Last updated

Triplophysa ferganaensis Shakhimardan stream, Fergana.jpg
Triplophysa ferganaensis
Triplophysa stoliczkai Day cleaned.png
Triplophysa stolickai
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Nemacheilidae
Genus: Triplophysa
Rendahl (de), 1933
Type species
Nemacheilus hutjertjuensis
Rendahl, 1933

see text

Triplophysa is a genus of fish in the family Nemacheilidae found mainly in and around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. [1] Currently, the genus is a mixed assemblage of species. Some lineages have been identified and treated as subgenera ( Hedinichthys , Indotriplophysa , Labiatophysa , Qinghaichthys and Tarimichthys ), but as Wikipedia follows Fishbase for fish species all but Hedinichthys have been treated as subgenera in Wikipedia, although Kottelat in his revision of the loaches did recognise them as valid. FishBase, however, includes these in Triplophysa without specifying subgenera and treats the names given by Kottelat as synonyms. [2]



Triplophysa zhaoi holds the record for the lowest altitude for Asian fish: it is found at 50 m (160 ft) below sea level in swamps of the Lükqün oasis, in the Turpan Depression in Xinjiang. In the other end, Triplophysa stolickai holds the record altitude for Asian fish: it is found at 5,200 m (17,100 ft) above sea level in hot springs near the Longmu Lake in western Tibet. [3] Triplophysa dalaica has been used as model species to study adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia and 13 positively selected genes involved in hypoxia response have been identified. [4] Some species are blind cave-dwellers. [1] [5]


There are currently 132 recognized species in this genus: [3]

Related Research Articles

<i>Acrossocheilus</i> Genus of fishes

Acrossocheilus is a genus of ray-finned fishes in the family Cyprinidae, native to freshwater in China, Taiwan, Laos, and Vietnam. They are fairly small, no more than 30 cm (1 ft) in standard length.

<i>Schizothorax</i> Genus of fishes

Schizothorax is a genus of cyprinid fish found in southern and western China, through northern South Asia (Himalaya) and Central Asia, to Iran, with a single species, S. prophylax, in Turkey. They are primarily found in highland rivers, streams and lakes, although a few species occur in lower-lying locations, like Lake Balkhash and lakes of the Sistan Basin. Their scientific name means "cloven-breast", from Ancient Greek schízeïn (σχίζειν) 'to cleave' and thórax (θώραξ) 'breast-plate'. The western species are typically referred to as marinkas from their Russian name marinka (маринка), while the eastern species are usually called snowtrout. Although they do resemble trouts in habitus this is merely due to convergent evolution and they are by no means closely related apart from both being Teleostei: Cyprinids are in the teleost superorder Ostariophysi, while trouts are in the superorder Protacanthopterygii. Their ancestors must thus have diverged as early as the Triassic, more than 200 million years ago.

Sinocyclocheilus is a genus of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae endemic to China, where only found in Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan. Almost all of its species live in or around caves and most of these have adaptions typical of cavefish such as a lack of scales, lack of pigmentation and reduced eyes. Several species have an unusual hunchbacked appearance and some of the cave-dwellers have a "horn" on the back, the function of which is unclear. In contrast, the Sinocyclocheilus species that live aboveground, as well as a few found underground, show no clear cavefish adaptions. They are relatively small fish reaching up to 23 cm (9.1 in) in length. The individual species have small ranges and populations, leading to the status of most of the evaluated species as threatened. Many species populations in the genus have yet to be evaluated by the IUCN.

<i>Oreonectes</i> Genus of fishes

Oreonectes is a genus of fish in the family Nemacheilidae found in the rivers and cave of Asia. Many of these species are troglobitic.

Protocobitis is a genus of loaches endemic to Guangxi in China and living in caves.

<i>Schistura</i> Genus of fishes

Schistura is a genus of fish in the stone loach family Nemacheilidae native to the streams and rivers of the southern and eastern Asia. Some of these species are troglobitic.

<i>Yunnanilus</i> Genus of fishes

Yunnanilus is a genus of small stone loaches that are endemic to southeastern China, especially Guangxi and Yunnan. They are found in rivers, streams and lakes; some species are restricted to caves.

<i>Balitora</i> Genus of fishes

Balitora is a genus of fish in the family Balitoridae endemic to Asia.

Triplophysa siluroides is a large species of stone loach, which is endemic to the upper parts of the Yellow River basin in the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan.

Tibetan stone loach Species of fish

The Tibetan stone loach is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Nemacheilidae. The specific name is sometimes spelled stoliczkae but the original spelling used by Steindachner is stoličkai. It is found in southern and central Asia.

Hedinichthys is a genus of the stone loaches endemic to China. It has been regarded as a subgenus of Triplophysa.

Homatula is a genus of stone loaches endemic to China.

Oxynoemacheilus is a genus of fish in the family Nemacheilidae found in Europe and Western Asia.

<i>Parabotia</i> Genus of fishes

Parabotia is a genus of loaches. Most species in the genus are endemic to China, but P. curtis is from Japan, P. dubius is from Vietnam, and P. mantschuricus is from the Amur River basin.

<i>Gymnocypris</i> Genus of fishes

Gymnocypris is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae endemic to China.

Nemacheilidae Family of fishes

The Nemacheilidae, or stone loaches, are a family of cypriniform fishes that inhabit stream environments, mostly in Eurasia, with one genus, Afronemacheilus found in Africa. The family includes about 790 species.

Qinghaichthys is a subgenus the genus Triplophysa, stone loaches native to China. Some authorities recognise this as a valid genus but this is not recognised by Fishbase.

Tarimichthys is a subgenus of stone loach genus Triplophysa native to China which contains two species. Some authorities recognise Tarimichthys as a valid taxon.

Troglonectes is a genus of troglobitic fish in the family Nemacheilidae, native to caves of Asia. Fishbase and other authorities place these species in the genus Oreonectes.

Triplophysa anshuiensis is a species of stone loach in the family Nemacheilidae. It is endemic to Lingyun County in Guangxi, China, where it lives in a karst cave.


  1. 1 2 Chen, X.-Y.; Yang, J.-X. (2005). "Triplophysa rosa sp. nov.: a new blind loach from China". Journal of Fish Biology. 66 (3): 599–608. doi:10.1111/j.0022-1112.2005.00622.x.
  2. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2016). Species of Triplophysa in FishBase . June 2016 version.
  3. 1 2 Kottelat, M. (2012). "Conspectus_cobitidum.pdf Conspectus cobitidum: an inventory of the loaches of the world (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitoidei)" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No. 26: 1–199.
  4. Wang, Y.; Yang, L.; Wu, B.; Song, Z.; He, S. (2015). "Transcriptome analysis of the plateau fish (Triplophysa dalaica): Implications for adaptation to hypoxia in fishes". Gene. 565 (2): 211–220. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2015.04.023. PMID   25869933.
  5. Romero, A.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, X. (2009). "The Hypogean fishes of China". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 86 (1): 211–278. doi:10.1007/s10641-009-9441-3. S2CID   41778476.
  6. Wu, Tie-Jun; Wei, Mu-Lan; Lan, Jia-Hu; Du, Li-Na (2018). "Triplophysa anshuiensis, a new species of blind loach from the Xijiang River, China (Teleostei, Nemacheilidae)". ZooKeys (744): 67–77. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.744.21742 . PMC   5904374 . PMID   29670445 . Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  7. Wu, Y.-Y.; Sun, Z.-Y.; Guo, Y.-S. (2016). "A new species of the genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae), Triplophysa daochengensis, from Sichuan Province, China". Zoological Research. 37 (5): 290–296. PMC   5071342 . PMID   27686788.
  8. 1 2 3 Lan, J., Gan, X., Wu, T. & Yang, J. (2013). Cave Fishes of Guangxi, China. Science Press. p. 284. ISBN   9787030376589.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. Sheraliev, Bakhtiyor; Peng, Zuogang (2021). "Triplophysa ferganaensis, a new loach species from Fergana Valley in Central Asia (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae)". Journal of Fish Biology. 99 (3): 807–817. doi:10.1111/jfb.14764. PMID   33900620. S2CID   233397542 . Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  10. Zheng, L.-P.; Yang, J.-X.; Chen, X.-Y. (2012). "A new species of Triplophysa (Nemacheilidae: Cypriniformes), from Guangxi, southern China". Journal of Fish Biology. 80 (4): 831–841. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03227.x. PMID   22471802.
  11. Lin, Y.; Li, C.; Song, J.-K. (2012). "A new species of troglobitic loach (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae), Triplophysa jiarongensis, from Guizhou, China". Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica. 37 (3): 640–647.
  12. 1 2 Bashir, A.; Bisht, B.S.; Mir, J.I.; Kumar, R.; Patiyal, R.S. (2016). "Morphological, molecular characterization and taxonomic status of Triplophysa marmorata and Triplophysa kashmirensis (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae) from Kashmir valley, India". Revista de Biología Tropical. 64 (2): 473–482. doi: 10.15517/rbt.v64i2.19591 . PMID   29451748.
  13. Wu, T.-J.; Yang, J.; Lan, J.-H. (2012). "A New Blind Loach Triplophysa lihuensis sp. nov. (Teleostei: Balitoridae) from Guangxi, China" (PDF). Zoological Studies. 51 (6): 874–880.
  14. Ren, Q.; Yang, J.-X.; Chen, X.-Y. (2012). "A new species of the genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae), Triplophysa longliensis sp. nov., from Guizhou, China" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3586: 187–194. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3586.1.17 .
  15. Yang, J.; Wu, T.-J.; Yang, J.-X. (2012). "A new cave-dwelling loach, Triplophysa macrocephala (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Balitoridae), from Guangxi, China". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 93 (2): 169–175. doi:10.1007/s10641-011-9901-4. S2CID   16873696.
  16. He, C.; Zhang, E.; Song, Z. (2012). "Triplophysa pseudostenura, a new nemacheiline loach (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae) from the Yalong River of China" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3586: 272–280. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3586.1.26 .
  17. Li, W.-J.; Chen, X.-C.; Hu, Y.-P. (2015). "A new species of the genus Triplophysa (Nemacheilinae), Triplophysa qilianensis sp. nov., from Qinghai, China" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3905 (3): 418–424. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3905.3.7. PMID   25661219.
  18. Yang, H.-F.; Li, W.-X.; Chen, Z.-M. (2016). "A new cave species of the genus Triplophysa from Yunnan, China". Zoological Research. 37 (5): 297–300. doi:10.13918/j.issn.2095-8137.2016.5.296. PMC   5071343 . PMID   27686789.
  19. Chen, Shijing; Sheraliev, Bakhtiyor; Shu, Lu; Peng, Zuogang (2021). "Triplophysa wulongensis, a new species of cave-dwelling loach (Teleostei, Nemacheilidae) from Chongqing, Southwest China". ZooKeys (1026): 179–192. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.1026.61570 . PMC   8018939 . PMID   33850421. S2CID   233211037 . Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  20. Liu, S. W.; Pan, X. F.; Yang, J. X.; Chen, X. Y. (2017). "A new cave-dwelling loach, Triplophysa xichouensis sp. nov. (Teleostei Nemacheilidae) from Yunnan, China". Journal of Fish Biology. 90 (3): 834–846. doi:10.1111/jfb.13201. ISSN   0022-1112. PMID   28155227.
  21. Yan, S.-L.; Sun, Z.-Y.; Guo, Y.-S. (2015). "A new species of Triplophysa Rendahl (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae) from Sichuan Province, China". Zoological Research. 36 (5): 299–304. PMC   4771960 . PMID   26452694.