hailed the New York Dolls as the leading hard rock band in the US and noted what he felt was Nolan's competent drumming, Johansen's ability to add depth to his characters, and Thunders's innovative guitar playing. Marsh especially praised his playing on "Chatterbox", calling it "a classic", and believed even the most brazen songs sounded successful because Morton's production highlighted the group's more unrefined musical qualities. [39] Writing for Creem magazine, Christgau said the polished sound reproduction preserved the band's raw qualities, especially in the case of Johansen's vocals and Nolan's drumming, and remarked that Rundgren "should be ashamed—Shadow Morton has gotten more out of the Dolls than they can give us live on any but their best nights." [40] Robert Hilburn from the Los Angeles Times felt Too Much Too Soon was a better-produced album that proved the band to be "the real thing", calling it the best record of derisive punk rock since Exile on Main St. by the Rolling Stones in 1972. [41] In The New Yorker , Ellen Willis wrote that she learned to appreciate Too Much Too Soon more than New York Dolls after seeing the band perform songs from the former album in concert, particularly "Human Being" and "Puss 'n' Boots", while Ron Ross from Phonograph Record magazine said the group's "easy going ironic sensibility" was expressed "far more amusingly and accessibly" here than on their debut album. [42] Tom Hull, in a review published in Overdose, gave the album an A-minus and said that rationalizing one's love of the Dolls "misses the point". Along with being "cute", they are "just about the best really hard rock band around, and in an age of cleverness and chic that's mighty good to see", Hull concluded. [43]

Some reviewers were critical of Too Much Too Soon for what they felt was a poorly recorded and overproduced sound. [44] In a negative review for NME , Nick Kent said it sounded cluttered and "shot through with unfulfilled potential", while Circus magazine panned the record as "cut after cut of annoying screeching". [45] It was nonetheless voted the tenth best album of 1974 in the Pazz & Jop, an annual poll of American critics nationwide, published in The Village Voice . [46] Willis, one of the critics polled, listed it as her fifth favorite record of the year. [47] Christgau, the poll's creator and supervisor, named it third best, and in a decade-end list for The Village Voice, he named it the fourth best album of the 1970s. [48] Los Angeles Times critic Richard Cromelin included it in his list of favorite records from the decade and wrote that Morton's production made it slightly better than New York Dolls. [49]

Legacy and reappraisal

Retrospective professional reviews
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [50]
Blender Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [51]
Chicago Sun-Times Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg [52]
Christgau's Record Guide A+ [9]
Encyclopedia of Popular Music Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svg [53]
The Great Rock Discography 7/10 [54]
MusicHound Rock 3/5 [55]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svg [56]
Spin Alternative Record Guide 9/10 [21]
Tom Hull – on the Web A [57]

Along with the New York Dolls' first album, Too Much Too Soon became one of the most popular cult records in rock music. [58] According to AllMusic senior editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine, the group predated punk rock with their "gleeful sleaziness and reckless sound" on the record, which he said was embellished by Morton's production details and exemplified by "musically visceral and dangerous" songs such as "Human Being". [50] In 1986, Sounds magazine ranked it sixtieth on its list of the 100 best albums of all time. [54] After it was reissued by Mercury in 1987, Don McLeese of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote that Morton's production highlighted the New York Dolls' sense of humor and was rendered vividly by the CD remaster. However, he felt Too Much Too Soon was marred by inconsistent material and rated it lower than their first record. [52] In a review of the reissue, Don Waller of the Los Angeles Times said the album was underappreciated and as much an "instant classic" as New York Dolls. [59]

In 2005, Too Much Too Soon was remastered and reissued by Hip-O Select and Mercury, after which Christgau wrote in Blender that both it and New York Dolls make up "a priceless proto-punk legacy". He wrote that although Johansen's best original songs are on the first record, Too Much Too Soon has consistent hooks, clever lyrics, and exceptional cover songs, including "two R&B novelties whose theatrical potential was barely noticed until the Dolls penetrated their holy essence". [51] That same year, rock journalist Toby Creswell named "Babylon" as one of the greatest songs of all time in his book 1001 Songs . [6] In the Encyclopedia of Popular Music (2006), Colin Larkin felt the band's issues with alcohol and other drugs affected their performance on the record, which he deemed "a charismatic collection of punk/glam-rock anthems, typically delivered with 'wasted' cool". [53]

Track listing

Side one
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Babylon" David Johansen, Johnny Thunders 3:31
2."Stranded in the Jungle"James Johnson, Ernestine Smith3:46
3."Who Are the Mystery Girls?"Johansen, Thunders3:08
4."(There's Gonna Be A) Showdown" Kenny Gamble, Leon Huff 3:38
5."It's Too Late"Johansen, Thunders4:40
Side two
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Puss 'n' Boots"Johansen, Sylvain Sylvain 3:06
2."Chatterbox"Thunders2:25
3."Bad Detective"Keni St. Lewis3:39
4."Don't Start Me Talkin'" Sonny Boy Williamson II 3:13
5."Human Being"Johansen, Thunders5:45

Personnel

Credits are adapted from the album's liner notes. [8]

New York Dolls

Additional personnel

Release history

Information is adapted from Nina Antonia's Too Much Too Soon: The New York Dolls (2006). [60]

YearRegionFormatCatalog
1974Australia LP 6338 498 1
France9 100 002
JapanRJ-5135
Netherlands6 463 064
Spain63 38 498
United Kingdom6 338 498
United States 8-track tape MC-8-1-1001
cassette MCR-4-1-1001
LPSRM-1-1001
1977United Kingdomdouble LP*6641631
1986cassette*PRIDC 12
double LP*PRID 12
AustraliaLP6 463 029
1987Japan CD*33PD-422
United StatesCD834 230-2
1989Japan23PD111
1991PHCR-6044
1994PHCR-4241
2005 [61] United StatesB00005027-02
(*) packaged with New York Dolls (1973).

See also

Related Research Articles

New York Dolls

New York Dolls were an American rock band formed in New York City in 1971. Along with the Velvet Underground and the Stooges, they were one of the first bands of the early punk rock scenes. Although the band never achieved much commercial success and their original line-up fell apart quickly, the band's first two albums—New York Dolls (1973) and Too Much Too Soon (1974)—became among the most popular cult records in rock. The line-up at this time comprised vocalist David Johansen, guitarist Johnny Thunders, bassist Arthur Kane, guitarist and pianist Sylvain Sylvain and drummer Jerry Nolan; the latter two had replaced Rick Rivets and Billy Murcia, respectively, in 1972. On stage, they donned an androgynous wardrobe, wearing high heels, eccentric hats, satin, makeup, spandex, and dresses. Nolan described the group in 1974 as "the Dead End Kids of today".

<i>New York Dolls</i> (album) 1973 studio album by New York Dolls

New York Dolls is the debut album by the American hard rock band New York Dolls. It was released on July 27, 1973, by Mercury Records. In the years leading up to the album, the Dolls had developed a local fanbase by playing regularly in lower Manhattan after forming in 1971. However, most music producers and record companies were reluctant to work with them because of their vulgarity and onstage fashion as well as homophobia in New York; the group later appeared in exaggerated drag on the album cover for shock value.

Johnny Thunders

John Anthony Genzale, better known by his stage name Johnny Thunders, was an American guitarist, singer and songwriter. He came to prominence in the early 1970s as a member of the New York Dolls. He later played with The Heartbreakers and as a solo artist.

<i>Marquee Moon</i> 1977 studio album by Television

Marquee Moon is the debut album by American rock band Television. It was released on February 8, 1977, by Elektra Records. In the years leading up to the album, Television had become a prominent act on the New York music scene and generated interest from a number of record labels, eventually signing a record deal with Elektra. The group rehearsed extensively in preparation for Marquee Moon before recording it at A & R Recording in September 1976. It was produced by the band's frontman Tom Verlaine and sound engineer Andy Johns.

Sylvain Sylvain American guitarist

Sylvain Mizrahi, known professionally as Sylvain Sylvain, was an American rock guitarist, most notable for being a member of the New York Dolls.

David Johansen American singer

David Roger Johansen is an American singer, songwriter and actor. He is best known as a member of the seminal proto-punk band the New York Dolls. He is also known for his work under the pseudonym Buster Poindexter, and for playing the Ghost of Christmas Past in Scrooged.

Arthur Kane

Arthur Harold Kane Jr. was a musician best known as the bass guitarist for the pioneering glam rock band the New York Dolls. Kane was a founding member of the Dolls in 1971 and remained an integral part of the band until he was forced out in 1975, shortly after the departure of Johnny Thunders and Jerry Nolan. In 2004, after decades of estrangement from Dolls singer David Johansen, Kane rejoined the surviving Dolls to rehearse and play a reunion concert in London, which was the subject of the 2005 documentary New York Doll. In addition to his bass playing, Kane was known for his subculture fashion sense and for uttering original aphorisms in his uniquely toned voice.

Gerard "Jerry" Nolan was an American rock drummer, best known for his work with the New York Dolls and Johnny Thunders and The Heartbreakers.

<i>L.A.M.F.</i> 1977 studio album by The Heartbreakers

L.A.M.F. is the only studio album by the American band The Heartbreakers, which included Johnny Thunders, Jerry Nolan, Walter Lure and Billy Rath. The music is a mixture of punk and rock and roll.

<i>So Alone</i> (album) 1978 studio album by Johnny Thunders

So Alone is a 1978 album by Johnny Thunders, then leader of The Heartbreakers and formerly lead guitarist for New York Dolls.

<i>Live at Maxs Kansas City</i> (Johnny Thunders album) 1979 live album by The Heartbreakers

Live at Max's Kansas City is a live album by The Heartbreakers. Recorded at a "reunion"/"farewell" show on September 16, 1978 at the famous Max's Kansas City nightclub, the album's performance — loud, sloppy, and laden with bawdy introductions and/or lyric changes to many of the familiar songs from their only studio album, L.A.M.F. — further cemented the band's live reputation. A classic of early punk rock, the album has been called "probably the best official document of any New York band of the era."

<i>Lipstick Killers – The Mercer Street Sessions 1972</i> 1981 compilation album by New York Dolls

Lipstick Killers – The Mercer Street Sessions 1972 is a 1981 album of demos by the New York Dolls. The album's songs were later re-recorded for New York Dolls, except for "Don't Start Me Talking" and "Human Being" which were later re-recorded for Too Much Too Soon and "Don't Mess with Cupid", which was never re-recorded.

<i>Red Patent Leather</i> 1984 live album by New York Dolls

Red Patent Leather is a 1984 live album by the earlier disbanded New York Dolls. It was recorded in New York a decade earlier, in March 1975, just a month before the group broke up while on tour in Florida.

<i>One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This</i> 2006 studio album by New York Dolls

One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This is the third studio album by the American hard rock band New York Dolls. It was the group's first release of original material since their 1974 album Too Much Too Soon. The album was produced by Jack Douglas and written mostly by band members David Johansen and Sylvain Sylvain.

<i>Rockn Roll</i> (New York Dolls album) 1994 compilation album by New York Dolls

Rock'n Roll is a 1994 compilation album by the New York Dolls. It features all the songs from their self-titled album, with the exception of their cover of Bo Diddley's song "Pills", and selections from Too Much Too Soon. There are also three unreleased tracks: "Courageous Cat Theme", which was recorded for a commercial during the sessions for the second album and demos of band composed, "Lone Star Queen" and a cover of "Don't Mess With Cupid".

<i>Seven Day Weekend</i> (album) 1992 album by New York Dolls

Seven Day Weekend is a collection of demos by rock band the New York Dolls. The tracks were recorded at Planet Studios in 1973 but the collection was not released until 1992. In addition to early versions of tracks released on New York Dolls and Too Much Too Soon, there are five tracks that were not released on the studio albums: "Seven Day Weekend", "Back in the USA", "Endless Party", "Great Big Kiss", and "Hoochie Coochie Man". Guitarist Johnny Thunders performed a version of "Great Big Kiss" on his 1978 album So Alone.

Trash (New York Dolls song) 1973 single by New York Dolls

"Trash" is the debut single by American hard rock band the New York Dolls. It was recorded for their 1973 self-titled album and released as a double A-side with the song "Personality Crisis" in July 1973. "Trash" did not chart upon its release, but has since been hailed by music critics as an anthemic glam rock and proto-punk song. In 2009, the band recorded a reggae-styled remake of the song for their album Cause I Sez So.

Jet Boy 1973 single by New York Dolls

"Jet Boy" is the closing track and second 7" single from the New York Dolls' self titled debut album. It was written by Dolls lead singer David Johansen and guitarist Johnny Thunders.

Personality Crisis (song) 1973 single by New York Dolls

"Personality Crisis" is the lead track from the New York Dolls' self-titled debut album. It was written by Dolls lead singer David Johansen and guitarist Johnny Thunders. An early demo version of it appears on the 1981 collection Lipstick Killers – The Mercer Street Sessions 1972.

"Give Him a Great Big Kiss" is a song written by Shadow Morton and performed by The Shangri-Las. It reached #18 on the U.S. pop chart in 1964. It was featured on their 1965 album Leader of the Pack.

References

  1. Knowles 2010, p. 160.
  2. Fletcher 2009 , p. 322; Lake 2003 , p. 723.
  3. 1 2 3 Heylin 2005, p. 83.
  4. Fletcher 2009 , p. 322; Lake 2003 , p. 723.
  5. Lake 2003, p. 723.
  6. 1 2 3 Creswell 2005, p. 41.
  7. Anon.(b) n.d.; Anon. 1974c.
  8. 1 2 3 Anon. 1974c.
  9. 1 2 3 Christgau 1981, p. 279.
  10. 1 2 3 Antonia 2006, p. 123.
  11. Creswell 2005 , p. 41; Antonia 2006 , p. 123.
  12. Antonia 2006, p. 129.
  13. Fletcher 2009, pp. 322–23.
  14. Anon. 1974a, p. 78.
  15. 1 2 Antonia 2006, p. 130.
  16. 1 2 3 Gimarc 2005, p. 12.
  17. Christgau 1998 , p. 195; Antonia 2006 , p. 124.
  18. Christgau 1998, p. 195.
  19. 1 2 Willis 1974, p. 145.
  20. 1 2 Antonia 2006, p. 82.
  21. 1 2 3 Weisbard & Marks 1995, p. 269.
  22. Christgau 1998, p. 197.
  23. Antonia 2006, p. 122.
  24. Antonia 2006, p. 85.
  25. Kent 2007, p. 173.
  26. Gimarc 2005 , p. 12; Willis 1974 , p. 145.
  27. Antonia 2006, p. 124.
  28. Weisbard & Marks 1995 , p. 269; Christgau 1998 , p. 191.
  29. Christgau 1998, p. 198.
  30. Savage 2002, p. 86.
  31. Strong 2004.
  32. Antonia 2006 , p. 130; Christgau 1998 , p. 194; Talevski 2010 , p. 466.
  33. Gimarc 2005 , p. 12; Erlewine(a) n.d..
  34. Hermes 2012 , p. 112; Christgau 1998 , p. 200.
  35. Gross 2004, p. 584.
  36. Anon. 1974b, p. 53.
  37. Hermes 2012 , p. 112; Pilchak 2005 , p. 106.
  38. Leszczak 2014, p. 268.
  39. Marsh 1974.
  40. Christgau 1974.
  41. Hilburn 1974, p. C12.
  42. Willis 1974 , p. 145; Pilchak 2005 , p. 106.
  43. Hull 1975.
  44. Pilchak 2005, p. 106.
  45. Hermes 2012, p. 92.
  46. Anon. 1975.
  47. Willis 2011, p. 47.
  48. Christgau 1975; Christgau 1979.
  49. Cromelin 1979, p. J86.
  50. 1 2 Erlewine(b) n.d.
  51. 1 2 Christgau 2005.
  52. 1 2 McLeese 1988, p. 31.
  53. 1 2 Larkin 2006, p. 176.
  54. 1 2 Anon.(a) n.d.
  55. Wicks 1996.
  56. Gross 2004, p. 583.
  57. Hull n.d.
  58. Erlewine(a) n.d.
  59. Waller 1986, p. 65.
  60. Antonia 2006, pp. 214–17.
  61. Anon. 2005.

Bibliography